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The Effectiveness of Protecting Labor Rights Through International Investment Laws
International Labour Organization
international labor standards
bilateral investment agreements
regional trade agreements
the “Non Derogation” obligation
|Issue Date: ||2019-12-06 10:59:51 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract: ||工業革命促成經濟發展的同時，勞工遭受不平等待遇，直到第一次世界大戰後，誕生於凡爾賽條約的國際勞工組織（International Labor Organization, ILO）開始推動國際勞動基準，促成今日耳熟能詳的一天工作八小時和最低工資等工作條件與結社自由等人權。對於監督國際勞動基準的落實，ILO要求會員國自行對其執行情況提交書面報告，供政府、勞資三方組成的國際勞工大會進行討論，另外ILO亦提供申訴機制，最高由調查委員會進行審查與提供建議，然而ILO協助國家改善勞工情形較偏向政治遊說與技術指導，因此本文檢視勞工權利在國際投資法的架構下是否受到較高的保障。|
在開發中國家反對於世界貿易組織（World Trade Organization,WTO）多邊場域納入勞工規範的前提下，已開發國家為了避免開發中國家以低廉的勞動成本吸引投資而造成不公平的競爭，透過於雙邊投資協定或區域性貿易協定納入勞動條款要求締約國遵守「不減損（Non Derogation）」義務，即禁止降低勞工保護水準來吸引投資，並提倡ILO的核心勞動基準，其目的在於通過貿易制裁來保證有關勞工權利的實現。從條文規範看來似乎能夠為勞工權利提供更多的保障，然而觀察有關勞工權利的投資仲裁案件與爭端解決判決結果顯示，國際勞動基準與國際經貿掛鉤的實際運作情形反而增加了構成違反要件的困難度，因為改善勞動規範的前提是須先符合違反投資保障原則或影響締約國間的貿易，使得從國際規範來觸及各國勞動實施情形的力道仍有待加強。
At the same time that the industrial revolution contributed to economic development, massive labors suffered from unequal treatments. Until after the First World War, the International Labour Organization (ILO), born of the Treaty of Versailles, began to promote international labor standards, including working conditions such as eight hours a day, minimum wage, and human rights such as freedom of association that are familiar today. In addition to the benchmark, ILO requires member states to submit written reports on their own implementation for discussion at the International Labour Conference, which is composed of the government, labor and management representives. For monitoring the implementation, ILO also provides a complaint mechanism, which is reviewed and advised by the Commission of Inquiry at the highest level of the organization. However, ILO assists the country to improve their implementation mostly through political lobbying and technical guidance. Whether labor rights are more protected under the framework of international investment law became the focus of this thesis.
Under the premise that developing countries oppose the inclusion of labor norms in the multilateral field such as World Trade Organization (WTO), developed countries have adopted the inclusion of labor provisions in bilateral investment agreements or regional trade agreements requiring contracting parties to comply with the “Non Derogation” obligation, which prohibits lowering labor protection levels to attract investment, and promoting the core labor standards of the ILO, which are aimed at ensuring the realization of labor rights through trade sanctions. From the terms of provisions, it seems that it can provide more protection for labor rights. However, the observation of investment arbitration cases and dispute settlement judgments on labor rights shows that the actual operation of the linkage between international labor standards and international economic and trade has increased the difficulty of constituting a violation. The precondition of improving labor regulations is to first violate the principle of investment protection or to affect trade between contracting states, so that the force of international norms to reach the labor implementation situation of various countries still needs to be strengthened.
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|Source URI: ||http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0104351046|
|Data Type: ||thesis|
|Appears in Collections:||[國際經營與貿易學系 ] 學位論文|
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