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    题名: 沙漠教父伊瓦格魯斯之苦修思想中的身體觀
    作者: 崔國瑜
    Tsu, Kuo-Yu
    贡献者: 歷史系
    关键词: 伊瓦格魯斯;早期基督宗教的苦修主義;身體;歧義性
    Evagrius Ponticus;Early Christian Asceticism;Body;Ambivalence
    日期: 2018-12
    上传时间: 2020-06-22 14:31:29 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 本文探討早期基督宗教歷史當中苦修主義代表人物──第四世紀埃及沙漠教父伊瓦格魯斯──之苦修作品,特別是其中所顯示的身體觀。藉由分析伊瓦格魯斯的苦修作品,本文得出伊瓦格魯斯的身體觀透顯了矛盾雙重的歧義性:一方面,伊瓦格魯斯看來自身體方面的挑戰(特別是偏情)阻礙了修行的目的(亦即,祈禱與默觀),「肉性」所指涉的正是受偏情所駕馭的身體,而作為一種身體上與精神上的紀律(例如:禁食,祈禱,守夜……),苦修所要對治的即是「肉性」──帶有負面意義的身體,以消除偏情;並且,與柏拉圖哲學觀一致,伊瓦格魯斯看苦修的終極目標即在於使人逐漸脫離身體與物質世界的影響,使心智專注於祈禱與默觀。另一方面,在伊瓦格魯斯的宇宙觀中,身體的意涵也富有正面意義,根據聖經傳統,身體作為神的創造的一部分,實為美善;再者,伊瓦格魯斯也看身體為人達致救贖之載具,是神為幫助人回歸原初、墮落之前的樣態而受造的──藉著身體,人方能學習克勝偏情,在美德上進展,從而晉升至默觀的境界,獲致神的知識。伊瓦格魯斯呼籲修道士應善待身體的勸言也顯示他並未貶抑身體,他所提倡的苦修乃按希臘思想所追求之「適度節制」的生活理想,不致過於極端。由是觀之,伊瓦格魯斯的身體觀呈現了歧義性,他的苦修思想則深刻地反映出他所攝受的兩股思潮──希臘哲學與基督宗教思想──之影響。
    The present study explores the notion of the body in the ascetic work of Evagrius Ponticus, a key figure of early Christian asceticism, who was also known as a desert father in the fourth century Egypt. A notable ambivalence toward the body is evident in Evagrius’ writing. On the one hand, Evagrius sees the body that is dominated by passions, also referred to by Evagrius as “flesh,” can obstruct the goal of the monk (i.e., prayer and contemplation). Carrying negative bodily connotations, “flesh” is to be dealt with by the bodily and spiritual ascetic disciplines (i.e., fasting, prayer, vigil…etc.) so that passions can be eliminated. Ultimately, based on the Platonic scheme, Evagrius’ ascetic practice is to help the monk detach from the influence of the body and the material world in order that the monk may concentrate on prayer and contemplation. On the other hand, within the context of Evagrius’ cosmology, the body is also construed positively as part of God’s creation according to the biblical tradition. Evagrius also describes the body as an instrument through which a human may work out salvation. That is to say, the body was created by God with the purpose of helping human beings return to the original, unfallen state. It is only through the body that human beings can learn to overcome passions, make progress in establishing virtues, and ultimately advance to the level of contemplation and acquire the knowledge of God. Furthermore, in accordance with the Greek ideal of moderation, Evagrius’ cautions and exhortations to the monks against extreme forms of asceticism disclose a fundamental care for the body. As such, Evagrius’ ascetic thought demonstrates an ambivalence towards the body, which also reflects his double heritages of both Greek philosophy and Christian faith.
    關聯: 臺灣宗教研究, Vol.17, No.2, pp.1-40
    数据类型: article
    显示于类别:[歷史學系] 期刊論文

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