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    Title: 美國小布希政府對阿拉伯地區的公眾外交與阿拉伯國家新媒體的運用
    Public Diplomacy of the U.S. Bush Administration towards the Arab Area and the Employment of New Media in Arab States
    Authors: 濮辰檸
    Pu, Chen-Ning
    Contributors: 黃奎博
    Hunag, Kwei-Bo
    濮辰檸
    Pu, Chen-Ning
    Keywords: 軟實力
    單邊主義
    樂隊花車效應
    公眾外交
    新保守主義
    Soft Power
    Unilateralism
    Bandwagon
    Public Diplomacy
    Neo-Conservatism
    Date: 2020
    Issue Date: 2020-07-01 14:00:41 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本篇論文旨在研究 George W. Bush 時期針對阿拉伯地區的公眾外交,並提 出是否有任何值得改進與檢討之處,同時也論及,在波斯灣戰爭之後,阿拉伯地 區在面對如洪水猛獸的美國霸權論述,如何在中東地區建立起區域媒體,如半島 電視台與之抗衡的景況。

    因此本篇論文將從數層面分析,第二章將會自公眾外交的理論與國際傳播、 軟實力等相關詞彙出發,討論公眾外交的發展情形,同時分析公眾外交的歷史脈 絡與在各國實踐的景況。本篇論文順應新媒體時代的來臨,筆者探討公眾外交不 斷推陳出新的情形,繼而在公眾外交的三大層面:獨白、對話與協作的機制下進 一步的為個別國家創造於己有利的國際環境,遂行裨益於其國家利益的外交政策。

    第三章開始,筆者回溯 Bush 時期針對阿拉伯地區的外交政策主軸,也就是 布希主義與新保守主義。國際關係大師米爾斯海默提出了新保守主義與現實主義 的爭辯,針對布希主義的單邊主義與先制攻擊等政策思維,兩者各有不同的省思 與論述。換言之,新保守主義以為面對 Bush 定義的邪惡軸心國家,若行以棍棒 外交,此舉將會為美國帶來樂隊花車效應的正面效果,但現實主義認為,使用棍 棒外交將會引起對手國聯盟以抗衡的反效果。再者,Bush 在其任內針對阿拉伯地區軍費與公眾外交的預算支出的大幅差異,便能導出一個結論,即 Bush 對中 東的公眾外交著力不深,導致最終成效不彰,讓中東地區的反美主義更形熾烈。

    第四章開始,筆者開始換一個角度思考,也就是自中東的觀點衡諸一切,一 方面,中東的區域媒體發展的較晚,但對於西方而言,也是來勢洶洶。比較中東 各媒體,如半島電視台與阿布達比電視台針對 Bush 與美國的言論與立場所進行 的詮釋與論述,似乎看出了在爭奪話語權的努力,已然有了一番成績,而在極端 保守的阿拉伯國家如沙烏地阿拉伯與最自由的國度,如黎巴嫩,儘管兩國針對新 媒體的態度與反應大相徑庭,但新媒體對該社會情勢的衝擊自不在話下。

    由以上論述可知,西方世界與阿拉伯地區的話語權爭奪方興未艾,過往學者 多重視傳統高階政治,輕視公眾外交,但在新科技勃興的現代,國家之間,礙於 支出與國家互賴的關係,相對較不可能兵戎相見,但在詮釋國際事件與表現國家 品牌的競爭上,只會更形激烈。
    The main goal of my thesis is to study the George W. Bush administration's public diplomacy toward the Arab area and discuss whether it needed improvements.

    Thus, this thesis will begin its analysis on the basis of several dimensions. Chapter Two will unfold from the theories of public diplomacy, international communication and soft power, and at the same time talk about the development of public diplomacy and analyze its history and its practice. Along with the advent of new media, I want to discuss the renewing of public diplomacy and later to create an international environment which is beneficial to itself, and create the diplomatic strategy beneficial to the so-called national interests.

