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A Review of Chinese Indigenous Research on the Self
|Keywords: ||自我; 自我結構; 自我歷程 ; 華人自我四元論; 華人大七性格 ; 無我觀|
big seven factor model of Chinese personality ;four-part theory of the Chinese self ; individual-oriented self ;non-self ; self ; self-process ; self-structure ; social-oriented self
|Issue Date: ||2020-06-22 10:52:48 (UTC+8)|
According to our systematic review of research on the self that has been published in Indigenous Psychological Research in Chinese Societies, the most discussed domains of research relate to self-structure (self as an object) and self-process (self as an agent). The main topics in the self-structure domain are the four-part theory of the Chinese self, and the big seven factor model of Chinese personality. The former indicates that the Chinese self contains four sub-selves: the individual-oriented self, the relationship-oriented self, the familistic (group)-oriented self, and the other-oriented self. In addition, each sub-self has two domains (public and private), and four aspects (actual, ideal, ought, and possible). The whole self-structure consists of these 4 × 2 × 4 dimensions. Most current empirical research on this domain focuses mainly on distinguishing between the individual-oriented self and the social-oriented self (including the relationship-oriented self, the familistic or group-oriented self, and the other-oriented self). In addition, a non-self perspective has been proposed in recent years. It provides a relatively unique approach to understanding the Chinese self-structure. However, the non-self model is currently solely theoretical without related measurements or experimental paradigms. Empirical investigation is needed to examine the validity of its psychological propositions, and then explores its specific psychological mechanism. The traditional big five model (openness, consciousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism) has been challenged in the Chinese cultural context. Full support for this model has not been found in Chinese sample. After a series of studies that applied a more culturally appropriate perspective and research design, researchers proposed the big seven factor model of Chinese personality: competence, industriousness, other-orientedness, agreeableness, extraversion, large-mindedness, and contentedness. It showed better model fit and validity in Chinese societies. The major topics in the domain of self-process are the bicultural composite self, and person-situation interactive self-regulation. Some research has revealed that modern Chinese people develop an integrated self that includes both individual and social orientations. How these individuals behave is contingent on the context. They behave more interdependently in the social-oriented context, and more independently when they encounter an individual-oriented context. The person-situation fit indicates that in Chinese societies, the self is not a fixed or static entity. It is quite flexible and malleable to fit in the demanding of the situation. It has process-based characteristics, and it operates dynamically with agency. That is, as an agent, the goal of the self is frequently to balance the needs of both oneself and others in different contexts. The underlying mechanism of how these different selves are integrated, composited, or balanced still remains unclear. In our review of Chinese indigenous self research, we also noticed that the research methods employed by Chinese indigenous self researchers include qualitative interviews, content analyses, questionnaires, survey investigations, and experimental manipulations. How to combine these different qualitative and quantitative methods to gain an advantage in conducting studies of the Chinese indigenous self also needs to be considered. Finally, we expect the future indigenous research on the Chinese self can go beyond the dual structural perspective of individual and social orientation and explore new issues, such as providing further theoretical elucidation and empirical testing of the construct of selflessness. Moreover, we should pay more attention to the social changes and technological developments of the modern impetuousness on the Chinese self. For instance, the digital interfaces and mobile phones such as ＂i＂ generation effect (iPhone, internet, and I), and population aging in Chinese societies. These changes might have great impacts on the psychological process of the individual, and on the management of the structure and the process characteristics of the contemporary Chinese self. These important issues also need to be addressed in future research.
|Relation: ||本土心理學研究, No.51, pp.3-31|
|Data Type: ||article|
|DOI 連結: ||https://doi.org/10.6254/IPRCS.201906_(51).0001 |
|DOI: ||10.6254/IPRCS.201906_(51).0001 |
|Appears in Collections:||[心理學系] 期刊論文|
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