人口資料是國家施政的基礎，大多數國家會以普查（Census）為全國性資料 的主要蒐集方法，但近年戶口普查遭遇不少挑戰，許多國家考量不進行全國普查， 改以其他方法取得資料品質可媲美普查的全國人口估計值。美國、法國的滾動式 普查是方法之一，每年輪流抽取不同 3%的樣本，除了可取得不錯的資料品質， 又能獲得五年連續調查結果，打破十年一次靜態人口的限制。本文也以探討普查替代方法為目標，評估以健保就醫資料取得我國國民經常活動資料的可行性，比較幾種常見的常住地判斷方式，包括感冒就醫、以及本文提出的幾種方法，評估哪種方法較能反映國人就醫地區的特性，並討論未來以健保就醫作為取得常住人口時，必須考慮的配套措施及限制。另外，我們也將常住地判斷方法應於探討人口遷移，將立委選區訂為分析單位，以避免人數差異太大的問題，分析發現臺灣大致可分為幾個生活圈，其中有幾個地區的遷入及遷出相對活躍。 Census usually is the only method for collecting the information of national population and it is conducted every 10 years for most countries. However, there are potential problems in the traditional census, such as low response rates, data quality, and rising survey costs. A lot of countries have been seeking alternative methods for collecting national data. Rolling census is one of the new methods and it was first adapted by the U.S. and France in 2010. The rolling census in the U.S., American Community Survey, collected 3% of national population annually for 5 years, and this can provide a time series national estimates for 5 years. In this study, we aim to explore the new data collection methods which can serve as an alternative to the traditional census. In particular, our goal is to evaluate the possibility of using the data from National Health Insurance (NHI) Research Database for acquiring the information of de jure population in Taiwan. In addition to the records of upper respiratory tract infection, we also propose three other methods to identify the place of normal residence. We use the outpatient rates and other criteria from the NHI data for method evaluation. We also apply the proposed methods to explore the domestic migration in Taiwan. The results show that Taiwan can be separated into three sub-regions and the migration is active within each region, not as active between regions.