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    政大機構典藏 > 文學院 > 歷史學系 > 學位論文 >  Item 140.119/125619
    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/125619


    Title: 十九世紀英國國會的轉變──從愛爾蘭自治運動觀察
    The Transformation of British Parliament in the Nineteenth Century──As Seen from the Irish Home Rule Movement
    Authors: 呂鴻祺
    Lu, Hung-Chi
    Contributors: 周惠民
    Chou, Hui-Min
    呂鴻祺
    Lu, Hung-Chi
    Keywords: 英國國會
    上議院
    下議院
    愛爾蘭
    愛爾蘭黨
    愛爾蘭自治
    The British Parliament
    the House of Lords
    the House of Commons
    the Irish Party
    Ireland
    the Irish Home Rule
    Date: 2019
    Issue Date: 2019-09-05 16:03:29 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 18世紀末起,英國經歷了從海外貿易擴張,到工業革命後的巨變,都市化、產業人口移轉、新階級的產生,都是這波巨變的結果。經濟發展的動力由農業轉變為工商業,並進而影響了英國政治發展。1801年大不列顛王國與愛爾蘭藉由〈聯合法〉(Union Act 1800)統一為「大不列顛與愛爾蘭聯合王國」(United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland),兩國合併後,經愛爾蘭貴族選舉產生的28位代表,及愛爾蘭國教會(隸屬英國國教派)的4位主教進入聯合王國國會上議院(House of Lords),另可選出100席的下議院議員(Member of House of Commons, MP)。斯時,聯合王國政治仍由上議院主宰,不僅上議院有權否決法案,且首相也多由貴族出任,但此時期的國會兩院已經漸漸可以感受到民意的壓力,這是因為報紙、宣傳、公開演說活動愈來愈興盛,且在社會變化下,民眾對於政府決策是否符合自身利益,也愈來愈關注;此外,自18世紀後半起,政府就不斷加強對國會議事日程的控制,企圖讓國會服膺以內閣(cabinet)為首的政府的需要。至19世紀英國國會還相繼於1832、1867及1884年通過了3次〈改革法〉(Reform Acts),不僅擴大了選民結構,也使政府必須更加重視一般民意的流動,政府的興替也在19世紀60年代起,與國會下議院的大選結果連結。當國會下議院的權勢愈趨高漲,兩院的爭執終於在19世紀末的2次〈愛爾蘭自治法案〉(Irish Home Rule Bills)後,於20世紀初自由黨的「人民預算」(the People’s Budget)中達到白熱化,並以上議院被迫同意1911年的〈國會法〉(Parliament Act 1911)告終:上議院被剝奪對法案的否決權(right of veto)。本文希望透過19世紀的政府檔案、日記、書信、國會議事錄、報紙、公開演說等材料,還有相關議題的前人研究,從愛爾蘭黨(Irish Party)及其所推動的〈愛爾蘭自治法案〉切入,探討英國國會從19世紀末至20世紀初的改變。
    The United Kingdom has undergone tremendous changes from overseas trade expansion to the industrial revolution since the late 18th century. Urbanization, the mobility of industrial population, and the emergence of new classes are all the result of this great change. Agriculture has been replaced with manufacturing industry and commerce as the driving force of economic development, which eventually and inevitably affected the political development of the United Kingdom. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and The Kingdom of Ireland were unified as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland by the Union Act 1801, and twenty-eight representatives elected by the Irish nobility, including four bishops of the Church of Ireland, which was the branch of the Anglican Church, entered the House of Lords of Parliament in London, and in which the Irish people can elect 100 members of the House of Commons(MP), after the unification of the two countries. The politics of the United Kingdom was still dominated by the House of Lords then, and not only did the upper house have the power to veto the bills, the prime ministers were mostly aristocrat. However, both houses of Parliament in this period have gradually felt the pressure of public opinion, for the cause that newspapers, propaganda, public speaking activities were becoming more prosperous, and under the social changes, people were paying more attention to whether the government policies were in accordance with their own interests. In addition, since the latter half of the 18th century, the government has continuously strengthened the control of the standing order of Parliament, attempting to let Parliament submit to the needs of the government in which the core is the Cabinet. In the 19th century, the British Parliament successively passed three Reform Acts in the years of 1832, 1867 and 1884, which not only expanded the electorate structure, but also made the general public opinion come much into the notice of the government, and the alternation of the official ruling party has been linked to the results of the general elections of the House of Commons since the 1860s. As a result, the House of Commons was becoming more powerful, and the dispute in British bicameral system finally reached the climax on “People's Budget” introduced by the Liberal Party in the beginning of 20th century, after the two “Irish Home Rule Bills” were rejected in the last two decades of 19th century. The dispute concluded when the House of Lords was compelled to agree the Parliament Act without alternative in 1911: the House of Lords was deprived of the Right of Veto. In this thesis, I will examine the changes of British Parliament from the late 19th century to the early 20the century, especially on the Irish Home Rule Bills proposed and pushed by the Irish Party, through the multiple sources such as the government archive, diaries, correspondence, Hansard (parliamentary Journals), newspaper of public speeches.
