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    Title: 當代越南華人的廣東話保存與族群認同
    Cantonese Preservation and the Ethnic Identity of Contemporary Hoa people in Vietnam
    Authors: 鄧焯峰
    Tang, Cheuk Fung Leo
    Contributors: 馬藹萱
    Ma, Ai-hsuan S.
    鄧焯峰
    Tang, Cheuk Fung Leo
    Keywords: 越南華人
    廣東話
    粵語
    語言保存
    語言傳承
    族群
    身份認同
    Hoa People
    Vietnamese Chinese
    Cantonese
    Ethnic language
    Language preveration
    Identity
    Minority
    Date: 2020
    Issue Date: 2020-07-01 13:54:46 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 華人在越南當地雖然紮根已久,但是至今仍然在日常生活中廣泛使用廣東話。廣東話在越南的華人社群中普遍被視為其族群語言,背後與廣東人的人數是華人五幫中最多、廣東人是最早集結越南的華人方言群、廣東人相對保守的性格及廣東話的工具性意義等因素有莫大的關係。作為越南社會中的一個少數族群,在當地的影響力及動員能力都較弱,在政策層面又處於不利的情況下,廣東話作為其族群語言仍然得以被成功保存及傳承,一定有其成功之道。本研究旨在探討影響越南華人廣東話保存的因素,以及語言使用及保存與族群身份認同建構之間的關連性。他們未來如何傳承族群語言,也是本研究所探討的重點。筆者以越南胡志明市為主要田野場域,於2018年夏天,透過對當地華人社群的深度訪談及參與觀察,並輔以問卷調查以進行資料蒐集。本研究共有24位受訪者,男女各半,年紀介於20至82歲。

    本研究發現,廣東話使用在當地存在區域性的差異;在胡志明市較多越南華人聚居的第五郡、第六郡、第十郡及第十一郡,廣東話被更廣泛地使用。此外,廣東話的使用也呈現明顯的年齡層差異:廣東話的水平隨著年齡層的下降而降低,語言流失及語碼混用的情形也隨著世代變遷變得愈加明顯。由於越南的社會變遷與政策演進,華文教育系統與華文媒體被瓦解或邊陲化,廣東話的工具性意義逐漸式微,影響了華人學習廣東話的機會與使用廣東話的能力,並形成年齡層間的差異化經驗,也進而影響了廣東話在不同時期的傳承及保存表現。

    由於複雜的歷史背景,越南華人建構出多個與族群及國家有關的身份認同。筆者利用問卷蒐集而來的統計資料發現,「越南華人」是最受認同的族群身份,其次是「越南人」,而族群身份的界定與轉變與通婚、社會體制及分別被內團體及外團體標籤化有關。另外,研究結果也顯示當地華人已逐漸形成在地的認同,不再強調「移民群體」的身份以及與原始移出國間的密切關連性,進一步支持了史書美(2017)與Chan(2018)等人所提出的「有時限的海外華人離散性」主張;離散框架已逐漸不再適用於解釋越南華人的身份認同。

    本研究證實廣東話保存與越南華人族群身份認同具有關連性;「越南華人」的身份認同無可置疑是越南華人使用及保存廣東話的動機之一,也彰顯了廣東話作為族群語言在其情感性意義上的重要性。普遍越南華人認為,認同自己屬於越南華人族群的一部分,使用及保存廣東話就是理所當然的。這個想法是基於他們認為廣東話是越南華人文化中重要的一部分、廣東話在越南代表著越南華人群體及可以加強族群內的團結性及認同感這三個因素。因此,越南華人主流將部分認同越南華人的身份但不會講廣東話的越南華人,視為「Mất Gốc(忘本)」。

    要讓廣東話可以在越南華人社群中傳承及保存下去,除了強調身份認同及族群語言能力間的關連外,更需要其他因素的配合才可以成功。在當代越南社會中,過去有利於越南華人進行語言保存及傳承的環境及渠道逐漸消失,透過歸納受訪者的想法及經驗,家中進行廣東話傳承及讓子女到華文中心接受正規的華文教育,是他們認為未來廣東話可以繼續保存及傳承的不二法門。
    Vietnamese Chinese (Hoa people) has settled in Vietnam for generations, and yet Cantonese is still widely used in their daily life. Cantonese being the ethnic language of Vietnamese Chinese in Vietnam is the result of the following reasons: First, Cantonese is the largest dialect group in the Vietnamese Chinese community. Second, Cantonese was the first dialect group settled in Vietnam. Third, the ideology of Cantonese is more conserve than other dialect groups. Fourth, the instrumental value of Cantonese is higher than other Chinese dialects. Being an ethnic minority and at a disadvantage in government policies, the preservation of Cantonese among ethnic Chinese in Vietnam deserves attention. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors influencing the preservation of Cantonese among Vietnamese Chinese, examine the linkage between language preservation and ethnic identity, and look into the strategies Vietnamese Chinese may adopt to maintain their ethnic language in the future. Field study was conducted in Ho Chi Minh City during the summer of 2018. In-depth interviewing and participant observation were utilized as main data collecting methods, supplemented by a survey. A total of 24 interviewees participated in this study, in which half were male and half female, and the age range was between 20 to 82 years old.

    There is a geographic difference in the popularity of Cantonese in Ho Chi Minh City; the language is more widely used in Districts 5, 6, 10 and 11 of Ho Chi Minh City, where Vietnamese Chinese are highly concentrated. The proficiency in Cantonese of Vietnamese Chinese is in decline along with generation, and code mixing is a common practice among Vietnamese Chinese youths. The diminution in instrumental value of Cantonese was brought by the social transformation and policy development in Vietnam, the disruption of the Chinese education system, and the marginalization of local Chinese media. These factors influenced the opportunity for Vietnamese Chinese to learn Cantonese and their ability to use the language, formed the generational difference in the experiences of ethnic language learning and practice, and shaped the preservation of Cantonese.

    Due to the complex historical background, Vietnamese Chinese developed multiple identities. According to the survey data, “Vietnamese Chinese” is the most identified identity, followed by “Vietnamese.” The definition and transformation of ethnic identity of Vietnamese Chinese are affected by intermarriage, social institutions, as well as the labelling of in-group and outgroup. Overall, Vietnamese Chinese have gradually formed a localized identity. This result supports the perspective of Shih (2017) and Chan (2018) that, in the case of Vietnamese Chinese, the conceptual framework of Chinese diaspora is no longer applicable.

    Cantonese preservation is found to be positively related to the strength of identity of being Vietnamese Chinese. Most of the Vietnamese Chinese consider Cantonese as an important element of their ethnic culture. By practicing Cantonese, in-group solidarity and ethnic identity can be strengthened. Therefore, they take for granted that Vietnamese Chinese ought to use and preserve their ethnic language. However, there are some Vietnamese Chinese who identify themselves as Vietnamese Chinese but do not speak Cantonese. These people are called “Mất Gốc” by other members of the ethnic group.

    In contemporary Vietnam, the social conditions that favorable for using Cantonese and the channels to teach and learn have gradually disappeared. Therefore, to maintain and preserve Cantonese in the Vietnamese Chinese community is far more difficult than before. By summing up interviewees’ thoughts and experiences, performing language transmission at home and sending children to Chinese language centers for formal Chinese education are the most efficient ways to ensure that the future generations will still be capable of using Cantonese and avoid ethnic language attrition.
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    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    社會學系
    105254020
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0105254020
    Data Type: thesis
    DOI: 10.6814/NCCU202000568
    Appears in Collections:[社會學系] 學位論文

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