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    Title: 從美國國會外交分權探討台灣旅行法
    Legislative Diplomacy of the United States: A Case Study of the Taiwan Travel Act
    Authors: 孫鵬翔
    Sun, Peng-Hsiang
    Contributors: 黃奎博
    Huang, Kwei-Bo
    孫鵬翔
    Sun, Peng-Hsiang
    Keywords: 台灣旅行法
    美國國會外交分權
    台灣連線
    非官方關係
    高層互訪
    Taiwan Travel Act
    Legislative Diplomacy
    The Congressional Taiwan Caucus
    The U.S.-Taiwan unofficial relations
    High-level official visits
    Date: 2020
    Issue Date: 2020-03-02 11:29:48 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 2018年春季,美國總統Donald Trump簽署《台灣旅行法》(Taiwan Travel Act),宣告該法生效,該法的通過解禁美台之間的高官互訪,過去美台高官互訪的限制是美方因中共政府的壓力而自我設限,因此台旅法的通過也反映了美國政府對中政策的細微改變。
    本篇論文透過探討美國憲法賦予美國國會的外交分權,透過宏觀與微觀層次來檢視台灣旅行法通過之脈絡,同時分析國會外交分權對美、台非官方關係的影響,本文共分五章,第一章緒論初步討論美國國會的外交分權,將美國國會外交分權分為立法行為與非立法行為,非立法行為下又再細分為美國國會的機構行為與國會議員個人的代表行為,在後續的章節以此框架歸納美國國會的外交分權各種國會外交行為對美台關係的影響。第二章則採宏觀的方式分別探討George W. Bush政府與Barack Obama政府下,美台關係16年內的進程,並在每一任總統的任期內,討論該屆國會對美台關係之影響,同時分析府會之間合作抑或是制衡的關係。
    論文的後半部分別討論《台灣旅行法》以及美國國會內的台灣連線,台灣旅行法是立法行為的展現,立法行為改變現狀不易,所以包羅眾多項目的法案或者造成重大現狀改變的法案皆不易通過,美國國會議員會採以技術性的方式增加立法成功的機率,包含將大型法案切割為小型法案,如台灣旅行法,而這種以《台灣關係法》(Taiwan Relation Act)為框架並透過小型立法補充的模式逐漸變成友台法案的立法模式。透過外交分權中的議員個人代表行為探討,台灣連線議員可以透過參訪台灣、連署信件向行政部門施壓、議場中辯論宣揚台灣的重要性、媒體運用以及傳承、散播友台精神予新任議員等方式加強台灣與美國的關係。
    Abstract
    In spring of 2018, the President of the United States, Donald Trump, signed a bill lifting the self-imposed restrictions on the visits of high-level officials between the United States and Taiwan (ROC) – the Taiwan Travel Act (TTA). Meanwhile, the enactment of the TTA also means the policy of the United States toward China has changed slightly.
    This thesis focuses on both the international level and congressional behavior, the latter known as legislative diplomacy. Then, this thesis, containing five chapters, digs into the TTA and U.S.-Taiwan relations by this two-level approach. The first chapter deals with Congressional behavior including legislative behavior such as bill enactment and non-legislative behavior such as institutional behavior and Congressmen’s personal behavior. The second chapter explores the history of U.S.-Taiwan relations, and evaluates in general the interaction, conflict, and cooperation between the U.S. legislative branch and the administrative departments from 2001 to 2016.
    The rest of the thesis concentrates on the enactment process of the TTA and the Congressional Taiwan Caucus (CTC). For enactment, it’s difficult to change a political status quo, so the bill containing several subjects will be separated into several smaller bills. Smaller bills like TTA are easier to pass. This bill enactment pattern usually adds new rules or clarifies the ambiguous ones under Taiwan Relation Act. Then, this thesis analyzes the driving forces making these Congress members decide to help Taiwan: the CTC assists Taiwan in promoting U.S.-Taiwan relations by introducing these bills, collecting petition letters to U.S. president, debating over the contents, using social media to pressure the U.S. government, and overspelling the idea of promoting Taiwan’s international status to other Congressional members.
    Reference: 參考文獻
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    陳唐山,「陳唐山專文:那一年,我們共同追求的─台灣獨立」,風傳媒,
    <https://www.storm.mg/article/187012> (2016/11/9)。
    楊明,「學者擔心“台灣旅行法”或令台灣招致更多打壓」,美國之音,
    <https://www.voacantonese.com/a/Taiwan-Travel-Act-Impacts-On-US-China-Relation-20180318/4305026.html> (2018年3月19日)。
    楊明娟,「美議員獻上國慶祝賀 讚台灣挺身護自由抗中國」,中央廣播電
    台,<https://www.rti.org.tw/news/view/id/2037497> (2019/10/11)。
    賴昭穎,「台灣關係法40年/幕後遊說 僑學商界齊出力促成」,聯合新聞
    網,<https://udn.com/news/story/12950/3743025> (2019/4/8)。
    賴昭穎,「台灣關係法40年/拉攏美國會 小蔣接見訪團 商界6壯士遊
    說」,聯合新聞網,https://udn.com/news/story/11311/3742485 (2019/4/8)。
    謝佳興,「黃之瀚讚台為印太民主典範 美對台支持不變」,中央廣播電台,
    <https://www.rti.org.tw/news/view/id/401533> (2018/3/21)。
    顏振凱,「接見美國務院副助卿孫曉雅 蔡英文:台灣願全力與美國及其他
    理念相近國家加強合作」,風傳媒,<https://www.storm.mg/article/1808437> (2019/10/9)
    嚴震生,「嚴震生觀點:美國內部政治角力與友台議員的連任挑戰」,風傳
    媒,<https://www.storm.mg/article/1155158> (2019/4/11)。

