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    政大機構典藏 > 文學院 > 歷史學系 > 學位論文 >  Item 140.119/131078
    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/131078


    Title: 涉水尋津:威妥瑪的早年經歷與中英關係,1818-1861
    Wading in Search of Ford: Thomas Wade’s Early Career and Anglo-Sino Relationship, 1818-1861
    Authors: 張翼
    Zhang, Yi
    Contributors: 楊瑞松
    Yang, Jui-sung
    張翼
    Zhang, Yi
    Keywords: 威妥瑪
    帝國主義
    第二次鴉片戰爭
    《尋津錄》
    中英關係
    Thomas Wade
    Imperialism
    the Second Opium War
    The Hsin Ching Lu
    Anglo-Sino relationship
    Date: 2020
    Issue Date: 2020-08-03 17:51:42 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本文關注在中英外交史中至關重要但卻又被廣泛忽視的人物:威妥瑪,並著重探討他的早年經歷及其在大英帝國擴大在華利益的轉折時期中所扮演的關鍵性角色。威妥瑪於1842年參加第一次鴉片戰爭來華後留居香港,在逐漸掌握中文的同時也在英國對華外交圈子內站穩腳跟。1853年他出任上海副領事,參與泥城河之戰與海關稅務司的誕生,後又返回香港撰寫漢語教材《尋津錄》。1856年第二次鴉片戰爭爆發後,他被選為額爾金的中文秘書,在四年的時間內參與了英國與清廷間幾乎所有的交涉,並以其流利的漢語水準與豐富的中文知識獲而深得額爾金信任,因此在交涉中發揮不可替代的關鍵性作用。隨著英國駐京公使館的確立,威妥瑪的事業也進入新的篇章。本文在回顧威妥瑪在這一時期內的事跡時,將著重考察其漢學知識與其外交事業之間複雜的交錯與共謀關係。尤其注意漢學知識生產中的暴力,以及翻譯作為一種技術如何協助帝國主義擴張其權力並構建這一過程的合法性。同時,本文也將重視從清廷的視角出發詮釋清廷對於這種知識-權力共謀關係的抵抗,以重現英帝國擴張在華利益過程的完整圖景。
    Thomas Francis Wade was a crucial but largely ignored figure in 19th century Anglo-Sino relationship. This study focuses on his early career and critical role in the process of the British Empire’s expansion in China. Wade came to China as a solider participating the first Opium War in 1842 and stayed in Hong Kong after the war. While he gradually mastered Chinese language, he secured his position in the British colonial establishment in China. He was appointed as the vice-consul in Shanghai and took an active part in the Battle of Muddy Flat as well as the birth of the Imperial Maritime Customs Service. On top of that, he composed the famous Chinese language textbook: The Hsin Ching Lu when he returned Hong Kong. 1856 marked the outbreak of the Second Opium War and Wade was selected as the Chinese secretary of British plenipotentiary, the Earl of Elgin. Wade was deeply trusted by Elgin because of his language skill and Chinese knowledge and therefore, played a critical role in the negotiation between the British Empire and the Qing Empire. The result of the war rendered the British Empire to establish its embassy at Beijing, which unfolded another chapter of Wade’s career. In retrospection of Wade’s life, this study pays particular attention to the collusion and mutual effect of Wade’s sinology knowledge and the power of the British Empire, especially to the violence involved in the production of knowledge, as well as the practice of translation, which, as a technique of the imperialism, promoted the expansion of the British Empire. Meanwhile, the resistance of this collusion of knowledge and power by Qing Empire will be equally examined in order to present a complete panorama by which the process of the expansion of the British Empire in China will be carefully reconsidered.
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    張瑉璐,<見證「合作政策」的終結——威妥瑪任英國駐華公使時的中英關係> 《煙臺大學學報》,28 :6 (2015.6)。
    張衛東,<威妥瑪氏<語言自邇集>所記北京音系>,《北京大學學報(哲學社會科學版)》,4(1998)。
    張衛東,<論19世紀中外文化交往中的漢語教學>,《北京大學學報(哲學社會科學版)》,4(2000)。
    程龍,<淺論威妥瑪第一部北京話口語教材《尋津錄》>,《社會科學戰線》,(2013.10):161-167。
    楊巍,《李鴻章與<煙台條約>》,東北師範大學碩士學位論文,2005。
    齊靜,<第二次鴉片戰爭的英國國際法敘事>,《外國法制史研究》,1(2019),285-305。
    趙蕙蓉,<恆祺與一八六〇年北京議和>,《歷史檔案》,3(1983),92-98。
    趙瑩,<<京報>英譯與兩次鴉片戰爭的中英關係>,《新聞與傳播研究》,3(2018),112-128。
    趙勇,王艷君,周媛,<兩次鴉片戰爭中的桂良>,《唐山師範學院學報》,6(2004),76-100。
    蔣耘,<李泰國與天津條約>,《歷史檔案》,1(2006),84-87。
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    二、西文部分:

