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    Title: 「鄂蘭與呂格爾論敘事」第二年度期中報告
    Arendt and Ricoeur on Narration
    Authors: 汪文聖
    WANG, Wen-Sheng
    Contributors: 哲學系
    Keywords: 鄂蘭;呂格爾;敘事;時間;意義;療癒 
    Date: 2018-05
    Issue Date: 2020-02-19 15:07:38 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 漢娜•鄂蘭在其《人的境況》第五章「行動」是以伊薩•狄內森的一個「句子起 頭的:「所有的悲傷可被承受,如果你將它們放到一個故事裡或講述一個關於它 們的故事。」這1958年成稿的著作連同上述的句子,在保羅•呂格爾2001與 2003年接受理查•契爾尼的訪談中開宗明義地被提起。呂格爾是在回答「敘事既 可賦予人們認同與結合的意義,那麼它是否具有一積極的療癒能力」的問題時回 溯到鄂蘭的。他強調了鄂蘭以每個作為「誰」的行動者要藉語言與行動而彰顯自 己,而這是「建立在眾多的行動者與其行動的環境間關係的網絡之上的」,但因 「人(事)的脆弱」而致悲傷事件的可能發生。故鑒於每個人皆從出生即開始其 故事,也被他人講述著故事,今呂格爾面對故事為何使悲傷可被承受的問題,進 一步從具敘事要素的「悲悼」裡去尋找答案。 針對上述呂格爾將敘事的意義溯源於鄂蘭,並深化其意義的問題脈絡,本計劃擬 以三年的時間進行「鄂蘭與呂格爾論敘事」的研究。涉及的問題有:第一、對鄂 蘭而言,1.人自出生開始其故事,和2.其以行動建立與眾多人共處於世界的意 義,這兩者的關係為何?因行動本身所具之不可逆與不可預期的困境,常導致與 他者發生似為無法挽回的衝突關係,惟敘事在這時如何讓衝突關係修復為和諧一 致,以長久維持人們在世界中的意義?第二、鄂蘭曾以亞理斯多德的《詩學》中 的模仿理論說明敘事的意義,呂格爾如何繼續在此基礎上,提出具敘事要素的悲 悼來回應悲傷可被承受的問題?第三、對呂格爾而言,奧古斯丁的《懺悔錄》提 供的不只是一個敘事的實例,更賦予了內在時間對於敘事意義進一步深化的理論 基礎,而奧古斯丁的時間義涵只不過是個出發點,與之相連的胡塞爾與海德格的 時間義涵,更對於呂格爾的敘事理論有著根本的影響。而時間如何被關係到敘事 在修復我們與他者關係的和諧一致,以至於讓世界的意義長久維持的問題脈絡中, 這是本計劃最終要處理的課題。 本研究計劃固以鄂蘭與呂格爾論敘事為主題,並旁及奧古斯丁、胡塞爾與海德格 的時間義涵,但因隨著呂格爾回溯鄂蘭以敘事重建與維持人類在世界的意義,這 將關涉不只是公共領域的實踐問題,也包括個人或社群的悲傷的療癒問題。故雖 計劃為一理論的研究,但將可導向大眾所關切的領域,即在未來會有廣泛被應用 的可能。因而本研究計劃被納入「導向性基礎研究」的性質。 
    In the Chapter 5: “Action” of The Human Condition, Hannah Arendt begins with a motto of Isak Dinesen: “All sorrows may be borne if you put them into a story or tell a story about them.” This work, which is published in 1958, and that sentence are mentioned by Paul Ricoeur just at beginning in a conversation with Richard Kearney etc. in 2001 and 2003. Ricoeur traces back to Arendt, when he answers the question: “Since narrative can provide people with a sense of identity and cohesion, then, does narrative have a positive therapeutic potential?” He points out that in Arendfs view every agent as a “who” wants to disclose him/herself in speech and action. It is further based on the “weaving of ‘the web of relationships’ between agents and the circumstances of action.” But “the frailty of human affairs” results in the probable happening of sorrows. Hence, regarding the fact that every person initiates his/her story and would be told with his/her story from the beginning of his/her natality, Ricoeur, facing the question how a story could make sorrows bearable, seeks an answer from “the narrative component of mourning.” With regard to the context of aforementioned themes that Ricoeur traces the meaning of narrative back to Arendt, and develops and deepens it, this proposed project is planned to research “Arendt and Ricoeur on Narrative” for three years, and world treats the following questions: Firstly, for Arendt, what is the relation between 1. Every person begins his story from the beginning of his natality, and 2. He constitutes in action the meaning that he lives in the world with the plural others? Since the irreversibility and unpredictability as the predicaments of action results in a seemly not to be redeemed striking relationship with others, then, how can the narrative nevertheless remedy that relation, in order to maintain the meaning of human beings in the world? Secondly, Arendt has expounded the meaning of narrative based upon Aristotle’s conception of “mimesis” in his Poetics; how does Ricoeur go on to propose the narrative component of mourning, to respond the question of the bearablity of sorrows? Thirdly, for Ricoeur Augustin’s Confessions provides not only an example of narrative, but also a theoretical fundament of his deepening the meaning of narrative. However, Augustin’s conception of time is just the starting point, to which Husserl’s and Heidegger’s conception of time are related and more influential for Ricoeur’s theory of narrative. And the discussion how the time is related to the redemption of our agreeable relation with others through narrative, so that the meaning of the world maintains durably, is the last issue of this project. Although this project treats Arendt and Ricoeur on narrative, and refers to the conceptions of time of Augustin, Husserl and Heidegger, with Ricoeur’s tracing back to Arendfs rebuilding and maintaining the meaning of human being in the world, it also cares about not only the practical problem in public sphere, but also the therapeutic problem of sorrows in individual and community. This project is certainly a theoretical study, but could be oriented to a domain that the public care about; namely, the result of research could be applied to the public. Therefore this project is integrated to “oriented basic research.” 
    Relation: 科技部
    Data Type: report
    Appears in Collections:[Department of Philosophy ] NSC Projects

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