    五、 中國大陸媒體資源

    「“台湾旅行法”违反美国条约义务」,環球時報,
    <https://go.huanqiu.com/article/9CaKrnK72pY> (2018/3/23)。
    「社评:美众院“台湾旅行法”是“摧毁台湾法”」,環球時報,
    <https://opinion.huanqiu.com/article/9CaKrnK6iJ2> (2018/1/10)。
    「国防部回应美签“台湾旅行法”:中国军队有足够能力维护国家主权和
    领土完整」,新華網,<http://www.xinhuanet.com/tw/2018-03/30/c_129841367.htm> (2018/3/30)。

    英文部分
    一、 政府官方文件

    (一) 美國官方文獻
    “About Steve,” Steve Chabot for Congress, Accessed November 24, 2019,
    https://stevechabot.com/about-steve/.
    “All actions”, U.S. Congress Official Website. https://www.congress.gov/bill/115th-congress/house-bill/535/all-actions/.
    “Foreign Policy and Trade,” Congressman Steve Chabot 1st District of Ohio,
    Accessed November 24, 2019, https://chabot.house.gov/issues/issue/?IssueID=112200.
    “Menendez Urges President Obama to Expedite Sale of Military Aircraft to
    Taiwan,” U.S. Senator Bob Menendez of New Jersey, https://www.menendez.senate.gov/news-and-events/press/menendez-urges-president-obama-to-expedite-sale-of-military-aircraft-to-taiwan (May 27, 2011).
    “Obama Administration Refuses To Reaffirm That ‘Six Assurances’ Is Still U.S.
    Policy On Taiwan,” U.S. Senator for Florida, Marco Rubio, Accessed September 19, 2019, https://www.rubio.senate.gov/public/index.cfm/2014/4/obama-administration-refuses-to-reaffirm-that-six-assurances-is-still-u-s-policy-on-taiwan?fbclid=IwAR0v_WtRN9sy46_CDMRMnHcfveN0vmc-dkFjcid70jrujI5HJWyw2Cp2CYw (April 03, 2014).
    “Quick Search,” Congress.gov, Accessed November 28, 2019,
    https://www.congress.gov/quick-search/legislation?wordsPhrases=Taiwan&wordVariants=on&congresses[]=116&legislationNumbers=&legislativeAction=&sponsor=on&representative=&senator=&searchResultViewType=compact.
    “Quick Search.” Congress.gov. Accessed September 14, 2019.
    https://www.congress.gov/quick-search/legislation?wordsPhrases=Taiwan&wordVariants=on&congresses[]=108&legislationNumbers=&legislativeAction=&sponsor=on&representative=&senator=&searchResultViewType=compact.
    “Quick Search.” Congress.gov. Accessed September 14, 2019.
    https://www.congress.gov/quick-search/legislation?wordsPhrases=Taiwan&wordVariants=on&congresses[]=109&legislationNumbers=&legislativeAction=&sponsor=on&representative=&senator=&searchResultViewType=compact.
    “Quick Search.” Congress.gov. Accessed September 14, 2019.
    https://www.congress.gov/quick-search/legislation?wordsPhrases=Taiwan&wordVariants=on&congresses[]=110&legislationNumbers=&legislativeAction=&sponsor=on&representative=&senator=&searchResultViewType=compact.
    “Quick Search.” Congress.gov. Accessed September 19, 2019.
    https://www.congress.gov/quick-search/legislation?wordsPhrases=Taiwan&wordVariants=on&congresses[]=114&legislationNumbers=&legislativeAction=&sponsor=on&representative=&senator=&searchResultViewType=compact.
    “Quick Search.” Congress.gov. Accessed September 12, 2019,
    https://www.congress.gov/quick-search/legislation?wordsPhrases=Taiwan &wordVariants=on&congresses[]=107&legislationNumbers=&legislativeAction=&sponsor=on&representative=&senator=&searchResultViewType=compact.
    “Remarks of President Barack Obama -- Address to Joint Session of Congress.”
    National Archives and Records Administration. National Archives and Records Administration. Accessed September 16, 2019. https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/remarks-president-barack-obama-address-joint-session-congress (February 24, 2009).
    Asia Reassurance Initiative Act of 2018, S 2736, 115th Congress, 2nd sess., Congressional Record 164 (December 22, 2018), H10137.
    Bradley James Sherman, speaking on H58,115th Cong., 2st sess., Congressional
    Record V.164 No.5(January 9, 2018): H58.
    Chabot, Steve, “ARTICLES: Taiwan News: House Resolution Aims to Clarify
    US One China Policy, Deny Beijing's Claim over Taiwan,” Congressman Steve Chabot 1st District of Ohio, Accessed November 24, 2019, <https://chabot.house.gov/news/documentsingle.aspx?DocumentID=398870&fbclid=IwAR2rpXtawM_2ZO6UTzRzz48ABH-nuNmgNQuEIiZcSOLB41nM31RMj3IK7Fc>.
    Chabot, Steve, “Opinion Pieces: Chabot in The Diplomat: Time for a US Pivot
    on Taiwan Policy,” Congressman Steve Chabot 1st District of Ohio, Accessed November 24, 2019, https://chabot.house.gov/news/documentsingle.aspx?DocumentID=398687&fbclid=IwAR31C5PhGpKQIhl6esbidzg7V-E54OsRvdTzQpbzYSqj8Cg0X7iYecVXHCs.
