普度是為了慰撫孤魂厲鬼而舉辦的儀式。普度在宋代確立其基本形式後，便一直受到重視。本文總括筆者以前發表的關於道教普度儀式成立過程和佛教施餓鬼發展到普度的變化過程，以及兩者的關係。第二節則概觀了中國民間對於孤魂厲鬼的民俗宗教，官方的祭厲和中元節與普度的關係。第三節介紹了佛教從施餓鬼到普度的發展。第四節討論了杜光庭《太上黃籙齋儀》、蔣叔輿《無上黃籙大齋立成儀》、金允中《上清靈寶大法》記述之普度儀式的內容和特色。第五節討論了佛教水陸齋的成立過程，並根據《法界聖凡水陸勝會修齋儀軌》來介紹水陸齋的內容。 Universal salvation rites are held for the comfort of orphaned souls and vengeful ghosts. After the basic forms of universal salvation rites were realized in the Song period, Chinese communities have continuously attached importance to this ritual. This paper summarizes the author's former presentations related to the formational process of Daoist universal salvation rites, the transformational process by which the Buddhist ritual act of feasting hungry ghosts developed into universal salvation rites, as well as the relationship between these two developments. The second section then surveys Chinese popular beliefs about orphaned souls and vengeful ghosts and the relationship of official sacrifices during the Middle Prime Festival to the universal salvation rites. The third section introduces the transformational process by which the Buddhist ritual act of feasting hungry ghosts developed into a universal salvation. The fourth section discusses the content and features of universal salvation rites recorded in Du Guangting's 杜光庭 Taishang huanglu zhaiyi 太上黃籙齋儀 (Most High Liturgies for the Yellow Register Retreat), Jiang Shuyu's 蔣叔輿 Wushang huanglu dazhai lichen yi 無上黃籙大齋立成儀 (Standard Liturgies of the Supreme Great Yellow Register Retreat), and Jin Yunzhong's 金允中 Shangqing Lingbao dafa 上清靈寶大法 (Great Rites of the Numinous Treasure of Highest Clarity). The fifth section discusses the formational process of the Buddhist Water and Land Retreat and introduces its content according to the Fajie shengfan shuilu shenghui xiuzhai yigui 法界聖凡水陸勝會修齋儀軌 (Ritual Commentary on the Water and Land Grand Gathering Cultivation Retreat for Sages and Ordinary People of the Dharma Realm).