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    威廉.麥克尼爾(William H. McNeill)著,黃煜文譯,《世界史》(A World History),臺北:商周出版,2013。
    班納迪克.安德森(Benedict Anderson)著,吳叡人譯,《想像的共同體:民族主義的起源與散布》(Imagined. Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism),臺北:時報文化出版,2010。
    陳思賢,《西洋政治思想史.近代英國篇》(2版),臺北:五南圖書出版,2008
    陳堯聖,《英國國會》,臺北:臺灣商務印書館,1986。
    費爾南.布勞岱爾(Fernand Braudel)著,施康強、顧良譯,《15至18世紀的物質文明、經濟和資本主義(卷一)——日常生活的結構:可能與不可能》(Civilisation materielle, économie et capitalisme: XVe-XVIIIe siècle. Tome 1: Les Structures du Quotidien)(新北:廣場出版,2012)。
    費爾南.布勞岱爾(Fernand Braudel)著,施康強、顧良譯,1《5至18世紀的物質文明、經濟和資本主義(卷二) ——形形色色的交換》(La Méditerranée et le monde méditerranéen à l’époque de Philippe II, tome 2: Destins collectifs et mouvements d’ensemble),新北:廣場出版,2018。
    費爾南.布勞岱爾(Fernand Braudel)著,施康強、顧良譯,《15至18世紀的物質文明、經濟和資本主義(卷三)——世界的時間》(Civilisation materielle, économie et capitalisme: XVe-XVIIIe siècle. Tome 3: Le temps du monde),新北:廣場出版,2018。
    黃深瑜,《英國政府與政治》,臺北;五南圖書出版,2012。
    黃榮源,《英國政府治理 : 歷史制度的分析》,臺北:韋伯文化,2009。
    蔡東杰,《遠西掠影:十六世紀以來的歐洲與世界》,新北:暖暖書屋,2017。
    霍布斯邦等(Eric Hobsbawm, Hugh Trevor-Roper, Prys Morgan, David Cannadine, Bernard S. Cohn, Terence Ranger)著,陳思文等譯,《被發明的傳統》(The Invention of Tradition),臺北:貓頭鷹出版社,2002。
    閻照祥,《英國史》,北京:人民出版社,2014。
    閻照祥,《英國政治思想史》,北京:人民出版社,2010。
    閻照祥,《英國政黨政治史》,北京:中國社會科學出版社,1993。
    閻照祥,《英國貴族史》,北京:人民出版社,2015。
    錢乘旦、高岱主編,《英國史新探:全球視野與文化轉向》,北京:北京大學出版社,2011。
    錢乘旦、許潔明,《英國通史》,上海:上海社會科學出版社,2012。
    戴雪(Albert Venn Dicey)著,雷賓南譯《英憲精義》(Introduction to the Study of the Law of the Constitution),臺北:帕米爾書局,1991。
    麗貝卡.弗雷澤(Rebecca Fraser)著,葉錢焰、史林譯,《英國人的故事:從羅馬時代到21世紀》(The Story of Britain: From the Romans to the Present: A Narrative History)Vol. II,北京:中信出版集團,2018。
    羅伯特.基(Robert Kee)著,潘興明譯,《愛爾蘭史》(Ireland: A History),上海:東方出版中心,2010。
    羅伯特.羅傑斯(Robert Rogers)、羅德里.瓦特斯(Rhodri Walters)著,谷意譯,《英國國會》(How Parliament Works),臺北:五南圖書出版,2009。
    羅伯茨(C. Roberts)、羅伯茨(D. Roberts)、比松(D. R. Bisson)著,潘興明等譯,《英國史》(上下2冊)(A History of England),北京:商務印書館,2013。
    E. P. 湯普森(Edward Palmer Thompson)著,賈士蘅譯,《英國工人階級的形成》(上下冊)(The Making of the English Working Class),臺北:麥田出版,2001。
    Palmer, R. R. & Kramer, Lloyd著,孫福生、陳敦全、周鴻臨譯,《現代世界史前篇:1870年起》(A History of the Modern World Vol. II, 10th edition),臺北:美商麥格羅希爾臺灣分公司、五南圖書出版,2015。
    Palmer, R. R. & Kramer, Lloyd著,董正華、陳少衡、牛可譯,《現代世界史前篇:從歐洲興起到一八七O年》(A History of the Modern World Vol. II, 10th edition),臺北:美商麥格羅希爾臺灣分公司、五南圖書出版,2015。
    W. A.史派克(W. A. Speck)著,糜佳譯,《劍橋英國簡史》(A Concise History of Britain, 1707-1975),臺北:左岸文化,2006。
    R. G. 甘米奇(R. G. Cammage)著,蘇公隽譯,《憲章運動史》(History of the Chartist Movement),北京:商務印書館,2009。
    英文專書
    Biagini, Eugenio F. British Democracy and Irish Nationalism, 1876-1906, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