    Chabot, Steve, “Opinion Pieces,” Congressman Steve Chabot 1st District of
    Ohio, Accessed November 24, 2019, https://chabot.house.gov/news/documentsingle.aspx?DocumentID=398871.
    Chabot, Steve, “Press Releases - Chabot’s Taiwan Travel Act Becomes Law,”
    Congressman Steve Chabot 1st District of Ohio, Accessed November 24, 2019, https://chabot.house.gov/news/documentsingle.aspx?DocumentID=398789.
    Chabot, Steve, “Press Releases-Rep. Steve Chabot Condemns Chinese
    Aggression Against Taiwan.” Congressman Steve Chabot 1st District of Ohio, Accessed November 24, 2019, https://chabot.house.gov/news/documentsingle.aspx?DocumentID=398694&fbclid=IwAR2JPY5CUiOPRZbtI2lqKyYyzCAaJwWpfCIyENPGGMLib2KW_TyXMm-T0rw.
    Chabot, Steve, speaking on H58,115th Cong., 2st sess., Congressional Record
    V.164 No.5 (January 9, 2018): H58.
    Concerning the participation of Taiwan in the World Health Organization, HR
    428, 107th Congress, 1st sess., Congressional Record, (April 24, 2001): H
    1503.
    Directing the Secretary of State to Develop a Strategy to Regain Observer Status
    for Taiwan in the World Health Organization, HR 3320, 115th Congress, 2nd sess., Congressional Record 164(January 9, 2018), H60.
    Ed Royce, speaking on H57,115th Cong., 2st sess., Congressional Record V.164
    No.5(January 9, 2018): H57.
    Expressing the sense of the Congress welcoming President Chen Shui-bian
    of Taiwan to the United States, H.Con.Res.135, 107th Congress, 1st sess.,
    Congressional Record, (May 17, 2001): H 2313.
    Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, speaking on H58,115th Cong., 2st sess., Congressional
    Record V.164 No.5 (January 9, 2018): H58.
    Kelly, James A., “Overview of Us policy over Taiwan”, U.S. Department of
    State, https://2001-2009.state.gov/p/eap/rls/rm/2004/31649.htm (April 24, 2004).
    Rep. Bentivolio, speaking on Extension of Remarks, on October 8th, 2013, 113rd
    cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record Vol.159, Pt. 11, E1461.
    Rep. Bradley Sherman, speaking on S 2426, on March 14, 2016, 114th Congress,
    2nd sess., Congressional Record 162 No.14, H1317-1320.
    Rep. Chris Smith, speaking on S 2426, on March 14, 2016, 114th Congress, 2nd
    sess., Congressional Record 162 No.14, H1317-1320.
    Rep. Lincoln Diaz-Balart, speaking on H Con Res 55, on March 24, 2009, 111th
    Congress, 1st sess., Congressional Record (March 24,2009), https://www.congress.gov/111/crec/2009/03/24/CREC-2009-03-24-pt1-PgH3777.pdf, H3778.
    Rep. Ros-Lehtinen, speaking on Extension of Remarks, on October 8th, 2013,
    113rd cong., 1st sess., Congressional Record Vol.159, Pt. 11, E1455.
    Sense of Congress Regarding High Level Visits by Officials Of Taiwan, H Res
    136, 110th Congress, 1st sess., Congressional Record 153(July 30, 2007): H 8868-8870.
    Taiwan Travel Act, HR 535, 115th Cong., 2st sess., Congressional Record
    V.164 No.5(January 9, 2018): H57.
    U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission, 2016
    Annual Report to Congress: Chapter 4 China and the U.S. Rebalance to Asia, 2016, https://www.uscc.gov/sites/default/files/annual_reports/2016%20Annual%20Report%20to%20Congress.pdf.
    U.S. Congress, House, Bob Stump National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal
    Year 2003, H.R.4546, 107th Cong., 2nd sess., Introduced in House April 23, 2002, https://www.congress.gov/107/plaws/publ314/PLAW-107publ314.pdf.
    U.S. Congress, House, Committee of Foreign Affairs, The Promise of Taiwan
    Relations Act: Hearings before the Committee of Foreign Affairs, 113th Cong., 2nd sess., 2014.
    U.S. Congress, House, Expressing the sense of Congress regarding high level
    visits to the United States by democratically elected officials of Taiwan, H Res. 381, 109th
    Cong., 2nd sess., introduced in House April 6, 2006, https://www.congress.gov/109/bills/hconres381/BILLS-109hconres381ih.pdf.
    U.S. Congress, House, Expressing the sense of Congress regarding the freedom,
    security, and stability of Taiwan, H Con Res 39, 112th Cong., 1st sess., Introduced in House April 13, 2011, https://www.congress.gov/112/bills/hconres39/BILLS-112hconres39ih.pdf.
    U.S. Congress, House, Expressing the sense of Congress that Taiwan should be
