清代，臺灣社會隨著開墾的程度越高，行旅往來的需求也隨之增加，除了官渡、民渡外，也開始出現免費載人渡河的組織─「義渡」，傳統上將其分為兩種類型：官設義渡、民設義渡。本文以北臺灣的義渡作為案例梳理了義渡出現在臺灣的經緯，分析官設義渡與民設義渡成立和經營上的差異，並將民設義渡依經營者的身分分為個人/家族型、聯庄型，以及郊商型三種。 道光年間，婁雲在北臺灣創辦官設義渡，民設義渡也從此一時期開始蓬勃發展，隨著北臺灣已墾範圍的擴大，貿易活動的盛行促進了地方家族經濟力的提升，義渡的數量也在光緒年間來到了高峰。 1895年，臺灣進入日治時期以後，經歷土地調查與舊慣調查，官設義渡因為土地性質的緣故，不斷被無償借用，或是徵用作為公共建設之用地，進而導致義渡功能持續弱化，逐漸收歸國有。民設義渡則是在確定產權後，登記為財團法人，將義渡組織作為公共事業的一環，納入近代國家的管理範圍。 因為交通的革新，多數義渡的交通功能到1930年代中期左右幾乎全數消失。義渡的交通功能喪失後，義渡的資產回歸地方的廟宇或是地緣性組織，但也有部分團體持續協助政府從事基礎建設，投入其他的公益事業。 With the expansion of the reclamation in Taiwanese society during the Qing Dynasty, the demand for travel and transport increased. Apart from the official and private ferry, Yi-du, the organization that carries people to cross the rivers free, appeared. Traditionally, there are two types of Yi-Du—the official Yi-Du and the private Yi-Du. The research takes the Yi-Du of northern Taiwan as an example to illustrate the evolution of Taiwanese Yi-Du and analyze the differences in the foundation and operation between official and private Yi-Du. The private Yi-Du can be divided into 3 types according to the management pattern and the identity of the administrator : individual /family type, joint village type(聯庄型 ) and merchant guild type(郊商型 郊商型 ). During the Daoguang period, Lou-Yun(婁雲 ) set up the official Yi-Du in northern Taiwan and it was also at this period that the private Yi-Du started to flourish. The expansion of the cultivated area in northern Taiwan had prospered the trade activities and thereby improved the financial capacity of local family. The number of private Yi-Du reached a peak in the Guangxu period. Taiwan had gone through land and tradition investigation after entering the Japanese colonial period in 1895. Because of the property classification, the official Yi-Du was often under requisition for public construction, leading Yi-Du to loss of lands and transporting function, and thereby gradually nationalized. Whereas the private Yi-Du registered as foundation after the property right was determined, so as to bring Yi-Du into the domination of modern country as part of the public service. Many of the Yi-Du lost their transporting function in the mid-1930s due to the transportation reform. Parts of the assets returned to local temples or geographical groups while some Yi-Du organizations continue to cooperate with the government on the construction of infrastructure and devote themselves into public service.