    In the Chapter Three, I want to date back the main gist of Arabia diplomatic strategy- the Bush doctrine and Neo- Conservativism. John Mearsheimer uphold the debate of Neo-conservativism and Realism and two of them have different inspirations towards the Bush doctrine. In other words, Neo-Conservativism thinks that if the nation use weapons and military tools upon the evil axis will bring the positive effect for U.S., but the realism thinks using military works will have the backlash. Last but not least, the stark difference between Arabic military budget and the public diplomacy budget will get a conclusion- Bush didn’t put much focus upon the Middle East public diplomacy and make the anti-Americanism much wilder.

    In the Chapter four, I present another angle – how did the Middle East perceive all this. On the one hand, the development of the Middle East media is much later, but on the other hand, it also appears ferocious to the West. But if one compares the interpretations and the standings of all the different middle East media, we also can find it already has good performance. For example, in the much freer country as well as the much conservative country like Saudi Arab as well we Lebanon, the impact of the new media can be seen.

    All the discussions indicate that the competition of the ideas between the West and the Arab is still ongoing. In the past, scholars stressed high politics and played down the importance of public diplomacy. Nowadays, it is more difficult for countries to wage war against other countries, and the competition over nation branding and the way to interpret international events will be much fiercer.
    Reference: 中文部分

    一、中文期刊
    王克勛 (1952)。〈什麼叫做史密斯法案〉,《世界知識》,25(14),6。
    王維菁 (2015)。〈輸出美國:美國新聞署與美國公眾外交〉,《傳播、文化與政
    治》,1,201-205。
    巨克毅與施順冰 (2008)。〈美國新保守主義理念與美伊戰爭:兼論保守派媒體形
    塑戰爭〉,《全球政治評論》,8,1-28。
    李忠斌 (2012)。〈新媒體與歐巴馬政府的公共外交〉,《美國研究》,2,18。
    林照真 (2016)。〈來自南方:半島電視台的新聞聚合研究〉,《新聞學研究》, 129,97-142。
    林照真 (2017)。〈恐怖主義與媒體: 檢視美國反恐戰爭、伊斯蘭恐慌與半島電視 台〉,《新聞學研究》,133,1-41。
    吳玉山 (2002)。〈仍是現實主義的傳統:九一一與布希主義〉,《政治科學論叢》, 17,1-32。
    范鴻達 (2006)。〈中東反美主義:美國的對策及其評價〉,《阿拉伯世界研究》, 4,38-42。
    唐小松與王義桅 (2005)。〈國外對公共外交的探索〉,《國際問題研究》,1, 60-63。
    唐小松與王義桅 (2003)。〈美國公共外交的興起及其對美國外交政策的反思〉, 《世界經濟與政治》,4,22-27。
    趙可金 (2004)。〈媒體外交及其運作機制〉,《世界經濟與政治》,4,21-26。
    黃奎博 (2011)。〈後賓拉登時期的美國全球反恐戰略〉,《全球政治評論》,35,1-6。
    楊福昌 (2005)。〈美國的“大中東改革計畫”實現難〉,《阿拉伯世界》,5,11-13。
    楊吉林 (2010)。〈反美主義與布希新保守主義外交政策之探討〉,《長庚人文社會學報》,3(2),405-446。
    謝敏捷 (2005)。〈美國的中東政策─布希總統推動中東民主的機會與挑戰〉。《台 灣國際研究期刊》,1(3),1-15。
    羅愛玲 (2014)。〈美國政府中東公共外交:目標、內容與成效分析〉《國際關係 研究》,3,113-157。
    顏琳與李開盛 (2012)。〈評歐巴馬在中東-伊斯蘭世界的公共外交〉《現代國際 關係》,3,61-64。


    二、學位論文
    李琦 (2010)。《論小布希第二任期內美國公共外交的調整》。北京:外交學院外 交學研究所,碩士論文。
    蕭裕民 (2010)。《國際新聞論述之競逐與反思:以批判性論述分析透視 Al-Jazeera 與 CNN「以巴衝突」之國族建構策略》。臺北:國立交通大學傳播研究所,碩士 論文。