    accorded observer status in the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), H Con Res 266, 111th Cong., 2nd sess., Introduced in House April 21, 2010, https://www.congress.gov/111/bills/hconres266/BILLS-111hconres266rfs.pdf.
    U.S. Congress, House, Kenneth M. Ludden Foreign Operations, Export
    Financing and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2002, HR 2506, 107th Cong., 1st sess., Introduced in House July 17, 2001, https://www.congress.gov/107/plaws/publ115/PLAW-107publ115.pdf.
    U.S. Congress, House, National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013,
    HR 4310, 112th Cong., 2nd sess., Introduced in House March 29, 2012, https://www.congress.gov/112/plaws/publ239/PLAW-112publ239.pdf.
    U.S. Congress, House, Recognizing the 30th anniversary of the Taiwan Relations
    Act, H Con Res 55, 111th Cong., 1st sess., Introduced in HouseFebruary 23, 2009, https://www.congress.gov/111/bills/hconres55/BILLS-111hconres55rfs.pdf.
    U.S. Congress, House, Taiwan Allies International Protection and Enhancement
    Initiative (TAIPEI) Act of 2019, HR 4754, 116th Congress, 1st sess., introduced in House October 19, 2019, https://www.congress.gov/116/bills/hr4754/BILLS-116hr4754ih.pdf.
    U.S. Congress, Senate, Taiwan Assurance Act of 2019, S 878, 116th Congress,
    1st sess., introduced in Senate March 26, 2019, https://www.congress.gov/116/bills/s878/BILLS-116s878is.pdf.
    U.S. Congress, House, Taiwan Travel Act, HR 6047, 114th
    Cong., 2nd sess., introduced in House September 15, 2016, https://www.congress.gov/114/bills/hr6047/BILLS-114hr6047ih.pdf.
    U.S. Congress, House, Taiwan Policy Act of 2013, HR 419, 113th congress, 1st
    sess., Introduced in House January 25th, 2013, https://www.congress.gov/113/bills/hr419/BILLS-113hr419ih.pdf.
    U.S. Congress, House, Taiwan Travel Act, H Res. 185, 113th
    Cong., 1st sess., introduced in House April 26, 2013, https://www.congress.gov/113/bills/hres185/BILLS-113hres185ih.pdf.
    U.S. Congress, House, Taiwan Travel Act, HR 535, 115th
    Cong., 1st sess., introduced in House January 13, 2017, https://www.congress.gov/115/plaws/publ135/PLAW-115publ135.pdf.
    U.S. Congress, Senate, A resolution supporting increased market access for
    exports of United States beef and beef products, S Res 544, 111th
    Cong., 2nd sess., Introduced in Senate May 27, 2010, https://www.congress.gov/111/bills/sres544/BILLS-111sres544ats.pdf.
    U.S. Congress, Senate, A resolution to express the sense of the Senate concerning
    U.S. relations with Taiwan, S Res 270, 103rd Congress, 2nd sess., introduced in Senate September 28th ,1994, https://www.congress.gov/103/bills/sres270/BILLS-103sres270ats.pdf.
    U.S. Congress, Senate, National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2002,
    S 1438, 107th Cong., 1st sess., introduced in Senate September 19, 2001, https://www.congress.gov/107/plaws/publ107/PLAW-107publ107.pdf.
    U.S. Congress, Senate, Security Cooperation Act of 2010, S 3847, 111th
    Cong., 2nd sess., introduced in Senate September 27, 2010, https://www.congress.gov/111/plaws/publ266/PLAW-111publ266.pdf.
    U.S. Congress, Senate, Taiwan Travel Act, S 3397, 114th
    Cong., 2nd sess., introduced in House September 27, 2016, https://www.congress.gov/114/bills/s3397/BILLS-114s3397is.pdf.
    U.S. Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service, Taiwan: Major U.S.
    Arms Sales Since 1990, by Shirley A. Kan, RL30957 (2012).
    U.S. Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service, U.S.-Taiwan
    Relationship: Overview of Policy Issues, by Shirley A. Kan and Wayne Morrison, R41952 (2014).
    U.S. Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service, U.S.-Taiwan
    Relationship: Overview of Policy Issues, by Susan V. Lawrence and Wayne Morrison, R44996 (2017).
    White House, The Office of the Press Secretary, “U.S.-China Joint Statement,
    2009,” (November 17, 2009),
    https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/realitycheck/the-press-office/us-china-joint-statement.
    The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, “U.S.-China Joint Statement,
    2011,” (January 19, 2011),
    https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2011/01/19/us-china-joint-statement.

