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    Title: 西方國家經濟制裁對俄中關係之影響
    The impact of western economic sanctions on Russo-Chinese Relations
    Authors: 何祖儀
    Ho, Tsu-I
    Contributors: 林永芳
    Lin, Yung-Fang
    何祖儀
    Ho, Tsu-I
    Keywords: 經濟制裁
    俄中關係
    烏克蘭危機
    克里米亞事件
    一帶一路
    Russo-Chinese relation
    Western economic sanctions
    Political status of Crimea
    Ukrainian crisis
    The Belt and Road Initiative
    Date: 2019
    Issue Date: 2019-08-07 16:57:41 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 2014年爆發克里米亞事件,西方各國連聲撻伐俄羅斯,並引發一系列對俄之經濟制裁。此事件重挫俄國原與歐洲傳統的緊密關係,其轉而加深與亞洲之間的外交動向,尤其是與中國的經濟與戰略合作。本論文將先行分析2014年至2018年底的西方經濟制裁,歐美兩方對制裁內容間的分歧、各自對克里米亞事件所持觀點,以及與俄羅斯的親疏程度。再來探究對於俄羅斯經濟所造成的影響。而後進入本論文主題,探究2014年制裁前之俄中關係,與此制裁後至2019年年初,其係如何深化俄中間的交流合作,並將俄中關係的加深以戰略、能源及金融貿易三大層面,並各舉一到二個個案作詳細分析。

    俄中兩國原就已商談多年各層面的合作協議,卻大多遲遲未有定論,因2014年烏克蘭危機的催化下,加速俄中合作大門,中國成為俄羅斯東向政策外交重心。俄羅斯為一介能源與軍事強國,無論是世界油氣蘊藏量或係武器技術含量皆頗具影響力;而中國為俄第一大鄰國,且是國際上頗具份量的經濟體。此次制裁將使俄羅斯的外交重心漸移向亞太地區,俄中之間的深化合作與互動,將持續牽動國際關係動向。
    In 2014, the Political status of Crimea occurred. Western countries teamed up and had an outcry about it, and started a series of economic sanctions against Russian. This incident had a serious impact on the close relation Russia and Europe originally had, and strengthened the diplomatic tendency between Russia and Asia, especially economical and strategical cooperation with China. In this thesis, the Western Economic Sanctions from 2014 to 2018 will be analyzed. Also, the different opinions of Europe and the U.S. about these sanctions, their views about the Political status of Crimea, and how close their relation is with Russia will be discussed. Also, how the above caused impact on Russia’s economic will be discussed as well. Next, moving on to the main topic of this thesis, the Russo-Chinese Relation before the sanctions in 2014, and the Russo-Chinese Relation after the sanctions till the early 2019 will be discussed. Also, how the sanctions strengthened the communication and cooperation between Russia and China will be talked about. Then, the three aspects of the strengthened relationship, which are strategy, power source, finance and trading, will be discussed and exemplified with one or two individual cases, and the cases will be analyzed thoroughly.

    Russia and China had been discussing about cooperation agreements of various matters for years, yet nothing has really been confirmed. However, the Ukrainian Crisis in 2014 turned out to be an activator, and speeded up the cooperation between Russia and China. Therefore, China became the main diplomatic focus of Russia’s Look East Policy. Russia is a country strong in power source and military, no matter when it comes to oil reserves or weapon technology quality, Russia is quite influential in both. China is the biggest neighbor country of Russia, and is also quite influential in economic internationally. This sanction caused Russia to turn its diplomatic focus to the Asia-Pacific areas. Along with the strengthened cooperation and interaction between Russia and China, the trends in international relations will continue to change.
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    趙鳴文,〈烏克蘭政局突變原因及影響〉,《國際問題研究》,2014年,第3期,頁68-78。

