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    Title: 持久性與情境性因素對第二語言溝通意願的影響:個案研究
    Enduring and Situational Factors that Influence Willingness to Communicate in an L2: A Case Study
    Authors: 鄧禮賢
    Teng, Li-Hsien
    Contributors: 余明忠
    Yu, Ming-Chung
    鄧禮賢
    Teng, Li-Hsien
    Keywords: 第二語言溝通意願
    持久性因素
    情境性因素
    個案研究
    Willingness to communicate
    Enduring variables
    Situational variables
    Case study
    Date: 2020
    Issue Date: 2020-08-03 17:18:11 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 全球化使英語學習變得愈來愈重要,然而,讓學生在課堂上說英語對語言教師來說仍是件不容易的事。研究顯示與西方的英語學習者相比,亞洲的英語學習者在英語課上較為沉默寡言。過去的研究顯示由於考試導向文化的影響、缺乏信心、在表達意見上過於小心,以及害怕被負面評價等因素,許多亞洲的英語學習者不願意參與課堂討論活動。本研究的目的就是探討某些持久性與情境性因素如何增進一位台灣高中生的第二語言溝通意願。此個案研究中使用量化及質性兩種研究方法,希望透過這兩種研究方法,完整地了解特定持久性因素及情境型因素對受試者溝通意願的影響。研究參與者是一位在新北市私立雙語高中就讀的十二年級高中生。在此研究中,研究者使用動機因子問卷、課堂觀察、學生日誌、一次與受試者教師的半結構式訪談,以及兩次與受試者的半結構式訪談來蒐集資料,研究者透過這些資料分析持久性與情境性因素如何影響受試者的英語溝通意願。
    結果顯示三項持久性因素,家長參與、非正式語言環境,以及學習者的核心信念都能影響他在不同情境中的英語溝通意願。在家長參與部分,本研究顯示不同方式的家長參與都對學習者的英語溝通意願有益,包含家長在家中與學習者一起看英語影片、與學習者進行英語對話,或是為學習者創造更多使用英語的環境。在非正式語言環境部分,本研究顯示學習者在國外的旅遊,以及與其他英語為母語的線上遊戲玩家間的互動都提供他可以真實地使用英語的機會。在學習者的核心信念部分,本研究顯示學習者的英語學習核心信念會影響他在不同第二語言學習活動中的努力程度。
    在情境因素部分,本研究結果也顯示三項情境型因素,教師的教學風格與即時行為、班級大小,以及討論主題都會影響學習者的英語溝通意願。在教師的教學風格與即時行為部分,如果一位語言教師使用許多溝通式活動,並在學習者口語上犯錯時,可以即時地給予鼓勵與適度糾正,並不批評學習者的錯誤,這些行為皆可提升學習者的英語溝通意願。在課堂大小部分,對一個語言教師來說,小型的課堂比較容易創造出良好且溫暖的教室氛圍。在討論主題部分,學生自己選擇的主題要比教科書提供的主題要好,本研究顯示學生自己選擇的主題可以提升受試者對於討論的信心與興趣,並且提高受試者的英語溝通意願。基於本研究所得的結果,研究者也提出了針對教學上的應用以及對未來研究的建議。研究者希望這份論文可以對TESOL領域中的研究者及教育者,提供一些關於持久性與情境性因素影響學習者英語溝通意願的一些了解及洞見。
    Globalization makes English learning become more and more important. However, language teachers around the world still struggle to get learners to talk in English. Studies show that Asian English learners are more reticent when compared with Western English learners. Previous research shows that because of the influence of examination-oriented culture, lack of confidence, being too cautious at giving opinions, and fear of being negatively evaluated, many Asian English learners are unwilling to participate in discussions. The purpose of the present study was to investigate how certain enduring and situational variables enhanced the willingness to communicate of a high school student in Taiwan. In this case study, both quantitative and qualitative methods were adopted to capture a holistic understanding of how certain enduring factors, and situational factors influence the willingness to communicate of the participant. The participant was a twelfth grader who studied in a private bilingual high school in New Taipei City. In the present study, the motivational factors questionnaire, the class observations, the student’s journals, one semi-structured interview, and two semi-structured interviews were utilized as data for the analyses of the influences of enduring and situational variables that influence the willingness to communicate of the participant.
    The results suggest that the three enduring factors, parental involvement, informal linguistic environments, and a learner’s core beliefs in L2 learning, can influence his willingness to communicate in different situations. In terms of parental involvement, the present case showed that different forms of parental involvement, including watching English videos with the participant, chatting with the participant in English, and creating opportunities for him to use English authentically, would enhance for his WTC. In terms of informal linguistic environments, the present study showed that the participant’s family trips in foreign countries, and his online-games provided him with good opportunities to use English authentically. In terms of a learner’s core beliefs, the present study showed that the participant’s core beliefs would influence how much efforts he wanted to put into different types of L2 learning activities.
    The results also suggest that situational variables, such as teachers’ teaching styles and immediacy, class size, and topics, might all influence the participant’s willingness to communicate. In terms of teachers’ teaching styles and immediacy, if a language teacher uses many communicative activities, and they are also warm and encouraging, as well as being non-critical when learners make mistakes, these would raise learners’ WTC. In terms of class size, a small class would be easier for a teacher to create good and warm classroom atmosphere. In terms of topics, students’ self-selected topics are preferable than textbook-assigned topics. The present study showed that students’ self-selected topics raised the participant’s confidence and interest in discussions. And they also raised his WTC. Based on the findings in the present study, pedagogical implications and suggestions were recommended for future research. It is hoped that this thesis can provide some insights into the study of enduring and situational variables that influence the willingness to communicate of English learners for researchers and educators in the field of TESOL.
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    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    英國語文學系
    1025510021
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G1025510021
    Data Type: thesis
    DOI: 10.6814/NCCU202001076
    Appears in Collections:[英國語文學系] 學位論文

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