    (二) 中國大陸官方文獻
    “Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Hua Chunying's Regular Press Conference on
    March 21, 2018”, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic
    of China. <http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/xwfw_66539
    9/s2510_665401/t1544122.shtml>, (March 21, 2018).
    “Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Lu Kang's Remarks”. Ministry of Foreign
    Affairs of the People's Republic of China. <http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/
    mfa_eng/xwfw_665399/ s2510_665401/t1543137.shtml>. (March 17,
    2018).
    “Remarks by the Spokesperson of the Chinese Embassy in the United States
    regarding the &quot;Taiwan Travel Act&quot;”. Embassy of the People's Republic of
    China in the United States of America. < http://www.china-embassy.org/eng/zmgxss/t1543100.htm>. (March 17, 2018).

    二、 專書與專書章節

    Beeson, Mark, Bush and Asia: Americas Evolving Relations with East Asia
    (Abingdon: Routledge, 2007).
    Copper, John F., ’’Will the United States Desert Taiwan?” in Wang Gungwu and
    Zheng Yongnian (eds.), China: Development and Governance (Singapore: World Scientific, 2013), 477-482.
    Edward, III, George C., The strategic president: Persuasion and opportunity in presidential leadership (Princeton, NJ:Princeton University Press, 2009).
    Haas, Richard, A World in Disarray: American Foreign Policy and the Crisis of the Old Order (New York: Penguin Books, 2018).
    Lindsay, James M., “The shifting pendulum of power: Executive-legislative relations on American foreign policy.” The Domestic Sources of American Foreign Policy: Insights and Evidence (Lanham:Rowman&Littlefield, 2012), 199-211.
    Lynch, Timothy J., and Robert Singh, After Bush: the Case for Continuity in
    American Foreign Policy (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2008).
    Mann, James, The China Fantasy: Why Capitalism Will Not Bring Democracy to China (Penguin, 2007).
    McCormick, James M., American foreign policy and process (Belmont: Thomson Wadsworth, 2005).
    Murray, Shoon Kathleen and Christopher Spinosa, “Shift in Public Opinion: How Long It Last,” The Domestic Sources of American Foreign Policy: Insights and Evidence, 4th Edition (Rowman & Littlefield, 2004), 97-116.
    Neustadt, Richard E., Presidential Power: The Politics of Leadership, 2d ed. (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1976).
    Sutter, Robert G., United States and Asia: Regional Dynamics and Twenty-
    First-Century Relations (S.l.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2019).
    Tucker, Nancy Bernkopf, Strait Talk: United States-Taiwan Relations and the Crisis with China (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011).
    Tunsjø, Øystein, US Taiwan Policy: Constructing the Triangle (London:
    Routledge, 2015).
    Wittkopf, Eugene R, and James M McCormick. The Domestic Sources of American Foreign Policy: Insights and Evidence (Rowman & Littlefield, 2008).