    趙鳴文,〈貿易下滑與中俄關係發展〉,《國際問題研究》,2016年,第3期,頁106-121。

    劉少慧,尹建中,〈中俄兩國貿易發展特點及對策分析〉,《國際經貿》,2016年,第7期,頁44-46。

    劉珏,〈中俄金融合作淺析〉,《經濟研究導刊》,2014年,第205卷,第32期,頁164-165。

    劉軍梅,〈全球金融危機對俄羅斯的影響:傳導機制、應對措施及中俄金融合作的空間〉,《俄羅斯研究》,2008年,第6期,頁19-29。

    劉軍梅,〈國際貨幣體系改革中人民幣與盧布的競爭和合作〉,《社會科學》,2009年,第4期,頁26-32。


    劉清才,劉濤,〈西方制裁背景下俄羅斯遠東地區發展戰略與中俄區域合作〉,《東北亞論壇》,2015年,第119期,頁85-87。

    劉誌中,〈美歐俄制裁戰對中國經濟的影響及對策〉,《理論學刊》,2015年,第2期,頁49-55。

    劉曉音,〈絲綢之路經濟帶對中俄貿易投資便利化的影響〉,《學習與探索》,2015年,第6期,頁96-100。

    潘志平,〈對絲綢之路經濟帶與中俄合作研究的評估〉,《俄羅斯東歐中亞研究》,2017年,第2期,頁19-38。

    潘楠,〈俄羅斯六條潛在天然氣出口管道現狀及前景分析〉,《國際石油經濟》,2016年,第24期,頁77-78。

    謝明勳,〈論中國對東北亞能源安全合作之發展與挑戰〉,《台灣國際研究季刊》,2015年,夏季號,第11卷,第2期,頁138-158。

    魏百谷,〈從歐亞經濟聯盟看俄國之地緣戰略〉,《歐亞研究》,2017年,第1期,頁83-100。

    龐大鵬,〈俄羅斯的歐亞戰略—兼論俄中關係的影響〉,《俄羅斯學刊》,2015年,第2期,頁69-76。


    (三) 研討會論文

    尤勝東,〈西伯利亞-太平洋輸油管線和東亞石油市場〉,《科技整合管理研討會》,2005年5月,頁320-333。

    劉波,〈一帶一路與歐亞經濟聯盟對接暨第二屆中俄經濟合作高層智庫研討會紀實〉,《西伯利亞研究》,2015年,第42卷,第5期,頁94-95。


    (四) 學位論文

    王亦超,《普欽時期俄羅斯對中國經濟戰略之研究》,(台北:國立政治大學俄羅斯研究所,2010年)。

    王洪謙,《冷戰後俄國軍售蘇愷戰機之研究:1992-2011》,(台北:國立政治大學俄羅斯研究所,2011年)。

    李靜杰,《中俄戰略協作伙伴關係》,(台北:國立政治大學俄羅斯研究所,2008年)。

    周建宏,《俄羅斯兼併克里米亞—地緣政治的視角》,(台北:國立政治大學俄羅斯研究所,2016年)。
    (五)網路資料

    《中俄關於全面戰略協作夥伴關係新階段的聯合聲明》(2014/05/20)中華人民共和國外交部https://www.mfa.gov.cn/chn//pds/ziliao/1179/t1157763.htm

    《中華人民共和國和俄羅斯聯邦睦鄰友好合作條約》(2001/07/16)中國人大網>全國人民大會http://www.npc.gov.cn/wxzl/gongbao/20012/06/content_5280849.htm

    《中華人民共和國和俄羅斯聯邦關於中俄國界東段的補充協定》(2004/10/10)中國人大網>全國人民大會 http://www.npc.gov.cn/wxzl/wxzl/20007/28/content_341693.htm

    《中華人民共和國和俄羅斯聯邦關於重大國際問題的聯合聲明》(2008/05/23)中國政府網http://big5.www.gov.cn/gate/big5/www.gov.cn/ldhd/2008-05/23/content_990500.htm

    2009年俄羅斯貨物貿易及中俄邊境貿易概況(2010)中華人民共和國商務部>國別報告https://countryreport.mofcom.gov.cn/record/view110209.asp?news_id=18820

    2014年上半年中俄貿易額達445.4億美元(2014/07/06)中華人民共和國商務部http://www.mofcom.gov.cn/article/i/jyjl/ e/201407/20140700660030.shtml

    2018年俄羅斯貨物貿易概況,中華人民共和國商務部
    https://countryreport.mofcom.gov.cn/record/view110209.asp?news_id=63198

    APEC各會員體能源資訊分析(2018/09/14)APEC國際能源合作網https://apecenergy.tier.org.tw/energy2/russia.php

    中方總導演:「東方-2018」軍演對深化中俄軍事安全合作具有積極意義(2018/09/13)俄羅斯衛星通訊社http://big5.sputniknews.cn/military/201809131026345790/

    中石油與俄羅斯兩大能源公司簽署合作協議(2018/09/14)俄羅斯衛星通訊社http://sputniknews.cn/russia_china_relations/201809141026351324/

    中資企業在俄羅斯經營指南-俄羅斯中資企業2016年度白皮書(2016/11/22)
    中國國際貿易促進委員會>中國國際商會駐俄羅斯代表處http://aaa.ccpit.org/Category7/Asset/2016/Nov/22/onlineeditimages/ file71479813878037.pdf

    中俄「海上聯合-2017」第二階段軍事演習精彩回顧(2017/10/03)中華人民共和國國防部http://www.mod.gov.cn/big5/photos/2017-10/03/content_4793847.htm

