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    Title: 戰時與戰後初期台灣農業組織的調整與變革(1941-1948)
    The Integration and Takeover of Irrigation and Farmers' Associations in Wartime and Postwar Taiwan
    Authors: 黃仁姿
    Huang, Jen-Tzu
    薛化元
    Hsueh, Hua-Yuan
    Contributors: 國立政治大學歷史學報
    Keywords: 水利會;農會;戰時體制;接收
    irrigation association;farmers' association;total war;takeover
    Date: 2019-05
    Issue Date: 2019-07-18 11:21:12 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本文主要說明台灣的兩大重要農業組織:水利會與農會在二戰期間,基於殖民母國的戰時農業政策,導致此兩大組織被迫進行根本性的整編,因而在制度上發生重大變化,而這樣的變化對於該組織在性質、人事組成部分,所造成的影響與結果。其次,說明戰後接收初期,新政權如何看待此二組織並進行接收,與日治末期的戰時體制有何異同,而在接收的過程中,究竟由哪些勢力負責接收或取得組織領導權,從中觀察戰後初期的人事組成變化所反映出的組織特性及體制運作的意義,藉此說明水利會與農會,在歷史變遷過程中所導致的性質差異。台灣的水利組織早期多由民間合資自行設立,日本統治台灣後,官方陸續頒布相關法令,使得台灣的水利事業逐漸步上「公共化」過程。相較於此,農會組織較晚設立,於日治時期開始發展,且因官方介入的因素,使得農會在體制運作上,具有較濃厚的官方色彩,因此從成立背景而言,水利會與農會的組織特性便有所不同。經過二戰期間的整併與戰後初期的接收後,水利會與農會於組織特性產生相反狀況,水利組織受到國家支配的程度日趨強烈,其公共化性質亦漸消逝,而官方色彩本較濃厚的農會,經過戰爭末期的整併,在當時亦受到當局統制,然正因為合併的結果,導致其基層組織的基礎,奠立於台灣民間資本的產業組合,也因為納入民間勢力進入農會,因此在戰後接收初期,民間勢力在農會較具影響力,而水利會相對由行政力量掌控。
    This article discusses and compares the integration and takeover of irrigation associations and farmers' associations in wartime and postwar Taiwan. Over a long period of time, irrigation associations and farmers' associations were the principal agricultural organizations in Taiwan. During the Second World War, Japan changed its agricultural policies in Taiwan in order to increase the production of food. To better control the water consumption in each area, more than 100 irrigation associations were forced to merge into 38. Many agricultural groups were integrated by force, and later were given the task to serve the Japanese government in the forced procurement of food. The personnel reshuffle in these two types of associations was carried out alongside the institutional adjustment. As a result, the Japanese chiefs of the local administration held the posts of chairmen of these associations. While the expulsion of the Taiwanese from these associations was not mandatory, the Taiwanese members still consisted of the majority of the board of councilors. However, the lowest-level farmers' associations, which were very much based in local societies, became subordinates to the Japanese chairmen who at the same time were chiefs of local administrations. After the Nationalist government took over Taiwan in 1945, local administrative chiefs continued to hold the posts of chairmen of the two types of associations, but polls were carried out in the following year. In the early postwar period, those who had considerable power in the local administrations quickly took charge of the irrigation associations, while the old leaders of Taiwanese local societies regained their control of the farmers' associations.
    Relation: 國立政治大學歷史學報, 51, 121-172
    Data Type: article
    DOI 連結: https://doi.org/ 10.30383/TJH.201905_(51).0004
    DOI: 10.30383/TJH.201905_(51).0004
    Appears in Collections:[政治大學歷史學報 THCI Core ] 期刊論文

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