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    Title: 政治態度、社會信任與移民政策偏好: 來自東亞三國之調查資料檢證
    Political Attitudes, Social Trust, and Support for Immigration: Evidence from Three East Asian Countries
    Authors: 葛佳琪
    Gonzalvo, Pauline Joyce
    Contributors: 吳文欽
    Wu, Wen-Chin
    葛佳琪
    Pauline Joyce Gonzalvo
    Keywords: 政治態度
    民族主義
    墨守傳統
    社會信任
    與移民政策偏好
    東亞
    Political Attitudes
    Defensive Nationalism
    Social Traditionalism
    Social Trust
    Support for Immigration
    East Asia
    Date: 2019
    Issue Date: 2019-09-05 17:32:30 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 國際移民以超過三倍的成長速度,從1960年的7700萬人增加到2017年的近2.58億, 其中亞洲最近首次超過歐洲,成為向內和向外移民增幅最大的地區。移民的湧入可能會影響 各國的政策制定且可能加深社會衝突,並連帶影響勞動力市場,教育體系和衛生相關問題。 但移民是否會深切地影響國內政治,以及如何影響,很大程度取決於土生土長的龐大族群對 移民和移民議題本身的態度。移民的相關研究正不斷擴大,特別是現在比以往任何時候更受 重視,移民儼然成為全世界政府所需面臨的緊急社會、經濟和政治問題。然而,多數研究都 聚焦在「移民國家」,譬如美國和加拿大,澳洲和紐西蘭,以及近日最受討論的歐洲國家。

    為了將經濟發達國家的「西方」領域與亞洲國家現有的文獻連接起來,本研究側重於 使用亞洲動態調查第4波,以對三個民主及新興工業化東亞國家進行研究,對其政治因素和移 民態度進行實證分析。 與傳統的定居社會相比,移民政策據說更受東亞公眾輿論的制約,儘 管當地生育率一直很低,也面臨人口迅速老化以及勞動力下降等問題,政府也沒有馬上從移 民身上尋求解決之道。此論文的主要提問是:政治意向和意識形態是否會影響非傳統移民地 如日本、韓國和台灣當地人民對移民的支持?結果顯示,伴隨教育,居住地和收入,民族主 義和傳統主義是預測三個國家對移民看法的重要因素。社會信任在日本很受重視,但總體來 說,與移民看法的關聯相當薄弱。

    就其本質而言,移民與公民身份和世界主義都是相關聯的,它定義了誰是這個國家的人,且法律也標示了界線,清楚劃分「我們」和「他們」的區別。此論文的研究結果證實了
    之前的看法,認為在東亞,文化威脅被視為比經濟威脅更嚴重。除了解決傳統和非傳統移民社會之間的研究差距,此論文的主題對於東亞國家目前的移民政策也是相當重要,期待能引出一條道路或給予啟發。
    International migration more than tripled in size from 77 million in 1960 to almost 258 million in 2017, with Asia recently overtaking Europe as the region with the largest movements in both inward and outward migration. Migrant inflows can potentially influence countries’ policy- making processes and escalate societal conflicts, as well as impact the labor market, education system and health sector. But whether it profoundly affects domestic politics, and how exactly it does, hinges importantly on the attitudes of native-born groups toward immigrants and immigration itself. Relevant research is ever-expanding, especially now more than ever that migration has become a pressing social, economic and political issue for governments all over the world. However, most studies are concentrated on ‘immigrant nations’, such as the US and Canada, Australia and New Zealand, and more recently, European states.

    In an attempt to bridge existing literature on the ‘Western’ realm of economically advanced countries with its Asian counterparts, this study focuses on an empirical analysis of political factors and immigration attitudes using individual-level survey data from the Asian Barometer Wave 4 in three democratic and newly-industrialized East Asian countries. Compared to traditional settler societies, immigration policies are said to be more constrained by public opinion in East Asia, whose governments have been slow to turn to immigration despite having consistently low fertility rates, a rapidly aging population, and a declining labor force. The main question being asked is: do political and ideological attitudes influence support for immigration in nontraditional immigrant destinations such as Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan? Results suggest that defensive nationalism and social traditionalism are significant predictors of immigration views across all three countries. Social trust is significant in Japan, but overall, seems to have a weak positive relationship with immigration views in East Asia.

    The outcome of this study supports previous works in contending that in East Asia, the concept of cultural threat is more significant than economic threat. In addition to addressing the research gap between traditional and nontraditional immigrant societies, the topic of this study may also be vital in informing current immigration policies in East Asian countries.
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    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    國際研究英語碩士學位學程(IMPIS)
    106862021
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G1068620211
    Data Type: thesis
    DOI: 10.6814/NCCU201900888
    Appears in Collections:[國際研究英語碩士學位學程] 學位論文

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