    (一)史料
    House of Parliament, Correspondence with Mr. Bruce in China, 1860, London: Harrison and Sons, 1860.

    House of Parliament, Correspondence Respecting Affairs in China, 1859-1860, London: Harrison and sons, 1861.

    Nish, Ian ed., British Documents on Foreign Affairs: Reports and Paper from the Foreign Office Confidential Print Part 1 From the Mid-Nineteenth Century to the First World War Series E Asia, 1860-1914 Volume 16: Anglo-Chinese War and Its Aftermath, 1839-1849, [Frederick, Md.]: University Publications of America, c1989-c1995.

    Nish, Ian ed., British Documents on Foreign Affairs Reports and Paper from the Foreign Office Confidential Series E Asia, 1860-1914 Volume 17 Anglo-French Expedition to China, 1856-1858, [Frederick, Md.]: University Publications of America, c1989-c1995.

    Nish, Ian ed., British Documents on Foreign Affairs Reports and Paper from the Foreign Office Confidential Series E Asia, 1860-1914 Volume 18 Lord Elgin's Mission to China and Japan, 1857-1858, [Frederick, Md.]: University Publications of America, c1989-c1995.

    Nish, Ian ed., British Documents on Foreign Affairs Reports and Paper from the Foreign Office Confidential Series E Asia, 1860-1914 Volume 19 Lord Elgin's Missions, Taiping Rebellion and Proposed Naval Force for China, 1858-1865, [Frederick, Md.]: University Publications of America, c1989-c1995.

    Wade, Thomas Francis Note on the Condition and Government of the Chinese Empire in 1849, Hong Kong: China Mail Office。

    Wade, Thomas Francis The Chinese Army: Containing Notices of Its Bannermen, Hankiun, and Luhying Division, with details respecting their Organization, Locations, pay efficiency, &c., Canton: Reprinted from the Chinese Repository,1851.

    Wade, Thomas Francis The Hsin Ching Lu, or Book of Experiments Being the First of a Series of Contributions to the Study of Chinese, Hong Kong: Writer, 1859.

    Wade, Thomas Francis Wên-chien Tzŭ-erh Chi, a series of papers selected as specimens of Documentary Chinese, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Singapore, Yokohama: Kelly and Walsh, Limited., 1905.

    Wade, Thomas Francis Yü-yen Tzŭ-erh Chi, Progressive Course Designed to Assist the Student of Colloquial Chinese as Spoken in the Capital and the Metropolitan Department, 2 Vols., Shanghai, Hong Kong, Yokohama, Singapore: Kelly and Walsh, Limited., 1903.

    Chinese Repository

    North-China Herald


    (二)專書
    A Student Interpreter, Where Chinese Drive: English Student-Life at Peking, London: W. H. Allen & Co., 1885.

    Bickers, Robert and Jonathan J. Howlett ed. Britain and China, 1840-1970 Empire, Finance and War, New York: Routledge, 2016.

    Bridgman, Elijah. Coleman. Chinese Chrestomathy in the Canton Dialect, Macao: S. Wells Williams, 1841.

    Bridgeman, Eliza J. Gillett. ed. The Pioneer of American Missions in China: The Life and Labors of Eligah Coleman Bridgman, New York: Anson d. f. Randolph, 1864.

    Cassel, Pär Ground of Judgment extraterritoriality and imperial power in nineteenth-century China and Japan, New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.

    Coates, P. D. The China Consuls: The British Consular Officers, 1843-1943, Hong Kong: Oxford University Press, 1988.

    Conrad, Joseph Heart of Darkness, London: Penguin, 2007.

    Cook, Hugh The North Staffordshire Regiment (The Prince of Wales’s) (The 64th / 98th Regiment of Foot), London: Leo Cooper Ltd, 1970。

    Cooke, George Wingrove China: Being “The Time” Special correspondence from China in the Year 1857-1858, London: G. Routledge & Co., 1858.