    三、 期刊論文

    Abrams, Elliott, &quot;Trump the Traditionalist: A Surprisingly Standard Foreign Policy,&quot; Foreign Affairs 96, no. 4 (2017): 10-16.
    Bacharach, Samuel B, and Michael Aiken. &quot;Communication in Administrative Bureaucracies.&quot; Academy of Management Journal 20, no. 3 (1977): 365-377.
    Blackwell, Jeff. &quot;&quot; The China Lobby&quot;: Influences on Us-China Foreign Policy in the Post War Period, 1949-1954.&quot; Paper presented at the The Forum: Journal of History 2, no. 1 (2010): 43-58.
    Bouchet, Nicolas, “The Democracy Tradition in US Foreign Policy and the
    Obama Presidency,” International Affairs 89, no.1 (2013): 31-35.
    Brown, David G, and Kevin Scott. &quot;Taiwan Caught between Us and China.&quot; Comparative Connections: A Triannual E-Journal on East Asian Bilateral Relations 20, no. 1 (2018): 61-70.
    Bush, Richard C., &quot;A One-China Policy Primer,&quot; East Asia Policy Paper 10, (2017): 1-25.
    Campbell, Kurt M., and Ely Ratner, “The China Reckoning: How Beijing Defied American Expectations,” Foreign Affairs 97, no.2 (2018): 60-70.
    Carter, Ralph G, James M Scott, and Charles M Rowling. &quot;Setting a Course: Congressional Foreign Policy Entrepreneurs in Post‐World War Ii Us Foreign Policy.&quot; International Studies Perspectives 5, no. 3 (2004): 278-299.
    Christensen, Thomas J., &quot;Obama and Asia,&quot; Foreign Affairs 94, no. 5 (2015): 29-36.
    Glaser, Charles L., “A US-China grand bargain? The hard choice between military competition and accommodation”, International Security 39, no. 4 (2015): 49-90.
    Glaser, Charles L., “Will China's rise lead to war? Why realism does not mean pessimism”, Foreign Affairs 90, no. 2 (2011): 80-91.
    Goldstein, Steven M. and Randall Schriver, &quot;An Uncertain Relationship: The United States, Taiwan and the Taiwan Relations Act&quot;, The China Quarterly 165 (2001): 147-172.
    Hammond, Susan Webb, Daniel P Mulhollan, and Arthur G Stevens Jr. &quot;Informal Congressional Caucuses and Agenda Setting.&quot; Western Political Quarterly 38, no. 4 (1985): 583-605.
    Herington, Jonathan and Kelley Lee, &quot;The Limits of Global Health Diplomacy: Taiwans Observer Status at the World Health Assembly&quot;, Globalization and Health, 10, no. 1 (2014): 1-9.
    Hickey, Dennis V., “Dilemmas for US Strategy: Imbalance in the Taiwan Strait,”
    Parameters 43, no.3, (2013): 43-53.
    Indyk, Martin S., Kenneth G. Lieberthal, & Michael E. O'Hanlon, “Scoring Obama's foreign policy: A progressive pragmatist tries to bend history.” Foreign Affairs 91, no. 3 (2012): 29-43.
    Kastner, Scott L, and Douglas B Grob. &quot;Legislative Foundations of Us–Taiwan Relations: A New Look at the Congressional Taiwan Caucus.&quot; Foreign Policy Analysis 5, no. 1 (2009): 57-72.
    Kausikan, Bilahari. &quot;Asia in the Trump Era: From Pivot to Peril.&quot; Foreign Affairs 96, no.3 (2017): 146-153.
    Lindsay, James M., “Congress and foreign policy: Why the Hill matters”, Political Science Quarterly 107, no. 4 (1992): 607-628.
    Lobell, Steven E., “Engaging the Enemy and the Lessons for the Obama Administration.” Political Science Quarterly 128, no. 2 (2013): 261-287.
    McCormick, James M, and Neil J Mitchell. &quot;Commitments, Transnational Interests, and Congress: Who Joins the Congressional Human Rights Caucus?&quot;. Political Research Quarterly 60, no. 4 (2007): 579-592.
    Mixon, Franklin G, and Rand W Ressler. &quot;Loyal Political Cartels and Committee Assignments in Congress: Evidence from the Congressional Black Caucus.&quot; Public Choice 108, no. 3-4 (2001): 313-330.
    Nelson, Michael, “George W. Bush and Congress: The Electoral Connection.” Perspectives on Political Science 32, no.3.(2003): 157-163.
    Ornstein, Norman and John Fortier, “Relations with congress,” PS: Political
    Science & Politics 35, no. 1 (March, 2002): 47-50.
    Posen, Barry R. and Andrew L. Ross, &quot;Competing Visions for U.S. Grand Strategy”, International Security 21, no. 3 (1996): 5-53.
    Ren, Yue, &quot;China's Dilemma in Cross-Strait Crisis Management,&quot; Asian Affairs: An American Review 24, no. 3 (1997): 131-151.
    Scharpf, Fritz W., &quot;Institutions in Comparative Policy Research,&quot; Comparative political studies 33, no. 6-7 (2000): 762-790.
    Scoville, Ryan M., “Legislative Diplomacy,” Michigan Law Review 112, no. 3 (December 2013): 331-396.
    Tucker, Nancy B. & Bonnie Glaser, “Should the United States Abandon
    Taiwan?” The Washington Quarterly 34 no.4 (2011): 23-37 .
    Wu, Joshua Su-Ya. &quot;Economics, Lobbying, and Us Congressional Support for
    Taiwan: Buying American Support, 2002––2006.&quot; Asian Survey 49, no. 2 (2009): 380-402.

