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    Title: 國際飲品業在俄羅斯市場進入模式與行銷策略── 以百事可樂與可口可樂為例
    Russia Market Entry Mode and Marketing Strategies of International Beverage Industry: The Cases of Pepsi and Coca-Cola
    Authors: 黃勝杰
    Huang, Sheng-Jie
    Contributors: 林永芳
    Lin, Yong-Fang
    黃勝杰
    Huang, Sheng-Jie
    Keywords: 可口可樂
    百事可樂
    俄羅斯飲品市場
    市場進入模式
    行銷策略
    Coca Cola
    Pepsi
    Russia non alcoholic beverages market
    Market entry mode
    Marketing strategies
    Date: 2019
    Issue Date: 2019-07-01 11:08:09 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 2017年俄羅斯經濟重拾增長動力,油價上升以及與西方關係有望改善等因素均支持俄羅斯經濟復甦和鞏固俄羅斯盧布匯價,有助消費者和商業信心廣泛回升。與此同時,石油收益增加以及經濟活動日增,也減輕了財政整頓帶來的壓力。俄羅斯市場也吸引國際飲品企業的關注希望進入這個尚未完全開發的市場,根據俄羅斯酒精飲品市場分析提供的數據,俄羅斯酒精飲品市場持續下滑。在2011-2015年間,俄羅斯國內產量從142.5億升減少到115.6億升,降幅達18.9%。俄羅斯酒精飲品產量持續下降的主要的原因之一是,國家對酒業的積極調控。採取的措施包括:定期提高酒類產品消費稅率、對烈酒實行最低零售價、禁止在夜間銷售酒類產品,這些措施導致需求減少,其結果是產量下滑。此外,近年來居民可支配收入減少也影響到需求,為了節省消費者紛紛放棄購買酒精飲品。與此同時非酒精飲品的銷量也因此上升,其中可口可樂(Coca Cola)與百事可樂(PepsiCo)也成為俄羅斯快速消費品(FMCG)中成長最快的商品,百事可樂是前蘇聯第一個出現的「資本主義」商品,由於冷戰的原因,可口可樂一直拒絕向蘇聯供貨,這導致蘇聯人一直沒機會品嘗可樂的味道。直到1959年,美蘇關係出現了略微的緩和,美國副總統尼克松前往蘇聯觀看展覽。百事可樂的董事長肯特和尼克松是好友,尼克松私下裡請求蘇聯最高領導人赫魯雪夫當著記者的面喝一口百事可樂,赫魯雪夫答應了這個請求。
    百事可樂順利的進入了蘇聯市場,靠著蘇聯沒有可口可樂,百事可樂強行續了自己一命,當時全球新聞媒體也都刊登了赫魯雪夫飲用百事可樂的照片,使百事可樂成為共產世界中最有名的碳酸飲料。百事可樂於1972 年與蘇聯政府簽訂獨佔銷售契約,成為蘇聯、東歐各國最普及的可樂品牌。直到1985 年百事可樂的獨佔銷售契約到期,才得以踏入蘇聯領地。可口可樂公司身為國際飲品的美商公司,在1979年莫斯科奧運中首度出現在俄羅斯市場引起軒然大波,直到1991年可口可樂公司決定在俄羅斯啟動一系列長期投資計劃,另外進一步分析可以發現可口可樂公司的營收大多來自於飲料,而百事集團旗下的品牌和產品則較為多元,不僅跨足了瓶裝水、果汁和咖啡等非碳酸飲料市場,2010年百事公司以38億美元收購俄羅斯乳業巨頭維姆-比爾-丹(Wimm-Bill-Dann)公司66%的股權。意味著百事可樂將成為俄羅斯最大的食品和飲料生產商。
    本研究希望藉友分析飲品產業中的龍頭企業-可口可樂(Coca Cola)與百事可樂(PepsiCo)在俄羅斯的市場進入模式及行銷策略,進而了解國際企業進入俄羅斯市場的「在地化策略」,包含國際行銷中的「產品在地化策略」、通路策略選擇「適應性/地主國導向(Adaption/Polycentric),例如:2014年Coca Cola Hellenic Bottling Company Russia贊助索契冬奧會以及在今年2018在十一個俄羅斯城市舉辦的FIFA世界足球錦標賽的廣告贊助活動。藉由可口可樂與百事可樂在俄羅斯的個案分析,探討企業的國際化進入模式、國際行銷策略,讓更多需要瞭解俄羅斯市場的台商快速了解俄羅斯飲品市場以及進入俄國市場需要做的文化調整。
    This research focus on the International Entry-Mode and also the International Marketing Strategies of beverage industry in Russia. This research chose two leading beverage company in Russia and aims at studying the cases of Coca Cola and Pepsi in Russia market, illustrating and analyzing thier market entry modes, competitive advantages and management approaches, as a reference for other firms who intend to invest in Russia beverage market in the near future.