    中俄東線天然氣管道中段工程或於2020年10月建成(2019/07/05)俄羅斯衛星通訊社http://big5.sputniknews.cn/economics/201907051028931702/

    中俄簽署《關於歐亞經濟夥伴關係協定聯合可行性研究的聯合聲明》(2017/07/04)中華人民共和國商務部http://www.mofcom.gov.cn/article/ae/ai/201707/20170702604249.shtml


    中國前駐俄大使:俄中關係是保持國際戰略安全和穩定的重要因素(2018/09/28)
    俄羅斯衛星通訊社http://big5.sputniknews.cn/politics/201809281026462571/

    中國海關總署:2017年中俄雙邊貿易額超840億美元(2018/01/12)俄羅斯衛星通訊社http://big5.sputniknews.cn/politics/201801121024464345/

    中蘇聯合公報,共產黨新聞>十三大以來重要文獻選編上http://cpc.people.com.cn/GB/64184/64186/66681/4494003.html

    今年前3季度中俄雙邊貿易額近350億美元(2008/01/04)中華人民共和國海關總署http://www.customs.gov.cn/customs/302249/302274/jcyjfxwz/jcyjfxwz39/333820/index.html

    王士彬,歐陽浩,習近平會見俄羅斯國防部長紹伊古(2018/10/19)中國軍網http://www.81.cn/big5/xue-xi/2018-10/19/content_9318018.htm

    王林,俄天然氣市場強勢地位將更加鞏固(2018/12/03)中國能源報第6版
    http://paper.people.com.cn/zgnyb/html/2018-12/03/content_1896800.htm

    印俄簽署S-400採購合約 恐引發美制裁(2018/10/05)聯合新聞網
    https://udn.com/news/story/6809/3406375

    冰上絲路中俄啟航將影響全球貿易及能源供應格局(2018/09/12)中國大公網http://www.takungpao.com/news/232111/2018/0912/216008.html

    亞馬爾液化天然氣項目(2019/04/11)俄羅斯衛星通訊社http://big5.sputniknews.cn/infographics/201904111028168942/

    研析川普就任美國總統後有關美歐對俄經濟制裁措施可能之發展(2017/06/29)
    台灣貿易局>台灣駐俄羅斯經濟組https://nccu.edu.tw/cgi-bin/downfile B25934717216

    面對美國新制裁 俄經濟試甩脫美元(2018/11/07)中央通訊社https://www.cna.com.tw/news/afe/201811070246.aspx

    消息人士:俄羅斯水電集團將發行三年期人民幣歐洲債券(2018/11/15)
    俄羅斯衛星通訊社http://big5.sputniknews.cn/economics/201811151026843228/

    俄Rosneft公司以最佳提案依法收購Bashneft公司股權(2016/11/15)
    俄羅斯衛星通訊社 http://big5.sputniknews.cn/economics/201611151021170105/

    俄中「海上聯合-2017」第一階段演習在波羅的海海域舉行(2017/07/22)
    俄羅斯衛星通訊社http://big5.sputniknews.cn/china/201707221023180774/

    俄中貿易靠什麼達到創紀錄的1070億美元?(2019/01/17)中國一帶一路網https://www.yidaiyilu.gov.cn/info/iList.jsp?tm_id=126&cat_id=10026&info_id=7765


    俄打造核動力「巨獸」維護其北極利益(2019/06/04)人民網>軍事http://military.people.com.cn/BIG5/n1/2019/0604/c1011-31119286.html

    俄印軍事技術合作有多深入(2018/11/29)新華網http://www.xinhuanet.com/mil/2018-11/29/c_1210005156.htm

    俄媒體:俄中籤署S-400供應合約(2014/11/26)俄羅斯衛星網
    http://sputniknews.cn/russia_china_relations/2014112644207346/

    俄羅斯摩爾曼斯克州州長:冰上絲綢之路為北極發展注入新動能(2018/02/18)
    中國一帶一路網 https://www.yidaiyilu.gov.cn/ghsl/hwksl/48423.htm

    看2018中俄關係走勢(2018/01/15)世界之聲https://is.gd/wqCX8b

    美制裁後盧布貶值俄股市經歷黑色星期一(2018/04/11)美國之音https://www.voacantonese.com/a/news-russian-currency-depreciate-stock-market-plunged-after-sanctions-20180410/4341832.html

    美國及歐盟與俄羅斯相互實施之經濟制裁措施列表(2017/06/26)台灣貿易局
    http://www.cieca.org.tw/comm/upfile/f_170711_00252.pdf

    海關促進中俄經貿發展(2017/07/04)中華人民共和國海關總署http://www.customs.gov.cn/customs/302249/302425/713382/index.html

    陳雅文,個案研究法,(1995/12/20)國家教育研究院>圖書館學與資訊學科大辭典http://terms.naer.edu.tw/detail/1681584/