    四、 報刊雜誌

    &quot;Obama Warns Trump over Taiwan Ties&quot;, Taipei Times, Accessed June 13, 2018, <http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/front/archives/2016/12/18/2003661432/>.
    “Our view on Congress wrapping up: 109th Congress' big success: Lowering the
    achievement bar,” USA TODAY, December 11, 2006, https://web.archive.org/web/20071021180254/http://blogs.usatoday.com/oped/2006/12/post_22.html (April 10, 2019).
    Broder, John, “Taiwan Lobbying in U.S. Gets Results,” Los Angeles Times,
    <https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-1996-11-04-mn-61220-s tory.html> (November 4, 1996)
    Chabot, Steve. “Rep. Steve Chabot: Xi Jinping's Communist Cronies Can't
    Control Taiwan's Future.” Washington Examiner, January 11, 2019. https://www.washingtonexaminer.com/opinion/op-eds/rep-steve-chabot-xi-jinpings-communist-cronies-cant-control-taiwans-future.
    Chang, Parris H., and International Herald Tribune, “The Taiwan Lobby Is
    Different.” The New York Times, https://www.nytimes.com/1997/04/01/opinion/IHT-the-taiwan-lobby-is-different.html (April 1, 1997).
    Connolly, Kevin. “Israel US: Republican Invite to Netanyahu Riles Obama.” BBC
    News, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-31639376 (February 26, 2015).
    Davidson, Janine, Lauren Dickey, James Jay Carafano, Frank Wisner, Nelson
    Cunningham, Reza Ansari, and Dalibor Rohac. &quot;Fact: America's Rebalance to Asia Has Some Serious Military Muscle.&quot; The National Interest. Accessed June 12, 2018. <http://nationalinterest.org/blog/the-buzz/fact-americas-rebalance-asia-has-some-serious-military-12652/>.
    DeAeth, Duncan, “President Trump signs the Taiwan Travel Act,” Taiwan News,
    https://www.taiwannews.com.tw/en/news/3384275 (March 17, 2018).
    DeAeth, Duncan. “US House Hearing Signals Commitment to 'R...” Taiwan
    News, https://www.taiwannews.com.tw/en/news/3408308 (April 18, 2018).
    Harrell, Peter E., “Trump's Use of Sanctions Is Nothing Like Obama's.” Foreign
    Policy, https://foreignpolicy.com/2019/10/05/Trump-sanctions-iran- venezuela-russia-north-korea-different-Obamas/ (October 5, 2019).
    Hirsh, Michael, “Trump's Economic Iron Curtain Against China.” Foreign
    Policy, https://foreignpolicy.com/2019/08/23/Trumps-economic-iron-curtain-against-china-hawk-peter-navarro-american-factory-Obama/(August 23, 2019).
    Gearan, Anne, “Trump Speaks with Taiwanese President, a Major Break with
    Decades of U.S. Policy on China,” The Washington Post, https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/trump-spoke-with-taiwanese-president-a-major-break-with-decades-of-us-policy-on-china/2016/12/02/b98d3a22-b8ca-11e6-959c-172c82123976_story.html (December 3, 2016).
    Landler, Mark and Michael Forsythe, “Trump Tells Xi Jinping U.S. Will Honor
    'One China' Policy.” The New York Times, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/02/09/world/asia/donald-trump-china-xi-jinping-letter.html (February 9, 2017).
    Nagourney , Adam, and Megan Thee, “With Election Driven by Iraq, Voters Want
    New Approach,” The New York Times, https://www.nytimes.com/2006/11/02/us/politics/02poll.html (November 2, 2006).
    Rogin, Josh, &quot;Opinion | China Threatens U.S. Congress for Crossing Its 'red Line' on Taiwan,&quot; The Washington Post, Accessed July 04, 2018, <https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/josh-rogin/wp/2017/10/12/china-threatens-u-s-congress-for-crossing-its-red-line-on-taiwan/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.78d8d233899f> (October 12, 2017).
    Rogin, Josh, “Xi Visit Marks Downturn in U.S.-China Relations,” Bloomberg, https://www.bloomberg.com/opinion/articles/2015-09-21/xi-jingping-visit-marks-downturn-in-u-s-china-relations (September 21, 2015).
    Smith, Paul, Henry Sokolski, Christopher Whalen, and Bilal Y. Saab, &quot;How the Taiwan Travel Act Could Start a U.S.-China War&quot;, The National Interest, Accessed June 14, 2018, <http://nationalinterest.org/blog/the-buzz/how-the-taiwan-travel-act-could-start-us-china-war-25131?page=3/>.
    Terkel, Amanda, “112th Congress To Make History As Most Unproductive Since
    1940s,” HuffPost, https://www.huffpost.com/entry/congress-
    unproductive_n_2371387 (December 28, 2012).
    Wang, Helen H., &quot;America's Smart Congagement In Asia Pacific&quot;, Forbes, Accessed June 12, 2018, <https://www.forbes.com/sites/helenwang/2016/04/29/americas-smart-congagement-in-asia-pacific/> (August 08, 2016).
    Wong, Edward, “Arms Sales to Taiwan Will Proceed, U.S. Says,”
    The New York Times, https://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/16/world/asia/16taiwan.html (December 15, 2009).

    五、 研究機構

    “Former Congresswoman Ileana Ros-Lehtinen Talks Trade,” Center for
    Strategic and International Studies, <https://www.csis.org/analysis/former-congresswoman-ileana-ros-lehtinen-talks-trade> (January 24, 2019).
    “U.S. Military Support for Taiwan: What's Changed Under Trump?” Council on
    Foreign Relations. Council on Foreign Relations. Accessed September 26, 2019. https://www.cfr.org/article/us-military-support-taiwan-whats-changed-under-trump.
    Bader, Jeffrey A., “Obama's China and Asia Policy: A Solid Double,” Brookings,
    https://www.brookings.edu/blog/order-from-chaos/2016/08/29/obamas-
    china-and-asia-policy-a-solid-double/(2016/9/14).
    Bader, Jeffrey A., “Trump, Taiwan, and a break in a long tradition,” Brookings, <
    https://www.brookings.edu/blog/order-from-chaos/2016/12/03/Trump-taiwan-and-a-break-in-a-long-tradition/> (Dec 3, 2016).
    Bush, Richard, “A One-China policy primer,” Brookings: East Asia Policy
    Paper, https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/one-china- policy-primer-web-final.pdf (2017).
    Chase, Michael S., “Averting a Cross-Strait Crisis,” Council on Foreign
    Relations, Accessed November 23, 2019, https://www.cfr.org/report/averting-cross-strait-crisis (February 26, 2019).
    Diamond, Larry and Orville Schell, “China's Influence & American Interests:
    Promoting Constructive Vigilance,” Hoover Institute, <https://www.hoover.org/sites/default/files/research/docs/08_diamond-schell-chinas-influence-and-american-interests_chapter-one-_congress.pdf> (November 29, 2018).
    Galston, William A., “President Barack Obama's First Two Years: Policy
    Accomplishments, Political Difficulties,” Brookings, https://www.brookings.edu/research/president-barack-obamas-first-two-years-policy-accomplishments-political-difficulties/ (May 10, 2017).
    Hass, Ryan, “In U.S.-Taiwan Relations, Taiwan Should Focus on Building Its
    Competitiveness,” Brookings, https://www.brookings.edu/opinions/in-u-s-taiwan-relations-taiwan-should-focus-on-building-its-competitiveness/ (February 27, 2018).
    Silver, Laura, Kat Devlin, and Christine Huang, “People around the Globe Are
    Divided in Their Opinions of China,” Pew Research Center, https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2019/09/30/people-around-the-globe-are-divided-in-their-opinions-of-china/ (September 30, 2019).
    Shattuck, Thomas J., &quot; The Taiwan Travel Act: Only as Important as Trump
    Makes It&quot;, Foreign Policy Research Institute, Accessed July 04, 2018, < https://www.fpri.org/article/2018/03/the-taiwan-travel-act-only-important-as-trump-makes-it/ > (March 19, 2018).