    Additionally, There has been a lot of research completed on advertising strategies in specific countries, but little research has been done to explore advertising strategies of two rival company in a country. This study sought to discover what trends existed in Coca- Cola and Pepsi's global advertising strategies, specifically discerning whether cultural elements within differing countries were implemented or ignored.
    Reference: 一、中文部分
    (一)書籍
    1. 于卓民(2014),《國際企業:環境與管理(四版)》,台北:華泰文化,Ch8
    2. 于卓民(2013)。《國際行銷學》。台北,智勝文化事業有限公司
    3. 方至民(2000),《企業競爭優勢,初版》,前程企管,11, pp.226-236.
    4. 徐偉傑(譯)(2000)。《全球化》(原作者:Waters, Malcolm)。臺北市:弘智。(譯自Globalization .London & New York: Routledge ,1995。)
    5. 陳弘信(2007)。《國際企業管理》,台北,三民書局。
    6. 鄭武國(譯)(1999),《第三條路:社會民主的更新》(原作者:A. Giddens)。臺北:聯經出版公司。
    (二)期刊
    1. 郭嘉珍、劉財龍(2008),“交易成本理論:回顧與未來方向”,大仁學報第三十三期。
    2. 吳清山、林天祐(2011)。教育名詞,教育資料與研究雙月刊,第 98 期, 187-188 頁
    3. 張優良、徐肇駿、洪妤靜,《俄羅斯市場研究報告-金磚大國再現光芒》,台北:中華民國對外貿易發展協會,2009年。
    4. 林越、彭文欣、陳大競(2008),《產品來源國效應淺述》.商場現代化 , 2008年30期。
    (三)學位論文
    1. 林大景(2000)。公營事業因應民營化政策進行多角化經營之規劃參考模式的初期先導研究,台灣大學工業工程研究所碩士論文

    2. 顏睿甫(2015)。中國市場進入策略與佈局之個案分析。國立政治大學碩士論文
    (四)網路資料
    1. Coca Cola HBC Russia官網。檢自 https://ru.coca-colahellenic.com/en/ (Feb.14.2018)
    2. 百事同意以38億美元收購WBD 66%股權。檢自http://trad.ibtimes.com.cn/articles/3336/20101202/pepsico-agrees-to-buy-66-of-wimm-bill-dann-for-3-8-billion.htm (Oct.16.2018)
    3. 俄羅斯食品工業國內生產貨物吞吐量(2014)。檢自 https://utmagazine.ru/posts/10565-ekonomika-rossii-cifry-i-fakty-chast-12-pischevaya-promyshlennost (Dec.15.2018)
    4. 俄羅斯聯邦飲用水測試中心資料。檢自 http://vitnik.ru/butwat.htm (Jan.02.2019)
    5. 俄羅斯水專家網站:瓶裝飲用水和礦泉水市場佔非酒精飲料市場總量資料。檢自www.aquaexpert.ru (Jan.02.2019)
    6. 俄羅斯蔬果汁市場概況「Плоды, мы вызвали вас к жизни наилучшей」。檢自http://www.foodmarket.spb.ru/archive.php?year=2011&article=1530§ion=24 (Jan.02.2019)
    7. 歐盟水果果汁協會(AIJN - European Fruit Juice Association)。檢自http://www.aijn.org (Jan.02.2019)
    8. 俄羅斯蔬果汁進出口Discovery研究資料。檢自http://www.aup.ru/news/2011/01/19/4577.html (Jan.02.2019)
    9. PepsiCo Украина на выставке «Агро-2018»。檢自http://pepsico.ua/ru/media/press_releases/releases_1440.html (Jan.05.2019)
    10. Marketing strategy multinational companies (MNCS) segment and food safety issues (for example Pepsico)。檢自http://apej.ru/article/11-05(Dec.19.2018)
    11. 百事公司收購俄羅斯最大的乳品與果汁製造商龍頭Wimm-Bill-Dann Foods OJSC (WBD)。檢自 http://trad.ibtimes.com.cn/articles/3336/20101202/pepsico-agrees-to-buy-66-of-wimm-bill-dann-for-3-8-billion.htm(Dec.19.2018)