    專家:熊貓債券是對中國金融系統穩定性的測試(2019/03/02)俄羅斯衛星通訊社http://big5.sputniknews.cn/opinion/201903021027819736/

    普京公開無敵武器要美國重視俄羅斯(2018/03/06) BBC News中文
    https://www.bbc.com/zhongwen/trad/world-43304524

    華信收購俄油股權交易被終止 拖欠員工薪資(2018/05/06)大紀元http://www.epochtimes.com/b5/18/5/5/n10365521.htm

    新聞分析:俄羅斯能否對華擴大武器出口?(2018/07/31)透視俄羅斯http://tsrus.cn/junshi/2018/07/31/662501

    劉燕平,俄羅斯的礦產資源與礦業管理(三)(2011/10/31)中俄法律網
    http://www.chinaruslaw.com/CN/CnRuTrade/EnergyCooperate/20111031173618_809658.htm

    摩爾曼斯克州(2018/01/01)中華人民共和國駐聖彼得堡領事館>領區概況
    https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/ce/cgstp/chn/lqgk/mermsz/t632783.htm

    融合「海上聯合-2014」中俄軍演主題詞(2014/05/30)中華人民共和國國防部
    http://news.mod.gov.cn/action/2014-05/30/content_4513056_4.htm

    賴錦宏,中俄天然氣西線供氣達成協議(2018/12/04)經濟日報>兩岸焦點https://money.udn.com/money/story/8944/3518153


    二、英文部分

    (一) 專書

    Baranovsky Vladimir, Russia's attitudes towards the EU: political aspects,
    (Helsinki and Berlin: Ulkopoliitinen instiuuti Instiut fur Europaische Politik, 2002)

    Carlson Brian G., Strategic Trends 2018, (Zurich: Center for Security Studies, 2018)

    Cecilie Sendstad, Richard Connolly, Russia and Eurasia Programme, (London: The Royal Institute of International Affairs, Chatham House, 2017)

    Chase Michael S., Medeiros, Evan S., Russia-China Relations: Assessing Common Ground and Strategic Fault Lines, (Washington: The National Bureau of Asian Research, 2017)

    Dougherty James E, Pfaltzgraff Robert L, Contending Theories of International Relations a Comprehensive Survey,(New York: Harper & Row, 2003)

    Duesterberg Thomas J., Norman Donald A. and Werling Jeffrey F., Lifting the Crude Oil Export Ban: The impact on U.S. Manufacturing, (Washington: The Aspen Institute, 2014)

    Engelbrekmt Kjell, Watts John, Sino-Russian Strategic Collaboration: Still an “Axis of Convenience”? (Swnden: Swedish Defence University, 2015)

    Henderson James, Mitrova Tatiana, Energy Relations between Russia and China: Playing Chess with the Dragon, (England: The Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, 2016)

    Hidetaka Yoshimatsu, The Political Economy of Regionalism in East Asia, (New York: Palgrave Macmillan Press, 2008)

    International Monetary Fund, World Economic Outlook: Subdued Demand: Symptoms and Remedies, (Washington: International Monetary Fund, 2016)

    Jarosław Ćwiek Karpowicz, Stanislav Secrieru, Russia and Sanctions, (Warsaw: The Polish Institute of International Affairs, 2015)

    Keohane, Robert O., S., Joseph, Power and Interdependence (3rd Edition), (London: Pearson Education, 2001)

    Lo Bobo, Axis of Convenience: Moscow, Beijing, and the New Geopolitics, (Washington D. C.: The Brookings Institution Press, 2008)


    Oxenstierna Susanne, Tynkkynen Veli-Pekka, Russian Energy and Security up to 2030, (New York: Routledge, 2014)

    Paik Keun Wook, Sino-Russian Gas and Oil Cooperation: Entering into a New Era of StrategicPartnership? (Oxford: Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, 2015)

    Ricgard Weitz, Parsing Chinese-Russian Military Exercises, (Carlisle: Strategic Studies Institute and U.S. Army War College Press, 2015)

    Smart Christopher., Economic Constraints on Russian Foreign Policy, (New York: The Council on Foreign Relations, 2017)


    (二) 期刊

    Agriculture and Rural Development of EU, Short Term Outlook for the EU arable crops meat and dairy markets in 2014 and 2015, European Commission, (2014), pp.1-28.

    Akaha Tsuneo, A Distant Neighbor: Russia’s Search to Find Its Place in East Asia,
    Global Asia, (2012), Vol.7, pp.8-22.