    Cooley, James, The Censor at the Yamen the Diplomatic Career of Sir Thomas Francis Wade, Ann Arbor, A Xerox Company, 1971.

    Cooley, James, T. F. Wade in China: Pioneer in Global Diplomacy 1842-1882, Netherlands: E. J. Leiden, 1981.

    Dawson, Raymond The Chinese Chameleon: An Analysis of European Conceptions of Chinese Civilization, New York: Oxford University Press, 1967.

    Deleuze, Gilles and Felix Guattari, Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

    Fairbank, John Trade and Diplomacy on the China Coast: The Opening of the Treaty Ports, 1842-1854, Taipei: Rainbow-bridge Book Co., 1953.

    Fan, Fa-ti British Naturalists in Qing China: Science, Empire, and Cultural Encounter, Harvard University Press, 2004.

    Fergusson, Thomas T. The Treaty Illegality of the Transit Dues and Lekin Taxes Actually Levied by the Chinese Government Demonstrated in a Series of Letters to the “North-China Daily News” under the Signature of “Mercator”, Shanghai: North-China Herald Office, 1876.

    Fisher, LT.-Colonel Personal Narrative of Three Years' Service in China (London: Richard Bentley, 1863), 191-200; Charles S. Leavenworth, The Arrow War with China, London: Sampson Low, Marston & Company, 1901.

    Forbes, Archibald The History of the Black Watch: The Seven Years War in Europe, the French and Indian War, Colonial American Frontier and the Caribbean, the Napoleonic Wars, the Crimean War, the Indian Mutiny, the Ashanti War and the Nile Expedition, 1729-1888, [ S. l.]: Leonaur, 2010.

    Giles, Herbert Allen Giles and T. F. Wade, A Catalog of the Wade Collection of Chinese and Manchu Books in the Library of the University of Cambridge, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1915.

    Hevia, James Cherishing Men from Afar: Qing Guest Ritual and the Macartney Embassy of 1793, Durham: Duke University Press, 1995.

    Hevia, James English Lesson: The Pedagogy of Imperialism in Nineteenth-century China, Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2003.

    Hillemann, Ulrike Asian Empire and British Knowledge: China and the Networks of British Imperial Expansion, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

    Hsü, Immanuel C. Y. China’s Entrance into the Family of Nations: The Diplomatic Phase 1858-1880, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1968.

    John, Venn, Venn, J. A., Alumni Cantabrigienses: A biographical list of all known students, graduates and holders of office at the University of Cambridge, from the earliest times to 1900, Part 2, Vol. 6, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1922.

    Knollys, Henry Incidents in the China War of 1860 Complied from the Private Journals of General Sir Hope Grant, Edinburgh and London: William Blackwood and Sons, 1875.

    Lane-Poole, Stanley Sir Harry Parkes in China, London: Methuen & CO., 1901.

    Leavenworth, Charles S. The Arrow War with China, London: Sampson Low, Marston & Company, 1901.

    Lindsay, H. Hamilton Letter to the Right Honourable Viscount Palmerston, on British Relations with China, London: Saunders and Otley, 1836.

    Liu, Lydia H. The Clash of Empires: The Invention of China in Modern World Making, Cambridge, Massachusetts and London: Harvard University Press, 2004.

    Lo Hui-Min, British Diplomatic and Consular Establishment in China: 1793-1949 Vol.2, Taipei: SMC Publishing INC., 1988.

    Loch, Capt. Granville G. The Closing Events of the Campaign in China: The Operations in the Yang-Tze-Kiang and Treaty of Nanking, London: John Murray, 1843.

    Loch, Henry B. Personal Narrative of Occurrences during Lord Elgin’s Second Embassy to China in 1860, London: John Murray, 1900.

    McGhee, Rev. E.J.L. How We Got to Pekin: A Narrative of the Campaign in China of 1860, London: Richard Bentley, 1862.

    Mason, Mary Gertrude The Concepts of China and Chinese, 1840-1876, Connecticut: Hyperion Press, 1973.

    Meadows, Thomas T. Desultory Notes on The Government and People of China and on The Chinese Language; Illustrated with a Sketch of the Province of Kwang-Tung, Shewing its Division into Departments and Districts, London: Wm. H. Allen and Co., 1847.