    Boyce, George D. & O’Day Alan (ed.). Gladstone and Ireland: Politics, Religion, and Nationality in the Victorian Age, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.
    Cook, Chris & Stevenson, John. The Longman Handbook of Modern British History, 1714-1980, London: Longman, 1983.
    Feuchtwanger, E. J. Disraeli, Democracy and the Tory Party, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1968.
    Finn, Joe & Lynch, Michael. Ireland and England: 1798-1922, London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1995.
    Fleming, N C. & O’Day, Alan. The Longman Handbook of Modern Irish History since 1800, Edinburgh: Pearson Education Limited, 2005.
    Gourvish, T. R. & O’Day Alan (ed.). Later Victorian Britain, 1867-1900, Basingstoke: The Macmillan Press Ltd, 1988.
    Gash, Norman. Aristocracy and People, Cambridge(Massachusetts, US): Harvard University Press, 1979.
    Foster, R. F.. The Oxford Illustrated History of Ireland, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989.
    Hill, Jacqueline, From Patriots to Unionists: Dublin Civic Politics and Irish Protestant Patriotism 1660-1840, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997.
    Hoppen, K. Theodore. Ireland since 1800: Conflict and Conformity, 2nd Edition, Harlow: Addison Wesley Longman Limited., 1999.
    Jones, Clyve (ed) A Short History of Parliament, Woodbridge: The Boydell Press, 2009.
    Leonard, Dick. Nineteenth-Century British Premiers: Pitt to Rosebery, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.
    Loughlin, James. Ulster Unionism and British National Identity since 1885, London: Pinter Publishers, 1995.
    Lynch, Michael. Gladstone and Disraeli, London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1991.
    Lyons, Francis Stewart Leland.. The Irish Parliamentary Party 1890-1910, Westport: Greenwood Press, 1975.
    Moody, T. W., F. X. Martin & F. J. Byrne(eds.). A New History of Ireland Vol. VIII: A Chronology of Irish History to 1976: A Companion to Irish History, I, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1982.
    O’Donnell, F. Hugh. A History of the Irish Parliamentary Party, London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1910.
    O’Sullivan, Patrick(ed.). The Meaning of the Famine, London: Leicester University Press, 1997.
    Pollard, A. F. The Evolution of Parliament, London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1920.
    Russell, Conrad. The Crisis of Parliaments: English History 1509-1660, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1971.
    Shell, Donald. The House of Lords, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2007.