    Benzell Seth G., Lagarda Guillermo, Can Russia Suvive Economic Samctions?, Asian Economic Papers, (2017), Vol.16, Iss.3, pp.78-120

    Daivis Petraitis, Russian mission-command in VOSTOK strategic exercises, Defense & Security Analysis, (2019), Vol.35, Iss.1., pp.100-102.

    Ferguson Chaka, The Strategic Use of Soft Balancing: The Normative Dimensions of the Chinese–Russian ‘Strategic Partnership’, Journal of Strategic Studies, (2012), Vol.33, Iss.2, pp.197-222

    Flikke Geir, Wilhelmsen Julie, Chinese-Russian Convergence and Central Asia, Geopolitics, (2011), Vol.16, Iss.4, pp.865-901.

    Gorokhova Anna Evgenievna, Nezhnikova Ekaterina, Papelniuk Oksana, China Energy Dialogue: Research of the Most Promising Energy Areas for Interrelation, International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, (2018), Vol.8, No.1, pp.203-211.

    Hans M. Kristensen; Norris Robert S., Russian Nuclear Forces 2017, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, (2017), Vol.73, p.115-126.

    Hans M. Kristensen; Norris Robert S., Russian Nuclear Forces 2018, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, (2018), Vol.74, pp.185-195

    Henderson James, Moe Arild, Gazprom’s LNG offensive: a demonstration of monopoly strength or impetus for Russian gas sector reform?, Post-Communist Economies, (2016), Vol.28, Iss.3, pp.281-299.


    Herrero Alicia Garcia, Xu Jianwei, The China-Russia Trade Relationship and Its
    Impact on Europe, Bruegel Working Paper, (2016), No.0161, Iss.4, p.1-12.

    Ivanova Aytalina, Florian Stammler, Sidortsov Roman, Localizing governance of systemic risks: a case study of the Power of Siberia pipeline in Russia, Energy Research and Social Science, (2016), Vol.16, pp.54–68.

    Jyri Raitasalo, Lessons from VOSTOK-2018: free-play manoeuvers are overrated and mission-command needs to be bounded, Defense & Security Analysis, (2019), Vol.25, Iss.1, pp.106-107.

    Kim Younkyoo and Indeo Fabio, The New Great Game in Central Asia post 2014: The US New Silk Road Strategy and Sino-Russian Rivalry, Communist and Post-Communist Studies, (2013), Vol.46, pp. 275–286.

    Krickovic Andrej, When Interdependence Produces Conflict: EU–Russia Energy Relations as a Security Dilemma, Contemporary Security Policy, (2015), Vol.36, pp.3-26.

    Kumar Shiv, Realignment of Power between Sino–Russian Relations in the Asia- Pacific Region: India’s Prospects and Response, International Research Journal of Social Sciences, (2015), Vol.4, Iss.10, p.21.

    Madlener Reinhard, Schach Michael, Impacts of an ice-free Northeast Passage on LNG markets and geopolitics, Energy Policy, (2018), Vol.122, pp.438-448.

    Mathieu Boulègue, Did the Russian General Staff experiment with free play during VOSTOK-2018?, Defense and Security Analysis, (2019), Vol.35, Iss.1., pp.103-105.

    Nelson Rebecca M., U.S. Sanctions and Russia’s Economy, Congressional Research Service Report, (2017), pp.1-14.

    Novaya Zemlya, Russian Arctic: Evidence for a novel petroleum system in the eastern Barents Sea and the Kara Sea, AAPG Bulletin, (2010), Vol.94, pp.791-817.

    Pacific Region: India’s Prospects and Response, International Research Journal of Social Sciences, (2015), Vol.4, pp.17-24.

    Perrett Bradley; Pyadushkin Maxim, Chinese Su-35 deliveries expected this year., Aerospace Daily & Defense Report, (2016), Vol.1, p.1-3.

    Pyadushkin Maxim, Rosoboronexport official confirms S-400 sales to China., Aerospace Daily & Defense Report, (2015), Vol.1, p.1-2.

    Raitasalo Jyri, Lessons from VOSTOK-2018: free-play manoeuvers are overrated and mission-command needs to be bounded, Defense & Security Analysis, (2019), Vol.35, Iss.1, pp.106-107.

    Roman Sidortsov, The Myth of Liberalization: The 2013 Changes in the Russian LNG Export Regime, Energy Law, (2014), Vol.35, pp.323-343

    Tatia Dolidze, EU Sanctions Policy towards Russia: The Sanctioner-Sanctionee’s Game of Thrones, CEPS Working Document, (2015), No.402, pp.1-21

    Tubilewicz C., Yu Bin, The future of China-Russia relations: Asia in the new millennium,
    The Journal of Asian Studies, (2011), Vol.70, pp.792-793

    The Economist, Game on Russian and China, The Economist, (2018), Vol.428, p.43.
    The World Bank, Policy Uncertainty Clouds Medium-Term Prospects, Russia Economic Report, (2014), Vol.32, pp.10-12.