    Michie, Alexander The Englishman in China During the Victorian Era as Illustrated in The Career of Sir Rutherford Alcock, K.C.B., D.C.L. Many Years consul and Minister in China and Japan, 2Vols., Edinburgh and London: W. Blackwood, 1900.

    Moges, Marquis de Recollections of Baron Gros's Embassy to China and Japan in 1857-1858, London and Glasgow: Richard Griffin and Company, 1860.

    Morrison, Robert Vocabulary of the Canton Dialect, 3Vols., Macao, Honorable East India Company’s Press, 1828.

    Morse, Hosea Ballou The International Relationship of the Chinese Empire New York: Paragon Book Gallery, 1917

    Oliphant, Laurence Narrative of the Earl of Elgin's Mission to China and Japan 2Vols., Edinburgh and London: William Blackwood and Sons, 1860.

    Pratt, Mary Louise Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and Transculturation, London and New York: Routledge, 2008.

    Pelcovits, Nathan A. Old China Hands and the Foreign Office, New York: The King’s Crown Press, 1948.

    Rennie, The British Arms in North China and Japan: Peking 1860; Kagosima 1862, London: John Murray, 1864.

    Rennie, Peking and the Pekingese during the First Year of the British Embassy at Peking, 2Vols., London: John Murrary, Albemarle Street, 1865.

    Roberts, J. A. G. China Through Western Eyes: The Nineteenth Century, Stroud: Sutton Publishing, 1991.

    Said, Edward Orientalism, London: Penguin, 1977.

    Spence, Jonathan D. The Chan’s Great Continent: China in Western Minds, New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1999.

    Swinhoe, Robert Narrative of the North China Campaign of 1860, London: Smith, Elder and Co., 65, Cornhill, 1861.

    Tyerman, Christopher A History of Harrow School, 1324-1991, New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

    Wakeman, Frederic Jr., Strangers at the Gate: Social Disorder in South China, 1839-1861, California: University of California Press, 1997.

    Walrond, Theodore Letters and Journals of James, Eighth Earl of Elgin, London: John Murray, 1873.

    Williams, Samuel Wells The Middle Kingdom: A Survey of the Geography, Government, Education, Social, Life, Arts, Religion, &c., of the Chinese Empire and Its Inhabitants, 2 Vols., New York and London: Wiley and Putnam, 1848.

    Wolseley, Lieut. - Colonel G. J. Narrative of the War with China in 1860, London: Longman, Green, Longman, and Roberts, 1862.

    Wong, J. Y. Deadly Dreams: Opium, Imperialism and the Arrow War (1856-1860) in China, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

    Wright, Mary Clabaugh The Last Stand of Chinese Conservatism: The T'ung-Chih Restoration, 1862-1874, California: Stanford University Press,1957.

    Wylie, Alexander Memorials of Protestant Missionaries to the Chinese: Giving a List of their Publications, and Obituary Notices of the Deceased, Shanghae: American Presbyterian Mission Press, 1867.
    (三)論文

    Allen, Edward A. “Public School Elites in Early-Victorian England: The Boys at Harrow and Merchant Taylors’ Schools from 1825-1850”, Journal of British Studies, 21. 2 (Cambridge, 1982): 87-117.

    Aylmer, Charles “Sir Thomas Wade and the Centenary of Chinese Studies at Cambridge (1888-1988)”, Chinese Studies, 7.2 (1989), 405-422.

    Bamford, T. W. “Public Schools and Social Class, 1801-1850”, The British Journal of Sociology, 12.3 (London, 1961), 224-235.

    Cassel, Pär “Spelling like a State: Some Thoughts on the Manchu Origins of the Wade-Giles System”, Special Issue. Central Asiatic Journal 58.1-2:37-47.

    Cordier, Henri “Thomas Francis Wade”, T’oung Pao, 6.4 (1895), 407-412.

    Fry, Edward “China, England and Opium: The Chefoo Convention”, The Contemporary Review, Dec 1, 1877, 313-321.

    Hevia, L. James “An Imperial Noman and the Great Game: Thomas Francis Wade in China”, Late Imperial China, 16.2 (1995), 1-22.

    Wong J. Y. “Harry Parkes and the ‘Arrow’ War in China”, Modern Asian Studies, 9.3 (1975), 303-320.
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    歷史學系
    106153016
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0106153016
    Data Type: thesis
    DOI: 10.6814/NCCU202001055
    Appears in Collections:[歷史學系] 學位論文

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