    英文部分

    一、英文專書及專章
    Brown, J. F., (2013). Radio Free Europe: An Insider’s View. Washington, DC: New Academia Publishing.
    Carvalho, C. R., (2009). International Radio Broadcasting in a Globalizing World: A New Paradigm, A New Information and Communication Order. Saarbrücken:
    : VDM Verlag.
    Cull, N. J., (2009). Public Diplomacy: Lessons from the Past. Los Angeles, CA: Figueroa Press.
    Davis, J., (2011). The Barack Obama Presidency: A Two-Year Assessment. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Fitzpatrick, K. R., (2010). The Future of U.S. Public Diplomacy: An Uncertain Fate. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
    Ham, P. V. (2005). “Power, Public Diplomacy, and the Pax Americana” In Melissen J. (eds), The New Public Diplomacy: Soft Power in International Relations, pp. 47-66. USA: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Howell, W. J., (1986). World Broadcasting in the Age of the Satellite: Comparative Systems, Policies, and Issues in Mass Telecommunication. New York: Praeger.
    Johnson, A. R., (2010). Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty: The CIA Years and Beyond. Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center Press.
    Katzenstein, P. J., and Keohane, R. O., (2007). Anti-Americanisms in World Politics. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.
    Melissen, J., (2005). Wielding Soft Power: The New Public Diplomacy. The Hague: Netherlands Institute of International Relations Clingendael.
    Onea, T., (2013). US Foreign Policy in the Post-Cold War Era: Restraint versus Assertiveness from George H.W. Bush to Barack Obama. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Revel, J. F., and Diarmid, C., (2003). Anti-Americanism. San Francisco, Calif.: Encounter Books.
    Seib, P. M., and Janbek, D. M., (2011). Global Terrorism and New Media: The Post- Al Qaeda Generation. London: New York: Routledge.
    Seib, P. M., (2009). Toward a New Public Diplomacy: Redirecting US Foreign Policy. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Snow, N., (2009). Persuader-in-Chief: Global Opinion and Public Diplomacy in the Age of Obama. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Nimble Books LLC.
    Wheeler, M., and Iosifidis, P., (2016). Public Spheres and Mediated Social Networks in the Western Context and Beyond. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

