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    政大機構典藏 > 文學院 > 歷史學系 > 學位論文 >  Item 140.119/125619
    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/125619

    Title: 十九世紀英國國會的轉變──從愛爾蘭自治運動觀察
    The Transformation of British Parliament in the Nineteenth Century──As Seen from the Irish Home Rule Movement
    Authors: 呂鴻祺
    Lu, Hung-Chi
    Contributors: 周惠民
    Chou, Hui-Min
    Lu, Hung-Chi
    Keywords: 英國國會
    The British Parliament
    the House of Lords
    the House of Commons
    the Irish Party
    the Irish Home Rule
    Date: 2019
    Issue Date: 2019-09-05 16:03:29 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 18世紀末起,英國經歷了從海外貿易擴張,到工業革命後的巨變,都市化、產業人口移轉、新階級的產生,都是這波巨變的結果。經濟發展的動力由農業轉變為工商業,並進而影響了英國政治發展。1801年大不列顛王國與愛爾蘭藉由〈聯合法〉(Union Act 1800)統一為「大不列顛與愛爾蘭聯合王國」(United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland),兩國合併後,經愛爾蘭貴族選舉產生的28位代表,及愛爾蘭國教會(隸屬英國國教派)的4位主教進入聯合王國國會上議院(House of Lords),另可選出100席的下議院議員(Member of House of Commons, MP)。斯時,聯合王國政治仍由上議院主宰,不僅上議院有權否決法案,且首相也多由貴族出任,但此時期的國會兩院已經漸漸可以感受到民意的壓力,這是因為報紙、宣傳、公開演說活動愈來愈興盛,且在社會變化下,民眾對於政府決策是否符合自身利益,也愈來愈關注;此外,自18世紀後半起,政府就不斷加強對國會議事日程的控制,企圖讓國會服膺以內閣(cabinet)為首的政府的需要。至19世紀英國國會還相繼於1832、1867及1884年通過了3次〈改革法〉(Reform Acts),不僅擴大了選民結構,也使政府必須更加重視一般民意的流動,政府的興替也在19世紀60年代起,與國會下議院的大選結果連結。當國會下議院的權勢愈趨高漲,兩院的爭執終於在19世紀末的2次〈愛爾蘭自治法案〉(Irish Home Rule Bills)後,於20世紀初自由黨的「人民預算」(the People’s Budget)中達到白熱化,並以上議院被迫同意1911年的〈國會法〉(Parliament Act 1911)告終:上議院被剝奪對法案的否決權(right of veto)。本文希望透過19世紀的政府檔案、日記、書信、國會議事錄、報紙、公開演說等材料,還有相關議題的前人研究,從愛爾蘭黨(Irish Party)及其所推動的〈愛爾蘭自治法案〉切入,探討英國國會從19世紀末至20世紀初的改變。
    The United Kingdom has undergone tremendous changes from overseas trade expansion to the industrial revolution since the late 18th century. Urbanization, the mobility of industrial population, and the emergence of new classes are all the result of this great change. Agriculture has been replaced with manufacturing industry and commerce as the driving force of economic development, which eventually and inevitably affected the political development of the United Kingdom. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and The Kingdom of Ireland were unified as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland by the Union Act 1801, and twenty-eight representatives elected by the Irish nobility, including four bishops of the Church of Ireland, which was the branch of the Anglican Church, entered the House of Lords of Parliament in London, and in which the Irish people can elect 100 members of the House of Commons(MP), after the unification of the two countries. The politics of the United Kingdom was still dominated by the House of Lords then, and not only did the upper house have the power to veto the bills, the prime ministers were mostly aristocrat. However, both houses of Parliament in this period have gradually felt the pressure of public opinion, for the cause that newspapers, propaganda, public speaking activities were becoming more prosperous, and under the social changes, people were paying more attention to whether the government policies were in accordance with their own interests. In addition, since the latter half of the 18th century, the government has continuously strengthened the control of the standing order of Parliament, attempting to let Parliament submit to the needs of the government in which the core is the Cabinet. In the 19th century, the British Parliament successively passed three Reform Acts in the years of 1832, 1867 and 1884, which not only expanded the electorate structure, but also made the general public opinion come much into the notice of the government, and the alternation of the official ruling party has been linked to the results of the general elections of the House of Commons since the 1860s. As a result, the House of Commons was becoming more powerful, and the dispute in British bicameral system finally reached the climax on “People's Budget” introduced by the Liberal Party in the beginning of 20th century, after the two “Irish Home Rule Bills” were rejected in the last two decades of 19th century. The dispute concluded when the House of Lords was compelled to agree the Parliament Act without alternative in 1911: the House of Lords was deprived of the Right of Veto. In this thesis, I will examine the changes of British Parliament from the late 19th century to the early 20the century, especially on the Irish Home Rule Bills proposed and pushed by the Irish Party, through the multiple sources such as the government archive, diaries, correspondence, Hansard (parliamentary Journals), newspaper of public speeches.
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    Description: 碩士
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G1021530152
    Data Type: thesis
    DOI: 10.6814/NCCU201900924
    Appears in Collections:[歷史學系] 學位論文

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