    12. 百事可樂環保事業。檢自 http://www.pepsico.ru/(Dec.19.2018)
    Coca-Cola to buy Russia's Aqua-Vision for €191.5M 。檢自https://bbj.hu/business/coca-cola-to-buy-russia%27s-aqua-vision-for-€1915-mln_28819 (Dec.19.2018)

    13. 聯邦消費者權益保護和人類福利監督局( Федеральная служба по надзору в сфере защиты прав потребителей и благополучия человека )。檢自 http://05.rospotrebnadzor.ru/371/-/asset_publisher/m7XL/content/о-вреде-потребления-сладких-безалкогольных-газированных-напитков-типа-пепси-колы;jsessionid=2E83FF7096749CF83101ECF1E2393E04?redirect=http%3A%2F%2F05.rospotrebnadzor.ru%2F371%3Bjsessionid%3D2E83FF7096749CF83101ECF1E2393E04%3Fp_p_id%3D101_INSTANCE_m7XL%26p_p_lifecycle%3D0%26p_p_state%3Dnormal%26p_p_mode%3Dview%26p_p_col_id%3Dcolumn-1%26p_p_col_count%3D1 (Dec.19.2018)

    14. 俄羅斯人口資料”Естественная убыль“。檢自http://expert.ru/2011/12/16/estestvennaya-ubyil/ (Dec.19.2018)

    15. Nielsen Has Made Out A Portait Of A Russian Customer。檢自https://adindex.ru/news/researches/2013/08/27/101634.phtml. (Dec.25.2018 )
    16. “У белых мишек — праздник. Ура!’’檢自https://www.coca-colarussia.ru/press-center/press-releases/international-polar-bear-day (Dec.25.2018)

    17. 可口可樂贊助俄羅斯青年聯盟(Cебя Российский союз молодежи)。檢自 https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Кожаный_мяч(Dec.25.2018)

    18. Ministry of Economic Development of Russian Federation, Integrated Foreign Economic In- formation Portal。檢自http://www.ved.gov.ru/eng/activities/documents/ (Feb.16.2019)
    19. TR CU Certificate and Declaration Technical Reglament Conformity Certificate.。檢自http://www.gost-r.info/tr-certificate.php (Feb.13.2019)

    二、英文部分
    (一)書籍
    1. Bradley,F.,-.(2002).International marketing strategy/Frank Bradley(4th ed ed.)
    2. Plaud ,Cindy(2018), “The impact of Country-Of-Origin on Russian consumers purchasing decision(The case of French wine)”, Unpublished doctoral dissertation ,St. Petersburg University Graduate School of Management , Russia
    3. Porter, Michael E(1985). Competitive Advantage – Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance. The Free Press: New York and Collier Macmillan Publishers: London .
    4. Root, F. R.(1982), Foreign Market Entry Strategies, NY: Amacom.
    5. Shavitt, S., Lee, A. Y., & Torelli, C. J. (2008).Cross-cultural Issues In Consumer Behaviour. University of Minnesota.
    6. Swedish Trade Council. (2008). Business Climate Survey: Russia