    六、 網路資源

    “A Review of the 2015–2016 Congress, the Last Congress of the Obama
    Administration.” Medium. GovTrack Insider, https://govtrackinsider.com/a-review-of-the-2015-2016-congress-the-last-congress-of-the-obama-administration-9168e5f12bcf (January 23, 2017).
    “Ileana Ros-Lehtinen on Foreign Policy”, OnTheIssues.org, Accessed October 22, 2019, <https://www.ontheissues.org/FL/Ileana_Ros-Lehtinen_Foreign_Policy.htm>.
    “U.S. Congressman Ed Royce Lauds Taiwan's Democracy Prior to Visit: Politics:
    FOCUS TAIWAN - CNA ENGLISH NEWS,” FOCUS TAIWAN, Accessed November 24, 2019, <http://focustaiwan.tw/news/aipl/201803260012.aspx>.
    Chiang, Chin-yeh and Yu-chen, Chung, “Pompeo, U.S. Lawmakers Voice
    Support for Taiwan on TRA Anniversary,” FOCUS TAIWAN, Accessed November 26, 2019, http://focustaiwan.tw/news/aipl/201904110007.aspx (2019/4/11).
    Chiang, Ching-yeh and Frances Huang,“U.S. Lawmakers Urge WHO to Invite
    Taiwan for WHA,” FOCUS TAIWAN, http://focustaiwan.tw/news/aipl/201905180004.aspx (2019/5/18).
    Fact Sheets, TPP, U.S. & Vietnam. &quot;Fact Sheet: U.S.-Vietnam Comprehensive Partnership.&quot; U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Vietnam. July 14, 2016. Accessed June 12, 2018. <https://vn.usembassy.gov/20131216factsheet-us-vietnam-comprehensive-partnership/>.
    House Foreign Affairs Committee. &quot;Taiwan Travel Act Becomes Law.&quot; News release, Accessed June 13, 2018. <https://foreignaffairs.house.gov/press-release/taiwan-travel-act-becomes-law/> (March 16, 2018).
    Huder, Josh. “113th Congress: Arguably the Least Democratic in American
    History.” The Government Affairs Institute at Georgetown University, Accessed September 19, 2019. https://gai.georgetown.edu/113th-congress-arguably-the-least-democratic-in-american-history/.
    Rep. Brad Sherman, Twitter post, https://twitter.com/BradSherman/status/1049291206562390019 (October 8, 2018).
    Rep. Steve Chabot, Twitter post,
    https://twitter.com/RepSteveChabot/status/1176554729549291523 (September 24, 2019).
    Sarah Mimms and National Journal, “Congress Has a Caucus for Everything,” Atlantic Media Company, https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2014/04/congress-caucus-for-everything/360894/ (April 30, 2014).
    Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of China (Taiwan), “Tsai Awards US Rep. Ros-Lehtinen State Honor for Strengthening Bilateral Ties,” Taiwan Today, <https://taiwantoday.tw/news.php?unit=2,6,10,15,18&post=132121> (April 3, 2018).
    Senator Bob Menendez, Twitter post, https://twitter.com/senatormenendez/status/1175104381882122240 (September 20, 2019).
    Taiwanese American Organizations Urge Trump To Develop New Taiwan Policy / 台美人組織呼籲川普建立新的台灣政策&quot;, FAPA, Accessed June 13, 2018, <http://fapa.org/wp/2016/12/taiwanese-american-organizations-urge-trump-to-develop-new-taiwan-policy-台美人組織呼籲川普建立新的/> (December 8, 2016).
    Wang, Kent, “Ed Royce, Friend to Taiwan,” TheHill. <https://thehill.com/blogs/congress-blog/foreign-policy/203340-ed-royce-friend-to-taiwan> (February 4, 2016).
    Wilson, Megan R., “Taiwan Lobby Scores Victory with Trump Call,” TheHill, https://thehill.com/business-a-lobbying/business-a-lobbying/309120-taiwan-lobby-scores-victory-with-trump-call (December 7, 2016).
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    外交學系
    105253011
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0105253011
    Data Type: thesis
    DOI: 10.6814/NCCU202000276
    Appears in Collections:[外交學系] 學位論文

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