    World Bank Group, Modest Growth Ahead, Russia Economic Report, (2018), Vol.3, pp.1-48.

    Young Thomas Durell, Editorial to open a debate: VOSTOK 2018: are Russian armed forces experimenting with mission-command?, Defense & Security Analysis, (2019), Vol.35, Iss.1, p.95.

    Yu Bin, China-Russia Relations: Into the Syrian Storm: Between Alliance and Alignment, Comparative Connections; Honolulu, (2016), Vol.17, Iss.3, pp.133-148.


    (三) 研討會論文

    Bond Ian, The EU the Eurasian Economic Union and One Belt, One Road. Can They Work Together?, Centre for European Reform, (2017), pp.1-13

    Gabuev Alexander, Did Western Sanctions Affect Sino-Russia Economic Ties?, University of Nottingham, (2016), pp.1-3.

    Gisela Grieger, Russian ties with China in the face of Western sanctions, European Parliamentary Research, (2017), pp.1-8.

    Wilson Alex Benjamin, Liquefied Natural Gas in Europe, European Parliamentary Research, (2015), pp.1-8.

    White House, The Support for the Sovereignty, Integrity, Democracy and Economic Stability of Ukraine Act of 2014, Congressional Record, (2014), Vol.160, Sec.8-10, pp.1093-1096


    (四)網路資料

    About Trade Representation (2018/01/07) Russian Trade Represetation in People’s Republic of China http://china.ved.gov.ru/chn//Article/Details/34509

    Abrichnaya Elena, Winning Alexander, Russia says ruble crisis over as reserves dive inflation climbs (2014/12/25) Reuters
    https://in.reuters.com/article/us-russia-crisis-rouble/russia-says-ruble-crisis-over-as-reserves-dive-inflation-cli mbs-idINKBN0K30FC20141225


    Ambassador Nikki Haley Remarks at a UN Security Council Briefing on Ukraine (2017/02/17) U.S. Mission to the United Nations Https://usun.state.gov/remarks/7668.

    Arnfinn Jørgensen-Dahl, Arctic Oil and Gas (2009/05/28) Arctis
    http://www.arctis-search.com/Arctic+Oil+and+Gas

    Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Southern Siberian Craton Russia (2011) USGS World Petroleum Resources Projects https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2011/3155/report/FS11-3155.pdf

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    Gazprom Neft Well-prepared for US-EU Sanctions, IENE https://www.iene.eu/gazprom-neft-well-prepared-for-us-eu-sanctions-p967.html

    Gazprom Secures $2.17 Billion Loan from Bank of China (2016/03/03)
    The Wall Street Journal>Business
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    Gazprom secures €2bn loan from Bank of China (2016/03/04) Financial Times https://www.ft.com/content/ac5b1ee4-e159-11e5-9217-6ae3733a2cd1

    Glencore and Qatar buy $11.3bn stake in Russia's largest oil company (2016/12/08)
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    HIS Markit https://ihsmarkit.com/products/maritime-global-trade-atlas.html

    Grove Thomas; Korsunskaya Darya, S&P Downgrades Russia's Sovereign Credit Rating to Junk (2017/01/27) Reuters
    https://in.reuters.com/article/us-russia-rating-downgrade/sp-downgrades-russias-sovereign-credit-rating-to-junk-idINKBN0KZ25920150126



    Haas de M., Russian-Chinese military exercises and their wider Perspective: Power play in Central Asia. (2005/10/31) Conflict Studies Research Centre
    https://www.google.co.in/url?sa=tandrctandesrc=sandsource=webandcd=2andcad=rjaanduact=8andved=0CCcQFjABandurl

    Haas M.D., Russian – Chinese Security Relations: Moscow’s Threat from the East? (2013/03/27) Netherlands Institute of International Relations Clingendael (NIIRC) https://www.clingendael.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/20130327_rc_securityrelations.pdf

    Hansson, Leigh T., Lowell, Michael J., Overview of the U.S. and EU Sanctions on Russia (2014/10/03) Reed Smith https://www.reedsmith.com/en/perspectives/2014/10/overview-of-the-us-and-eu-sanctions-on-russia

    HarrisonVirginia., Russia crisis hurts these brands the most (2014/12/28) CNN Money
    https://money.cnn.com/2014/12/18/news/companies/russia-economy-brands-losers/

    Helmer John, Russia China clash over oil price supply (2011/05/05) Asia Times http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Central_Asia/ME05Ag01.html

    Here comes the Russian Arctic gas that will fuel Europe by 2023 (2018/09/14)
    The Barents Observer https://thebarentsobserver.com/en/2018/09/here-comes-russian-arctic-gas-will-fuel-europe