    Smith, E. A. The House of Lords in British Politics and Society, 1815-1911, New York: Longman Publishing, 1992.
    Steinberg, S. H. Historical Tables, 58 B.C.-A.D. 1972, London: The Macmillan Press Ltd, 1973.
    Winstanley, Michael J. Gladstone and the Liberal Party, London: Reutledge, 1992.
    Winston S. Churchill, The History of the English-Speaking People: The New World, New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1956.
    Wheatley, Michael. Nationalism and the Irish Party: Provincial Ireland, 1910-1916, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.
    Young, Roland. The British Parliament, Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1963.
    期刊論文
    朱志宏,〈英美國會議事規則與行為規範之研究〉,《理論與政策》,2:1(臺北,1987.10),頁69-79。
    蔡承翰,〈自治議題、愛爾蘭黨與英國政黨政治的變動〉,《史學研究》,第26期(新北,2013.07),頁147-176。
    Cohan, A. S.. “Patterns in the Irish Political Elite,” British Journal of Political Science, 3:2(April, 1973), 213-228.
    Dunning, Wm. A.. “Irish Land Legislation since 1845. I.,” Political Science Quarterly, 7:1 (March, 1892), 57-79.
    Foster, R. F.. “History and the Irish Question,” Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 33(1983), 169-192.
    Horwill, Herbert W. “The Problem of House of Lords,” Political Science Quarterly, 23:1(1908), 95-111.
    Kelly, Matthew. “Home Rule for Ireland: For and Against,” The Historian, winter 2014/15(2014/15), 30-35.
    Lubenow, W. C.. “Irish Home Rule and the Social Basis of the Great Separation in the Liberal Party in 1886,” The Historical Journal, 28:1(March, 1986), 125-142.
    Maguire, W. A.. “Lord Donegall and the Sale of Belfast: A Case History from the Encumbered Estates Court,” The Economic History Review, New Series, 29:4(November 1976), 570-584.
    McCaffrey, Lawrence J.. “Isaac Butt and the Home Rule Movement: A Study in Conservative Nationalism,” The Review of Politics, 22:1(January 1960), 72-95.
    McConnel, James. “‘Jobbing with Tory and Liberal’: Irish Nationalists and the Politics of Patronage 1880-1914,” Past & Present, 188(August, 2005), 105-131.
    Pierrepont, Edwards. “Lord Beaconsfield and the Irish Question,” The North American Review, Vol. 147, No. 385(December, 1888), 677-678.
    Porritt, Edward. “Before and After Veto,” The North American Review, 194:671(1911), 506-516.
    Powell, J. Enoch. “Kilmainham – The Treaty that Never Was, ” The Historical Journal, Vol. 21, Issue. 4(December 1978), 949-959.
    Smith, Goldwin. “The Irish Question,” The North American Review, 172:525(June 1901), 838-852.
    Weston, Corinne Comstock. “The Royal Mediation in 1884,” The English Historical Review, 82:323(1967), 296-322.
    學位論文
    林浩博,〈蘇格蘭與愛爾蘭民族主義運動之比較〉,臺北:國立政治大學國家發展研究所碩士論文,2016。
    侯家榆,〈近代早期英格蘭人眼中的愛爾蘭〉,臺北:國立政治大學歷史學系碩士論文,2016。
    網路資源
    Encyclopedia Britannica. Accessed June 23, 2019. https://www.britannica.com/.
    Government of Ireland. Irish Statute Book. Accessed June 20, 2019. http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/.
    Institute of Historical Research. British History Online. Accessed June 23, 2019. https://www.british-history.ac.uk/.
    The National Archive. Legislation.gov.uk. Accessed June 20, 2019. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/.
    UK Parliament. Hansard. Accessed June 20, 2019. https://hansard.parliament.uk/.
    UK Parliament. HANSARD 1803–2005. Accessed June 20, 2019. https://api.parliament.uk/historic-hansard/index.html.
    Wikimedia Foundation. Wikisource. Accessed June 23, 2019, https://wikisource.org/wiki/Main_Page.
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    歷史學系
    102153015
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G1021530152
    Data Type: thesis
    DOI: 10.6814/NCCU201900924
    Appears in Collections:[歷史學系] 學位論文

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