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    Title: 推動優勢觀點個管模式之督導歷程與督導者因應策略之探究
    An Exploratory Study on the Supervision Process and Supervisors' Strategies to Promote the Utilization of the Strengths Model
    Authors: 鄧啟明
    Teng, Chi-Ming
    Contributors: 宋麗玉
    Song, Li-Yu
    鄧啟明
    Teng, Chi-Ming
    Keywords: 優勢觀點
    優點模式
    優勢觀點取向督導
    督導策略
    督導歷程
    strengths perspective
    strengths model
    strengths-based supervision
    supervisory strategies
    supervision process
    Date: 2020
    Issue Date: 2020-08-03 18:17:31 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 臺灣社工服務持續擴張,依循處遇理論發展本土社工督導知能迫在眉睫,本研究以近年來風行的「優勢觀點個管理模式(簡稱優點模式)」為實施理論,探究本取向督導者所發展出之督導信念和策略、優點督導歷程之督導焦點與使能策略,並進一步探究在新管理主義下,本取向督導模式在本土的適用性,翻轉當前社工所遭遇到的困境,培訓更多認同發展合作性及以優勢為本的助人者。
    本研究以詮釋學方法論為基底,透過立意取樣,選取國內有系統推展優點模式之社福組織的督導者和社工為研究對象,以半結構訪談大綱進行深入訪談。本研究共訪問12位督導者和4位社工,皆具有至少一年以上優點模式實務經驗。從其經驗中,本研究歸納出優勢觀點督導模式下,督導者的復元目標為「見證成長、肯定付出」,使能策略為「聚焦存有之優勢、促進反思與覺察、系統性視野凝聚認同」,所建構稱職的督導才能,在教育性督導功能為理論為本、實務智慧、學習力、界限與覺察力,在支持性督導功能為謙卑態度、關懷力,而在行政性督導功能則為領導力、協調力。本取向督導模式萃取出的六大督導信念,包括「受督者是督導關係中的指導者」、「督導關係是基本且必要的」、「聚焦於成就經驗,而非不足或懷疑」、「每個人都有能力學習、成長與改變」、「創造支持優勢觀點之服務脈絡」、「聚焦於尋找復元的意義和可能性」等,前四項以促進「我在、我有、我能和我想」等對話練習,激發改變動能、提升助人者之權能感,第五項則是創造支持推展優點的環境(機構、網絡、制度),最後,聚焦於助人者成為更好的自己。另一方面,研究發現在促進社工融合優勢觀點的歷程則包括「孵化-轉化-深化-活化」等優勢督導歷程,督導者著重的改變技術,包括「對話示範、覺察練習、促進反思」,體現的督導目標大致包括,(1)重視累積社工教育資本、(2)以親善關係發展優勢視角、(3)善用評量翻轉缺點思維、(4)關注進展提升續航力等。
    優勢觀點督導模式,強調督導者以優勢、謙卑的支持態度滋養受督者,增進其覺察與對話能力,從行動及反思修正處遇方向,陪伴受督者汲取諸多復元故事,從中體察進而彰顯其存有意義,建議本研究結果可以作為培訓督導知能之雛形,有效在組織中發揮傳承實務智慧的影響力。此外,本研究也針對成為督導者是趟終身學習之旅,就時間意識和助人關係等議題進行討論並提出建議。
    Social work services in Taiwan have been continuing to expand; in consequence, the supervision competency in indigenous social workers on the basis of the development of practice theory is imminent. This study takes the strengths model of case management, popular in recent years, as the implementation theory, and explores on the supervision belief and strategies from the supervisors and the focus and enabling strategies in the process of the model. And it further explores the indigenous applicability of this model under the new managerialism, flips over the current plight of social workers, and trains more helpers who identify with development coope-ration and strengths-based approaches.
    Based on hermeneutics, this study used purposive sampling to select 12 supervisors and 4 social workers in the social welfare organization who had successfully used the strengths model for at least one year, conducting in-depth interviews by using semi-structured interview outlines. In the participants’ experiences, this study summarized that the supervisor's recovery goal under the mode of the strengths-based supervision is "witnessing growth, recognizing giving ." The enabling strategies were "focusing on the strengths of being, promoting reflection and awareness, and cohesive identity of systematic vision. " In educational supervision, the competent abilities included "theory-base, practical wisdom, learning ability, boundary and awareness.” In the supportive supervision, they are humble attitude and caring. In the administrative supervision, the abilities are leadership and coordination. The six guiding beliefs extracted from the strengths-based supervision included "the supervisee is the director of the supervision process, the supervision relationship is primary and essential , focus on the achieved experiences rather than insufficiency or doubt , everyone has the ability to learn, grow and change, create a service context of supporting the strengths model, and focus on the meaning and possibility of finding recovery.” The first four promoted dialogue exercises such as “I am, I have, I can and I will” to stimulate a sense of motivation to change kinetic energy and empower others. The fifth was to create an environment (institutions, networks, systems) that supported the development of strengths. Ultimately, the last one was to focus on helping people become better themselves. On the other hand, the study found that processes in promoting the social workers’ integrated strengths perspective included "incubation-transformation-deepening-activation." The supervisor focused on change skills, including "dialogue demonstration, awareness exercise, and promotion of reflection." The objectives were generally including (1) attention to the accumulation of social workers’ education capital, (2) develop strengths perspective based on friendly relationship, (3) make good use of the strengths assessment to flip defective thinking, and (4) pay attention to progress to improve staying power.
    The strengths-based supervision model emphasized the supervisors with the strengths and humbly supportive attitude to nourish the supervisees, to enhance their awareness and dialogue ability, from the action and reflection of the direction of revision, and to accompany the supervisees to learn a lot of recovery stories, from which to manifest its meaning. It is suggested that the results of this study can be used as the prototype for training supervision, effectively exerting the influence on practical wisdom in the organization. In addition, the study also discusses and makes recommendations on topics such as lifelong learning journeys, time awareness and helping relationships for being supervisors.
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    國立政治大學
    社會工作研究所
    103264502
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    Data Type: thesis
    DOI: 10.6814/NCCU202000936
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