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    Title: 獨立國家國協移民移入俄羅斯之研究
    A study of Russia’s migration from CIS countries
    Authors: 顏思嘉
    Yen, Szu-Chia
    Contributors: 魏百谷
    顏思嘉
    Yen, Szu-Chia
    Keywords: 獨立國家國協
    移入移民
    俄羅斯移民政策
    推拉理論
    文化因素
    俄羅斯世界
    國家財政
    勞動結構
    Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
    Immigrant
    Russia’s migration policy
    Push-pull theory
    Cultural factor
    Russian world
    Public finance
    Labor structure
    Date: 2019
    Issue Date: 2019-07-01 11:08:21 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本文旨在檢視蘇聯解體後獨立國協移民移入俄羅斯的因果關係,及其對俄羅斯所造成之影響。首先,從歷史足跡探討俄羅斯國家內部與外部的互動,並檢視俄羅斯移民政策的變化,探究讓俄羅斯移民政策改變的原因;再來透過現有資訊,探討俄羅斯是否對獨立國協移民提供優惠方案;然而,蘇聯解體後,原本的境內遷移變成境外遷移,非法移民與黑工問題亦開始浮出檯面。再者,觀察獨立國協移民進入俄羅斯後的流向與從事的職業,運用推拉理論探究獨立國協居民離開母國以及移入俄羅斯之動機。嘗試找出讓獨立國協居民離開母國的原因,以及讓獨立國協居民移入俄羅斯的原因。除了推拉理論之外,本文亦從歷史與文化的關聯性來分析獨立國協移民移入俄羅斯的因素。此外,分析獨立國協移民對俄羅斯社會、國家財政正面及負面的影響,檢視獨立國協移民增
    加後對俄羅斯財政收入的變化;獨立國協移民人口對於俄羅斯勞動人口的衝擊與補償性;最後則是回到俄羅斯人民對獨立國協移民的看法,是接納還是排斥。

    研究發現,透過俄羅斯移民政策的改變可以得知俄羅斯每一時期重視的面向都不盡相同;獨立國協不僅在政治經濟上與俄羅斯關係密切,同時也是最大的移民來源地。因此,俄羅斯制定專屬於獨立國協移民的優惠政策,讓他們享有特殊待遇。再來深入探討獨立國協移民的因素,除了透過推拉理論探討移民離開母國的原因,也就是獨立國協的推力,以及俄羅斯吸引獨立國協移民的拉力之外,與其他移民系統不一樣的是,獨立國協與俄羅斯之間在歷史、文化的相關性,這也增加了獨立國協居民將俄羅斯作為移民目的地的意願。最後,獨立國協移民對俄羅斯的國家財政、勞動人口結構都造成正面影響與負面衝擊,而民眾對於獨立國協移民的看法普遍是負面的態度。
    The purpose of this study is to examine the cause-effect relation of migration from CIS countries (Commonwealth of Independent States, CIS) to Russia after the collapse of Soviet Union and its impact on Russia. First of all, describe Russia's internal and external interaction through the historical legacy as well as the changes of Russia’s migration policy; whether Russia provides privilege for CIS immigrants; after the collapse of Soviet Union, the problem of illegal immigration worsen even further. Furthermore, demonstrate the distribution and employment type of the CIS immigrants after they entered Russia, and find out why the CIS immigrants leave their homeland and why they move to Russia based on the push-pull theory. In addition to the push-pull theory, this study also analyzes the cultural factor in discussing migration from CIS countries to Russia. Besides, investigate the impacts of the CIS immigration on Russia’s society and public finance; last, discuss the perception of public on CIS immigrants.

