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    Title: Five Thunders Ritual (Wulei fa 五雷法) of the Song, Pure Tenuity (Qing-wei dao-fa 清微道法) in the Yuan, and their Significance in Daoist History
    宋代五雷法和元代清微派在道教歷史上的重要性
    Authors: 常志靜
    Reiter, Florian C.
    Contributors: 華人宗教研究
    Keywords: Five Thunders Ritual;Pure Tenuity;daoshi / fashi;Daoist exorcism;transformation into a divinity
    五雷法;清微道法;道士/法師;道教法術;變神
    Date: 2016-12
    Issue Date: 2019-11-29 09:21:32 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: Five Thunders rituals and the Pure Tenuity Branch (Qing-wei pai 清微派) emerged and developed in the Song and Yuan eras. Thunder ritual and Pure Tenuity were represented and set to practical use by priests (daoshi 道士 or fashi 法師) of traditional Heavenly Masters Daoism. These Daoists performed singular and independent rituals which were exorcist performances. They were designed to solve any problems that Daoist adherents may encounter in daily life, like disasters in nature or personal illness. Five Thunders amulets or Daoist amulets were the most important ritual tools that Thunder Ritual and Pure Tenuity used. And yet, there were remarkable differences between the amulets of the two Daoist branches. This article describes characteristic features of Five Thunders rituals and Pure Tenuity in the Song and Yuan eras and analyzes different attitudes and practical approaches of the priests in the two groups when their priests performed exorcism. This article explains that various regional Daoist exorcist traditions were documented as canonical manuals and scriptures to be included in the Ming Daoist Canon. Since antiquity there was an orally transmitted Daoist exorcism that in the Song, Yuan, and Ming periods was fixed in literary and finally canonical form. In Daoist history, this process constitutes the significance of Five Thunders Ritual and Pure Tenuity Daoism. This article emphasizes the variety of sources for Pure Tenuity and states that the group was shaped by regional influences. The author quotes outstanding Daoists, such Wang Wen-qing 王文卿, Bai Yu-chan 白玉蟾, Li Shao-wei 李少微, Zhang Xu-jing 張虛 靖, and Zhang Yu-chu 張宇初 and refers to their critical assessments.
    五雷法和清微派在宋元時代出現並發展,兩派的代表人物是傳統天師道的道士或法師。這兩派道士實行各自特有的儀式以及法術,用以克服信徒日常生活中的種種苦難,譬如天災和病況。五雷符及道符是這兩派最重要的法具,但是五雷法與清微派在這一方面的區別很大。本論文描述五雷法和清微派的特色並且分析宋元時代道士們在實行法術時的不同態度和作法,同時解釋自古以來各地方性的道教口傳驅邪法術在元明時期被編入《道藏》之後才成為道教經典。這是這兩派在道教歷史上的重要性。本論文特別注重清微派的多元性與地方性,並引用當時高等道士白玉蟾、李少微、張宇初的評判。
    Relation: 華人宗教研究, 8, 7-31
    Data Type: article
    Appears in Collections:[華人宗教研究] 期刊論文

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