工業革命後，除了改變了人類生產活動的過程，亦帶動西方國家的社會變遷，工業社會於焉成形。利益團體逐漸萌芽，在西方民主政治數百年的發展中，扮演著重要的角色。原本屬於社會主義國家及一黨專政的蘇聯，國內並無任何利益團體的存在。1991年底解體後，俄羅斯在政治改革方面朝向民主化發展，經濟上則採取快速邁向市場經濟的休克式療法。一時之間俄羅斯國內的利益團體快速發展，然這些利益團體不僅產生的方式不同，其作用與類型亦與西方大異其趣。本文首先要辨明俄羅斯利益團體的類型與性質，而後再就其發展加以比較，藉以了解前蘇聯國家不同類型利益團體的發展，以及其與西方國家利益團體相異之處。 Industrial revolution not only changed the manufacturing processes, but also triggered the social changes in western countries. Throughout the last few hundred years when western democratization took place, the role of interest groups became more and more important. There was no interest group in the Soviet Union, however, due to its political system-Socialism and Communist one party rule. After the Soviet Union collapsed, the political reform in Russia tended to democratization, and the economic reform adopted shock therapy to make a quick transition to capitalist market economy. Accordingly, the development of interest groups was thriving in Russia, but the types and effects of interest groups were different from those of the western countries. First of all, this article tries to discuss the characters, types and developments of Russian interest groups, and then to explore the differences between the Russian interest groups and their counterparts in the western countries.