    It was found that Russia’s migration policy focus on different aspects in each period; CIS countries not only have close relation with Russia in politics and economy, but also formed the largest number of immigrants in Russia. Therefore, Russia has enacted specific policies for CIS immigrants. The reason of CIS immigrants to Russia depends on various factors, and the most important thing is economic factor. They move to Russia for pursuing better living standard and higher salaries. On the other hand, cultural factor is also one of crucial elements. The historical and cultural relevance between CIS countries and Russia has increased the willingness of people from CIS to choose Russia as a destination. Finally, CIS immigrants have had both positive and negative impact on Russia's public finance and labor structure, and the public's views on the CIS immigrants are generally negative.
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    Ивахнюк, И. В., “Факторы Формирования Миграционной Системы в Постсоветской Евразии,”Вестник РУДН, серия Экономика, No. 3 (2008), стр. 5-13.
    Кумсков, Геннадий, «Взгляд из стран происхождения мигрантов: тенденции развития процессов трудовой миграции в Кыргызстане,» Трудовая Миграция, Международная миграция населения: Россия и современный мир Выпуск 14 (2005), стр. 105-111.
    Магомедова, А., “Некоторые аспекты влияния внешней миграции на экономическую ситуацию (рынок труда) в России, Международная миграция населения в России, Центр по изучению проблем народонаселения МГУ (1998), стр.65-72.
    Опора Дружбы, «Проект Концепции государственной миграционной политики Российской Федерации на период до 2025 г.,» стр. 1-8.
    Рязанцев, Сергей, «Иммигранты на Российском Рынке Труда: Подходы и Практики Регулирования на Федеральном и Региомном Уровнях 1,» Трудовая Миграция, Международная миграция населения: Россия и современный мир Выпуск 14 (2005), стр. 1-120.
    Смирных, Л.И., Е.Ю Полякова, «Дифференциация трудовых доходов между внешними иммигрантами и местными работниками на российском рынке труда,» Уровень жизни населения регионов россии, No. 3 (197) (2015), стр. 65-74.
    Трофимова, Т. И., «Глобалиационные Проблемы Современной Миграции. Известия ИГЭА,» Vol. 1, No.69 (2010), стр. 10-14.
    Фахрутдинова, Елена Валерьевна, «Рынок труда в России и динамика его потребностей,» Экономическая теория, Казанский (Поволжский) федеральный университет (2014), стр. 43-46.
    (二) 研究報告
    Аналитический Центр При Провительстве Российской Федерации, «Миграция населения в России: тенденции, проблемы, пути решения», Социальный бюллетень (2018), стр. 1-54.
    (三) 網路資料
    FINMARKET.RU, «Для экономики полезны любые мигранты,» https://www.interfax.ru/business/227345 (2012), Accessed Date: Dec. 30, 2018.
    NEWSru.com, «Путин подписал новую Концепцию государственной миграционной политики до 2025 года,» http://www.kurier.lt/putin-podpisal-novuyu-koncepciyu-gosudarstvennoj-migracionnoj-politiki-do-2025-goda/ (2018), Accessed Date: Jan. 01, 2019.
    LENTA.RU, «В России повысят пенсионный возраст,»Retrieved from https://lenta.ru/brief/2018/06/14/pensions_up/ (2018), Accessed Date: Apr. 03, 2019.
    Migrant Media.RU, «Упразднение и ликвидация ФМС России - последние новости 2016 года: присоединение ФМС к МВД, передача функций ГУВМ МВД,» https://migrantmedia.ru/uprazdnenie-likvidatsiya-fms-rossii-poslednie-novosti-2016-goda-prisoedinenie-fms-k-mvd-peredacha-funktsiy-guvm-mvd?fbclid=IwAR1xA91hGwaqCSfQVtW0g7OhXMpT30tccj5ytQtgxxNKJZ2MHYWgyiVYGD4, Accessed Date: May 31, 2019.
    Studexpo, Институциональное развитие миграционных структур, https://studexpo.ru/1185310/istoriya/institutsionalnoe_razvitie_migratsionnyh_struktur?fbclid=IwAR18MLlce8WV4SSyg2Y4iTmSov8kO9655dyjg7cOmxjUz63Q4xY2sDGOC24, Accessed Date: May 31, 2019.
    РИА Новости, «Российские эксперты оценили перспективы трудовой миграции из стран СНГ,» Retrieved from https://ria.ru/20180126/1513370628.html (26 Jan., 2018), Accessed Date: Mar. 10, 2019.
    Рябенко, Вадим, «Развитие миграционного законодательства и миграционной системы в России,» https://magref.ru/razvitie-migratsionnogo-zakonodatelstva-i-migratsionnoy-sistemyi-v-rossii/?fbclid=IwAR2S0PRW2rRGaUu2AffAd6estM9bHcj8PHOG4YmAZgd-IKBTe-agGjBDkP0 (2014), MAGREF, Accessed Date: May 31, 2019.
    Рочева, Анна, «Однобокий неолиберализм: медицина не для всех,» openDemocracy, https://www.opendemocracy.net/ru/odnobokii-neoliberalizm-meditsina-ne-dla-vsex/ (2017), Accessed Date: Apr. 03, 2019.
    ТАСС, «МВД: иммиграция в Россию оказывает положительное влияние на демографию,» Retrieved from https://tass.ru/obschestvo/4372526 (2017), Accessed Date: Mar. 10, 2019.
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    俄羅斯研究所
    106263002
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0106263002
    Data Type: thesis
    DOI: 10.6814/THE.NCCU.RUSSIA.003.2019.A06
    Appears in Collections:[俄羅斯研究所] 學位論文

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