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    Title: 日中の他界観の比較研究-地獄を中心に
    Comparative Study of the World of the Death Between Japanese and Chinese Viewpoints: Focus on the hell
    Authors: 蔡育哲
    Cai, Yu-Zhe
    Contributors: 徐翔生
    Hsu, Hsiang-Sheng
    蔡育哲
    Cai, Yu-Zhe
    Keywords: 地獄
    他界觀
    日本靈異記
    往生要集
    平家物語
    十王經
    Hell
    World of the Death
    Nihonryouiki
    Oujouyoushuu
    Heikemonogatari
    Juuoukyou
    Date: 2019
    Issue Date: 2019-09-05 15:35:03 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 中世日本文學名著《平家物語》,描述主角平清盛因燒毀東大寺大佛而墜入無間地獄,這種關於死後世界的描述,與《古事記》及《萬葉集》等日本古代文學作品截然不同。《平家物語》中的他界觀與佛教思想有深刻關聯,因為隨著佛教的普及,日本人的他界觀有極大改變,死後世界也變成了地獄與極樂淨土,從《平家物語》亦可理解這部作品深受佛教影響。
    本論文以地獄為中心,解析《往生要集》與《十王經》中所見的地獄思想,探討日本人的他界觀如何形成、探究日本獨特的地獄思想。《往生要集》中記載著八大地獄的樣貌,這種關於地獄世界的描述,在《十王經》出現後開始有了些微改變,《十王經》中記載著人於死後需前往冥途,更述及死出山與三途川等日本獨特的他界思想。
    事實上,日本的佛教是由中國傳來,古代至近世的日本文化也深受中國影響,日本人的他界觀也與中國人的他界觀有著密接關聯。而中國佛教文學《冥祥記》與《冥報記》中所見地獄之描述,在《日本靈異記》與《往生要集》等作品中也
    可窺見,中國《十王經》是日本《十王經》之根源,《十王經》的思想也出現於《平家物語》之中。
    本論文首先列舉古代至近現代的日本文學作品,探討作品中所見的死後世界,並以地獄思想為中心,檢視日本人他界觀的形成發展。其後再從比較思想的觀點,進行日本與中國他界觀之對比研究,探究中日兩國他界觀之共通點及差異,論述日本人獨特的他界觀。
    The famous Japanese literature in medieval Japan, Heikemonogatari describes the protagonist Taira no Kiyomori fell into the hell because he burned the Toudaiji’s buddharupa. But this kind of description about the world of death is different from the ancient Japanese literature such as Kojiki, Manyoushu and so on. The world of the death in Heikemonogatari is connected with Buddhism. When Buddhism got popular, it influenced the world of the death dramatically. The world of the death has been saw as the Hell and Sukhavati in Japan. And we can see the effect in Heikemonogatari.
    This study will focus on the concept of the hell and discuss the ideology of the hell from Oujouyoushuu and Juuoukyou. This study will also analyze the development of the world of death and explore the unique concept of the hell in Japan. According to Oujouyoushuu, there are eight parts in the hell in Buddhism. But this kind of the description about the hell has changed when Juuoukyou was appeared in Japan. This book describes the travel to Hell, Shidenoyama and Sanzunokawa, which is the unique concept of the death in Japan.
    Actually, the Buddhism in Japan was propagated from China and the Chinese culture has had an effect on the Japanese culture. In other words, the Japanese concept of the world of death has a lot to do with the Chinese concept of the world of death. The description about the hell in Chinese Buddhist literature such as mingxiangji and mingbaoji can also be seen in Japanese literature such as Nihonryouiki, Oujouyoushuu, and so on. In addition, the Japanese adaption of Juuoukyou is based on Shiwangjing of China. The Japanese concept of the world of death in Juuoukyou is also can be found from Heikemonogatari.
    In conclusion, this thesis will discuss the Japanese concept of the world of death by using ancient to modern Japanese literature and describe how did the world of the death by focusing on the concept of the hell. Furthermore, I will expound the connection between Japanese and Chinese concept of the world of death from a comparative point of view. By means of the above research method, this thesis can clarify the similarities and differences between Japanese and Chinese world of death and explore the unique Japanese concept of the world of death.
    Reference: 研究書
    阿満利麿(2007)『仏教と日本人』筑摩書房
    石田瑞麿(1985)『地獄』法蔵館
    石田瑞麿(1998)『日本人と地獄』春秋社
    梅原猛(1967)『地獄の思想:日本精神の一系譜』中公新書
    草野巧(2007)『図解天国と地獄』新紀元社
    熊野純彦・下田正弘(2008)『死生学2 死と他界が照らす生』東京大学出版会
    五来重(1991)『日本人の地獄と極楽』人文書院
    佐藤弘夫(2008)『死者のゆくえ』岩田書院
    澤田瑞穂(1991)『修訂地獄変-中国の冥界説』平河出版社
    島薗進・竹内整一(2008)『死生学1 死生学とは何か』東京大学出版会
    武光誠(2013)『知っておきたい日本の神道』角川学芸社
    廣澤隆之(2006)『図解雑学:仏教』ナツメ社
    フランソワ・グレゴワール著・渡辺照宏訳(1958)『死後の世界』白水社
    山折哲雄・島田裕巳(2008)『日本人の「死」はどこにいったのか』朝日新聞社
    柳田國男(1962)『先祖の話』『定本柳田國男集第十巻』所収、筑摩書房

    研究論文
    小野寺郷(1995)「奈河と三途の川」『南山宗教文化研究所報第5号』
    徐 翔生(2016)「日本人の死後の世界観―宗教からの試論」『政大日本研究第13號』
    徐 翔生(2017)「他界像から見る日本人の死生観―文学の観点からの試論」『政大日本研究第14號』

    中国語文献
    方詩銘校注(1992)『冥報記・廣異記』北京:中華書局
    余英時(1987)『中國思想傳統的現代詮釋』台北:聯經出版
    余英時(2008)『東漢生死觀』台北:聯經出版
    徐翔生(2007)「探討日本人古代死生觀之源流」『外國語文研究第5期』
    陳登武(2009)『地獄・法律・人間秩序-中古中國宗教・社會與國家』台北:五南圖書
    陳登武(2009)『從人間世到幽冥界:唐代的法制、社會與國家』台北:五南圖書
    楊永良(2016)『詳説日本文化史』台北:致良出版社
    卍續藏經會(1976)『卍續藏經』台北:新文豐出版
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    日本語文學系
    105556002
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0105556002
    Data Type: thesis
    DOI: 10.6814/NCCU201901058
    Appears in Collections:[日本語文學系] 學位論文

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