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    Title: 琦君散文及五○、六○年代女性創作位置
    Ih-Giene's Prose and Creative Position of the Feminine Writers in '50-'60s
    Authors: 張瑞芬
    Contributors: 臺灣文學學報
    Keywords: 琦君;散文;女性文學;五○年代
    Date: 2005-02
    Issue Date: 2019-11-13 14:53:09 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 琦君(潘希珍,1917-)散文,作為當代臺灣女性散文典範之一,其抒情溫婉,夙與張秀亞、艾雯等人並稱,在五○年代的相關論述中,甚且與朱西甯等反共作家一起,被列入「主導文化」、「主流價值」之中。張誦聖〈臺灣女作家及主導文化〉即指出,琦君及其同時代女作家,女性特質加官方意識,使她們得到了額外的正統性,並在文學生產場域中分配到很大的發展空間。
    本文以表列方式,詳明五十位(包括琦君)戰後第一代外省來臺女作家於文壇的寫作位置,與她們之間的背景、年齡、私誼關係,並從中得知,在三百餘名「臺灣省婦女寫作協會」成員中,以琦君、林海音為中心(1916-1923年生)的一群,寫作成就最高,人數最為多數,成為五○年代女作家代表群。基於私誼成立的「女作家慶生會」、「春臺小集」等非正式文友組織,某種程度抵制了「文協」、「婦協」等官方身份,她們利用文學場域的優勢(相對於當時的省籍作家鍾肇政《文友通訊》諸人),發展出自己異於反共主流政策的一套書寫美學,並質疑、消解了(男性)家國意識的正當性和合理性。這是五○年代女作家(包括琦君)不應被狹隘的定位為「反共作家」的原因。
    其次,綜觀琦君的散文總體成就,亦可見出,五○年代的琦君以小說創作為主,數量未多,文學史上將琦君視為五○年代代表性作家,不無疑義。在總數約三十冊的散文集中,琦君自《煙愁》(1963)一書以下,質量俱優,《紅紗燈》、《三更有夢書當枕》、《桂花雨》等最好的散文作品,都出現在六○-七○年代,直到《留予他年說夢痕》(1980)與赴美定居前後,筆力猶健,堪稱後期另一高峰。在六○-七○年代臺灣文壇上,琦君散文發揮了較大的影響力。她的中國傳統情懷,與文字西化的冰心相異,而溫暖情真,含蓄蘊藉的散文風格,又與張秀亞、艾雯等美文不同。穿越了五○年代的反共氛圍、六○年代的現代虛無,在七○年代中期臺灣本土女性散文(劉靜娟、丘秀芷)崛起之前,琦君散文,代表一種超越時代的普世價值與中道價值,成為臺灣當代女性散文不朽的典範。
    Ih-Giene's (Surname: Pan Shih-Jan, 1917-) prose, as the contemporary Taiwanese feminine representative, was characterized by softening feelings, as famous as Chung Shiu-Iah's and Aih-Wen's. The former and its relevant viewpoints had been looked as ”Essential culture” and ”Main stream vale” in 50's, like anti-Communism writers', like Juh-Shi-Niun's. Both the feminine characteristics and political agreement, the female writers' creation, backed up by extraordinary normalization, got a huge room for literature development.
    By listing in the table, the present literature shows precisely the fist generation of feminine writers, who were immigrated from Mainland China, their creative positions in literature and their background and interpersonal relationships. Centered by Ih-Giene and Lin Hai-Ih, the Taiwan feminine writer association was most popular in '50s. By the privilege offered from government, they developed their characters for beauty description, definitely different from those for anti-Communism.
    General saying, more than thirty volumes of prose, authorized by Ih-Giene, made a big effect in the Taiwanese literature field in '60s and '70s. Before the dominance of Taiwanese native feminine writers in mid-'70s, Ih-Giene's prose had been symbolized as the super-era values of globalization and Midway and appeared as a never decayed model for the contemporary feminine prose.
    Relation: 臺灣文學學報, 6, 121-157
    Data Type: article
    Appears in Collections:[臺灣文學學報 THCI Core] 期刊論文

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