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    Title: 中俄衛生外交之比較研究
    Health Diplomacy: A Comparative Study of China and Russia
    Authors: 嚴懿
    Yen, Yi
    Contributors: 林永芳
    嚴懿
    Yen, Yi
    Keywords: 中俄關係
    衛生外交
    醫療外交
    公共衛生
    Sino-Russian relations
    health diplomacy
    medical diplomacy
    public health
    Date: 2020
    Issue Date: 2020-07-01 14:00:27 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 2020 年的新冠肺炎疫情衝擊全球,公共衛生問題對世界政治與經濟造成極 大的影響,也與國家政策的走向緊密相連。在此背景下,本文將以 2000-2020 年 間的中俄「衛生外交」作為比較研究對象,對兩國過去 20 年間的對外衛生合作 進行探究,為未來大國外交政策取向及國際關係研究提供參考和幫助。
    由於目前對衛生外交尚無統一的定義,因此筆者將採用複合式定義來解釋說 明中俄雙方的衛生政策背景與對外援助體系。基於 David Filder 對衛生與外交關 係的分析,即衛生作為外交的工具、衛生與外交互相影響、衛生作為外交的最終 目的,如今中國與俄羅斯都處在將衛生作為外交工具這一階段。為達到最終的政 治目的,中俄兩國都積極通過合作協議提供醫療服務、醫護人員派遣、技術設備 等衛生援助,以加強與受援國之間的政治經濟聯繫。
    此外,筆者將以案例分析方式聚焦兩國對《國際衛生條例(2005)》的態度 及具體疫情應對舉措的比較,從而探討兩國在衛生外交方面存在的異同,及背後 不同的政治考量。面對與世衛組織締約的《國際衛生條例(2005)》,兩國皆以 國家為中心選擇相應的衛生合作策略,以保護其國家利益,但在處理各自所關注 的問題時,採取不同的策略。其次,面對不同階段的疾病疫情,中俄在本國硬實 力較弱時,出於提高境內衛生狀況而選擇特定的外交策略,一定程度上可見衛生 對外交產生了影響。在硬實力強大後,衛生議題的工具性增強,在各 自看重的 區域上通過衛生外交的途徑積累其影響力和話語權。
    The COVID-19 in 2020 hits the world. Public health issues have a great impact on world politics and economy and are also closely linked to the direction of national policies. In this context, this article will use Sino-Russian health diplomacy from 2000 to 2020 as a comparative research object to explore the external health cooperation between the two countries in the past 20 years and provide reference and help for the future research on the foreign policy orientation of major powers and international relations.
    Since there is currently no unified definition of health diplomacy, I will use a compound definition to explain the health policy background and foreign aid system of China and Russia. Based on David Filder's analysis of the relationship between health and diplomacy, that is, health as a tool for diplomacy, mutual influence between health and diplomacy and health as the ultimate goal of diplomacy, two countries are now in the stage of using health as a diplomatic tool. In order to achieve the ultimate political purpose, both governments actively provide medical services, medical personnel dispatch, technical equipment and other health assistance through cooperation agreements to strengthen political and economic ties with recipient countries.
    In addition, I will focus on the comparison of the two countries' attitudes to the 《International Health Regulations (2005)》 and specific epidemic response measures through case analysis so as to explore the similarities and differences between the two countries in health diplomacy and the different political considerations behind them. In the face of the 《 International Health Regulations (2005) 》 signed with WHO, both governments choose the corresponding health cooperation strategy centered on the country to protect their national interests, but when dealing with their respective concerns, they adopt different strategies. Secondly, in the face of disease epidemics at various stages, when China and Russia have weaker national hard power, they chose a specific diplomatic strategy to improve their domestic health status. To a certain extent, health has affected diplomacy. When the hard power is strong, the instrumentality of health issues has been strengthened. Influence and voice of China and Russia have been accumulated in the areas of self-esteem through health diplomacy.
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    AidData.(2019).Silk Road Diplomacy: Deconstructing Beijing's toolkit to influence South and Central Asia.Retrieved from AidData official website: <https://www.aiddata.org/publications/silk-road-diplomacy>,accessed May 1,2020.
    Avert.(2019).HIV and AIDS in Russia.Retrieved from Avert official website: <https://www.avert.org/professionals/hiv-around-world/eastern-europe-central-asi a/russia>, accessed May 20,2020.
    Bliss, K., Buss, P., and Rosenberg, F.(2012). New approaches to global health cooperation.Center for Strategic and International Studies.Retrieved from CSIS official website: <http://csis.org/files/publication/120927_Bliss_NewApproachesBrazil_Web.pdf>, accessed March 20, 2020.
    Bliss,K.(2010).Key players in global health.Center for Strategic and International Studies.Retrieved from CSIS official website: <http://csis.org/publication/key-players-global-health>, accessed May 10, 2020.
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    Guardian.(2019). Russia wants to make HIV/Aids denialism illegal to halt epidemic. Retrieved from Guardian official website: <https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/may/03/russia-wants-to-make-hivaids -denialism-illegal-to-halt-epidemic>,accessed May 20,2020.
    Kadetz,P.(2013).Africa:China-Africa towards more sustainable health care?All Africa.Retrieved from All Africa official website: <https://allafrica.com/stories/201305170066.html>,accessed March 31,2020.
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    OECD.(2017).Development Co-operation Report 2017: Data for Development. Retrieved from OECD official website: <https://read.oecd-ilibrary.org/development/development-co-operation-report-201 7/profiles-of-other-development-co-operation-providers_dcr-2017-43-en#page1>, accessed May 5,2020.
    Rospotrebnadzor.(2015).In 2015-2016 Russia will assist partner countries in the implementation of International Health Regulations.Retrieved from Rospotrebnadzor official website: <https://www.rospotrebnadzor.ru/en/about/info/news/news_details.php?ELEMEN T_ID=2872>,accessed May 18,2020.
    Sputnik.(2011,January19).Russian aid effort in the dark complains official. Retrieved from Sputnik official website: <https://sputniknews.com/russia/20110119162207585/>,accessed April 15, 2020.
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    三、俄文文獻
    (一)期刊論文
    Корепанов, Д.В., Комагаева, Ю.А.(2012). Россия как партнер в содействии международному развитию в области здравоохранения. Вестник МГИМО Университета, (2), с.71-82. Рахмангулов, М.Р.(2010). Приглашение к Дискуссии. Становление системы содействия международномуразвитию в России.Вестник Международных Организаций,(2) ,с.196-215.

    (二)智庫報告
    Бокарев, А.(2010). Формирование глобального партнерства в целях развития.Доклад о развитии человеческого потенциалав Российской Федерации2010.UNDP Россия,с.1-152.
    Всемирный банк,Институт по измерению показателей здоровья и оценке состояния здоровья, Сеть человеческого развития.(2013). Глобальное бремя болезней(Global Burden of Disease) :порождение доказательств направление политики —региональное издание для Европы и Центральной Азии. Seattle, WA: IHME,с.1-70.

    (三)網站資料
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    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    俄羅斯研究所
    107263012
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0107263012
    Data Type: thesis
    DOI: 10.6814/NCCU202000575
    Appears in Collections:[俄羅斯研究所] 學位論文

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