    Howard LaFranchi, Ukraine crisis: What’s the point of US military activity near Russia? (2014/03/07) The Christian Science Monitor https://www.csmonitor.com/World/Security-Watch/2014/0307/Ukraine-crisis-What-s-the-point-of-US-military-activity-near-Russia

    Iam Bremmer, China May Meet Russia for War Games, But That Doesn’t Make Them Allies (2018/09/21) TIME http://time.com/5394939/china-russia-bremmer/

    Ilya Khrennikov, Big Western Companies are Pumping Cash into Russia (2016/11/23) Bloomberg https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-11-23/bouncing-back-putin-s-shrunken-economy-lures-foreign-investors

    Simon Shuster, Putin's Man in Crimea Is Ukraine's Worst Nightmare (2014/03/17)
    New York Times http://time.com/19097/putin-crimea-russia-ukraine-aksyonov/

    Steven Lee Myers, Private Bank Fuels Fortunes of Putin’s Inner Circle (2014/09/27)
    New York Times https://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/28/world/europe/it-pays-to-be-putins-friend-.html

    J. Seppala, Timothy, Steam Region Locking (2014/12/17) Engadget
    https://www.engadget.com/2014/12/17/steam-region-locking/


    Kramer, Andrew E. Russia's Steep Rate Increase Fails to Stem Ruble's Decline (2014/12/17) New York Times Https://www.nytimes.com/2014/12/17/business/russia-ruble-interest-rates.html

    London Stock Exchange Half-Year Report, (2016/08/17) Mirland Development Corporation
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    Map Russia China Gas Deal 2014 (2014/05/21) A World in Crisis
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    MSCI Russia Index (RUB) (2019/05/31) Morgan Stanley Capital International Index
    https://www.msci.com/documents/10199/1b68aecc-6aae-4451-8b7d-23630edb9844

    Nadezhda Filimonova, Gazprom and China’s Breakthrough in the Russian Arctic (2017/08/08) The Diplomat
    https://thediplomat.com/2017/08/gazprom-and-chinas-breakthrough-in-the-russian-arctic/

    Nikolai N. Sokov, Why Russia calls a limited nuclear strike “de-escalation” (2014/03/13) Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists
    https://thebulletin.org/2014/03/why-russia-calls-a-limited-nuclear-strike-de-escalation/

    Novatek, China’s Silk Road Fund finalize Yamal LNG stake sale (2016/03/15)
    LNG World News
    https://www.lngworldnews.com/novate k-chinas-silk-road-fund-finalize-yamal-lng-stake-sale/

    Over 1,100 kilometers of Power of Siberia gas pipeline to be completed by late 2017(2017/06/08) Gazprom
    http://www.gazprom.com/press/news/2017/june/article335985/P-PUBLIC-ADD-SERIESJunefinalRussiaEconomicRep ortENG.pdfsequence=1

    P. Spiegel, Ukraine Crisis: EU to Weigh Far-reaching Sanctions on Russia (2014/07/24) Financial Times
    http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/15ecc35c-12a4-11e4-a6d400144feabdc0.html#-axzz3AHUwYHCM

    Prime Minister Vladimir Putin holds a conference on the General Scheme for Gas Industry Development until 2030 in Novy Urengoi (2010/10/11) Government of the Russian Federation 2011 http://archive.premier.gov.ru/eng/events/news/12539/print/

    Putin signs Russian 'counter-sanctions' into law (2018/06/04) Reuters https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-russia-sanctions-law/putin-signs-russian-counter-sanctions-into-law-idUSKCN1J01IK

    Rosneft Develops Cooperation with Chinese Partners (2017/08/17)
    Oil & Gas Drill >Regions>Asia https://www.oilandgasdrill.com/regions/asia-oceania/rosneft-develops-cooperation-chinese-partners/

    Russia Energy Data (2010/12/01) IEA> Statistics and Analysis-Oil, Gas, Electricity, Coal. http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/Russia/pdf.pdf. 01 December 2010.