    二、英文期刊
    Baroudi, S. E. (2007). “Arab intellectuals and the Bush administration's campaign for democracy: The case of the Greater Middle East Initiative.” The Middle East Journal, 61(3), 390-418.
    Berggren, D. J., and Rae, N. C. (2006). “Jimmy Carter and George W. Bush: Faith, foreign policy, and an evangelical presidential style.” Presidential Studies Quarterly, 36(4), 606-632.
    Blaydes, L., and Linzer, D. A. (2012). “Elite competition, religiosity, and anti- Americanism in the Islamic world.” American Political Science Review, 106(2), 225- 243.
    Cull, N. J. (2010). “Speeding the strange death of American public diplomacy: The George HW Bush administration and the U.S. information agency.” Diplomatic History, 34(1), 47-69.
    El-Nawawy, M. (2006). “US public diplomacy in the Arab world: The news credibility of Radio Sawa and Television Alhurra in five countries.” Global Media and Communication, 2(2), 183-203.
    Gentzkow, M. A., and Shapiro, J. M. (2004). “Media, education and anti-Americanism in the Muslim world.” Journal of Economic perspectives, 18(3), 117-133.
    Ghareeb, E. (2000). “New media and the information revolution in the Arab world: An assessment.” The Middle East Journal, 54(3), 395-418.
    Harris, B. (2013). “Diplomacy 2.0: the future of social media in nation branding.” The Journal of Public Diplomacy, 4(1), 3.
    Kahwaji, R. (2004). “US-Arab cooperation in the Gulf: are both sides working from the same script?” Middle East Policy, 11(3), 52-62.
    Katzman, K. (2003). “The Persian Gulf states: Post-war issues for US policy.” Library of Congress Washington DC Congressional Research Service.
    Kennedy, L., and Lucas, S. (2005). “Enduring freedom: Public diplomacy and US foreign policy.” American Quarterly, 57(2), 309-333.
    Khatib, L., Dutton, W., and Thelwall, M. (2012). “Public diplomacy 2.0: A case study of the US digital outreach team.” The Middle East Journal, 66(3), 453-472.
    Kraidy, M. M. (2007). “Saudi Arabia, Lebanon and the changing Arab information order.” International Journal of Communication, 1, 139.
    Krastev, I. (2004). “The anti-American Century?” Journal of Democracy. 15(2), 5-16. Krause, P. and Van Evera, S. (2009). “Public diplomacy: Ideas for the War of Ideas.”
    Middle East Policy. 16(3),106-134.
    Mearsheimer, J. J. (2005). “Hans Morgenthau and the Iraq war: realism versus neo-
    conservatism.” Security Studies. 17(2), 191-220.
    Merskin, D., (2005). “The construction of Arabs as Enemies: Post-9/11 Discourse of George W. Bush.”Mass Communication and Society. 7(2) 157-175.
    Nisbet, E. C., Nisbet, M. C., Scheufele, D. A., and Shanahan, J. E. (2004). “Public diplomacy, television news, and Muslim opinion.” Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 9(2), 11-37.
    Price, M. (2003). “Public diplomacy and the transformation of international broadcasting.”, Cardozo Arts and Entertainment Law Journal, 21(1), 51-85.
    Record, J. (2003). “The bush doctrine and war with Iraq.” Parameters, 33(1), 4-21.
    Sevin, E., Kimball, S., and Khalil, M. (2011). “Listening to President Obama: A short examination of Obama’s communication practices.” American Behavioral Scientist, 55(6), 803-812.

    三、網路資源
    Bjola, C., and Jiang, L. (2015). “Social media and public diplomacy: a comparative analysis of the digital diplomatic strategies of the EU, US and Japan in China.”
    { HYPERLINK“https://www.qeh.ox.ac.uk/publications/social-media-and-public- diplomacy-comparative-analysis-digital-diplomatic-strategies-eu” }. Retrieval Date:2020/5/3.
    Gordon, P. H. (2006). “The end of the Bush revolution.”
    { HYPERLINK“https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/2006-07-01/end-bush-
    revolution” }. Retrieval Date:2020/5/3.
    Kraidy, M. M. (2008). “Arab Media and US Policy: A Public Diplomacy Reset.” { HYPERLINK“https://repository.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1188&con text=asc_papers”}. Retrieval Date:2020/5/3.
    Rugh, W. A. (2004). “Fixing Public Diplomacy for Arab and Muslim Audiences.”
    { HYPERLINK“https://www.hoover.org/sites/default/files/uploads/documents/08179 45423_145.pdf” }. Retrieval Date:2020/5/3.
    Sanders, B. A. (2018). “Organizing Public Diplomacy: A Layered System.” { HYPERLINK“ https://www.uscpublicdiplomacy.org/sites/uscpublicdiplomacy.org/f iles/useruploads/u39301/Organizing%20Public%20Diplomacy_3.17.18_barcode.pdf” }. Retrieval Date:2020/5/3.
    Seib, P. (2013). “Public diplomacy and the media in the Middle East.” CPD Perspectives on Public. { HYPERLINK
    “https://www.uscpublicdiplomacy.org/sites/uscpublicdiplomacy.org/files/legacy/publi cations/perspectives/CPDPerspectivesPDand%20MediaandMiddle%20East%20- %20Linked.pdf” }. Retrieval Date:2020/5/3.
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    外交學系
    105253021
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0105253021
    Data Type: thesis
    DOI: 10.6814/NCCU202000457
    Appears in Collections:[外交學系] 學位論文

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