    (二)期刊
    1. Kouznetsov, Alex (2009) "Country conditions in emerging markets and their effects on entry mode decisions of multinational manufacturing enterprises: Evidence from Russia", International Journal of Emerging Markets, Vol. 4 Issue: 4, pp.375-388,
    2. Ledeneva, Alena V.(2006).How Russia relly works:The informal practices that shaped post-Soviet politics and business. Cornell University Press, 270 pp.
    3. Balabanis, G., R. D. Mueller A. Diamantopoulos and T. C. Melewar (2001), “The Impact of Nation- alism, Patriotism and Internationalism on Consumer Ethnocentric Tendencies.” Journal of Interna- tional Business Studies, 32, No.1, pp.157-175.
    4. Barney, J. B.(1991),”Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage,”Journal of Management,17(1),99-120
    5. Williamson, O. E.(1975).Markets and Hierarchies: antitrust analysis and implications. New York: The Free Press.
    6. Dornoff, R., Tankersley, C., and White, G. (1974), “Consumers’ perceptions of imports”, Akron Business and Economic Review, Vol 5, Summer, pp 26-29.
    7. Dunning, J. H.(1988). The Electric Paradigm of International Production: A Studies, 19(1), 1-31. Don:10.2307/154984
    8. Sibirskaya ,Elena(2015), Statistical Evaluation of Middle Class in Russia ,Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, Vol6 No3 S6
    9. Gall, M.D.,Borg,W.R.,&Gall,J.P.(1996).Education research: An introduction(6th ed.).White Plains,NewYork: Longman.
    10. Hill, C. W. L., Hwang, P., &Kim, W. C(1990). An Eclectic Theory of the Choice of International Entry Mode. Strategic Management Journal, 11(2), 117-128. Doi:10.2307/2486659
    11. Dirk, Holtbrügge &Anastasia, Baron(2013).Market Entry Strategies in Emerging Markets: An Institutional Study in the BRIC Countries.Thunderbird International Business Review,Vol.55(3), pp.237-252
    12. C.M, Han, & V, Terpstra. (1988). The Role of Consumer Patriotism in the Choice of Domestic versus Foreign Products. Journal of Advertising Research, 28.
    13. Broadman, Harry G. ”Reducing Structural dominance and entry barriers in Russian industry”, Review of Industrial Organization(2000):Volume 17, Issue 2, pp 155–175
    14. C.M,Han (1988), “The Role of Consumer Patriotism in the Choice of Domestic Versus Foreign Product.” Journal of Advertising Research, 28, No. 3, pp.25-32.
    15. Levitt, T.(1983),“The Globalisation of Markets.”Harvard Business Review, 66, No. 3, pp.92-102.
    16. Moon-Yong Kim, Byung Il Park, (2017) "The impact of country of origin on context effects in choice", International Marketing Review, Vol. 34 Issue: 6, pp.706-734.
    17. V, Mittal. & M, Tsiros. (1995). Does Country of Origin Transfer Between Brands? Advances in Consumer Research, 22.
    18. Nagashima, A.(1977), “A Comparative ‘Made in’ Product Image Survey Among Japanese Businessman.” Journal of Marketing, 41, No. 3, pp.95-100.
    19. Pharr, J.M. (2005), ‘Synthesizing country- of- origin research from the last decade: is the concept still salient in an era of global brands?’, Journal of Marketing Theory & Practice, 13(4), 34–45.

    20. Peng, G. C. A.& Nunes, M. B.(2007).Using PEST analysis as a tool for refining and focusing contests for information systems research. 6th European conference on research methodology for business and management studies Lisbon,Portugal,229-236.

    21. Papadopoulos, Nicholas G. and Louis A. Heslop (2002), "Country Equity and Country Branding: Problems and Prospects," Journal of Brand Management, 9 (4-5), 294-314.

    22. Prahalad, C. K. and Kenneth Lieberhal(1998), “The End of Corporate Imperialism.” Harvard Business Review, 76, No. 4, pp.68-79.

    23. Schooler, Robert D. (1965) Product Bias in the Central American Common Market. Journal of Marketing Research, 2, 4, 394-397.

    24. Schooler, R.D. and D.H. Sunoo. (1969), “Consumer perceptions of international products”, Social Science Quarterly, Vol 49, March, pp 886-90.
    25.Steiner, R. (1965), Philosophie und Anthroposophie. Vorbemerkungen zur Philosophie, Philosophie und Anthroposophie, pp.196- 202.
    26. Wind, Yoram and Howard Perlmutter (1977), “On the Identification of Frontier Issues in International Marketing,” Columbia Journal of World Business 12, 131 - 139.
    27. Ward, D.(2005). An overview of strategy development models and the Ward-Rivani model. Economics Working Papers, 1-24
    28. Yin,R.K.(1984).Case Study Research: Design and Methods. Beverly Hills, CA:Sage Publications.


    (三)論文
    1. Kim, Alexandra &Khudododov, Rustam(2017),Content Marketing as a part of the global strategies of Western companies in the Russian environment.Linnaeus University
    2. Smith, Elena(2012),Americanization of Russia: A study of the Advertising Stratagies of Coca-Cola and Mcdonald’s in Russian videos. The University of Arizona.
    3.Bryant, Nick(2011),Coca-Cola Goes Global : A Content Analysis Of Coca-Cola Advertisements From Six Countries.Gonzaga University
    4. Wall, Marjorie and Louise A. Heslop (1986) “Consumer Attitudes Toward Canadian-Made Versus Imported Products.” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 14, 15, No. 2, pp. 27-36.
    (四)網路資料
    1. Coca Cola HBC Russia ,取自:https://ru.coca-colahellenic.com/en/

    2. Pepsico Russia,取自:http://www.pepsico.ru

    3. 俄羅斯非酒精飲料協會(Союз Производителей Безалкогольных Напитков),取自:http://www.softdrinks.ru
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    俄羅斯研究所
    105263007
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0105263007
    Data Type: thesis
    DOI: 10.6814/NCCU201900062
    Appears in Collections:[俄羅斯研究所] 學位論文

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