    Rosneft and Beijing Gas Sign Binding Documents for the Sale of 20% Stake in Verkhnechonskneftegaz (2016/07/11) Rosneft Press Release https://www.rosneft.com/press/releases/item/184439/

    Rosneft Closed the Deal to Sell 20% of Verkhnechonskneftegaz to Chinese Beijing Gas (2017/06/29) Invest in Russia
    http://investinrussia.com/news/10742-rosneft-zakryla-sdelku-po-prodazhe-kitaiskoi

    Rosneft and Beijing Gas Sign Binding Documents for the Sale of 20% Stake in Verkhnechonskneftegaz (2016/07/11) Rosneft Press Release https://www.rosneft.com/press/releases/item/184439/

    Rosneft takes over TNK-BP in $55bn deal (2013/03/21) The Guardian https://www.theguardian.com/business/2013/mar/21/rosneft-takes-over-tnk-bp

    Rosneft’s Russian Crude Output Drops to Lowest since TNK-BP Deal (2014/09/02) Bloomberg
    https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2014-09-02/rosneft-s-russian-crude-output-drops-to-lowest-since-tnk-bp-deal

    Russia Allows Changes to Natural Gas Prices in Europe (2014/06/02)
    Stratfor>Worldview>Germany and Economics
    https://worldview.stratfor.com/article/russia-allows-changes-natural-gas-prices-europe

    Russia launches biggest war games since Cold War (2018/09/11) BBC News https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-45470460

    Russia to Build 2 Pipelines in the East (2003/02/11) The New York Times https://www.nytimes.com/2003/02/11/business/russia-to-build-2-pipelines-in-the-east.html

    Russia seen adding 600,000 b/d of oil output by late 2019: analysts (2018/07/11)
    S&P Global Platts
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    Russia WAR GAMES: Putin launches BIGGEST military exercise in 40 years with China (2018/08/21) Express News
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    Russia's debt downgraded to junk by Moody's (2015/02/21) The Guardian
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    Russia’s Rouble Crisis Going over the Edge (2014/12/16) The Economist https://www.economist.com/finance-and-economics/2014/12/16/going-over-the-edge

    Russia launches $27 billion Yamal gas plant in the Arctic (2017/12/09)
    The Kathmandu Post Logo
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    Russian tanker sails through Arctic without icebreaker for first time (2017/08/24)
    The Guardian
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    U.S. Navy on alert: China, Russia to launch largest-ever joint navy exercise (2015/08/18)
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    Ukraine crisis: US and EU boost sanctions on Russia (2014/07/17) BBC News https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-28338897

    US Dollar/Ruble and Euro/Ruble Exchange Rates and Exchange Trade (2018/12/12)
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    三、俄文資料

    (一) 書籍

    Гутник Владимир, Мировая эканомика , С. Караганов , Мир вокруг росии: 2017—Контуры недалекого будущего(俄羅斯周邊世界:2017年-近期概述)(Москва: Совет по внешней и оборонной политике, 2007)(莫斯科:外交與國防政策委員會,2007)


    (二)期刊

    Khaints Timmerman, Vneshnyaya Politika: Poiski Hovoy Idyentichnosti(外交政策:尋找新共同點), Mirovaya Ekonomika i Mezhdunarodnye Otnosheniya(世界經濟與國際關係), (1994), No.2, p.19.


    (三)網路資料

    В. Мухин, Москва корректирует военную доктрину(莫斯科糾正軍事學說)
    (2014/08/01) Независимая Газета(獨立報)
    http://www.ng.ru/armies/2014-08-01/1_doctrine.html?print=Y.

    Владимир Путин: связи РФ и КНР достигли наивысшего уровня и продолжают развиваться(弗拉基米爾·普京:俄羅斯聯邦和中國關係已達最高水平並繼續發展)(2015/09/01) ИТАР-TACC(俄羅斯國家通訊社)https://tass.ru/interviews/2222240

    В. Прокофьев, "Мистраль пливет"(米斯特拉爾的漂浮物)(2014/09/13) Российская газета(俄羅斯報)http://www.rg.ru/2014/09/13/vladivostok-site.html.

    В. Мухин, Москва корректирует военную доктрину(莫斯科糾正軍事學說)(2014/08/01) Независимая Газета(獨立報)https://www.ng.ru/armies/2014-08-01

    Соглашение между Правительством Российской Федерации и Правительством Китайской Народной Республики о Продолжении
    Сотрудничества в Энергетической Сфере(俄羅斯聯邦和中華人民共和國政府政府關於繼續共同開展能源領域合作的協定)
    http://www.crc.mofcom.gov.cn/crweb/rcc/info/Article.jsp?a_no=474&col_no=46

    Сергей Караганов: Поворот Китая на Запад крайне выгоден России(謝爾·卡拉加諾夫:將中國轉向西方對俄羅斯非常有利)(2015/10/26) Российская газета(俄羅斯報)http://svop.ru/main/17098/

    Добкин, М. Гордеева, Россия оставить украинскую оборонку без работы(俄羅斯離開烏克蘭國防工業將失去就業)(2014/06/18) РБК Газета(RBC新聞)http://rbcdaily.ru/industry/562949991737502/1_doctrine.html?print=Y.
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    俄羅斯研究所
    105263010
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0105263010
    Data Type: thesis
    DOI: 10.6814/NCCU201900569
    Appears in Collections:[俄羅斯研究所] 學位論文

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