Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Political Corruption and European Union Enlargement
|Issue Date: ||2020-09-02 13:13:33 (UTC+8)|
The enlargement of the European Union (EU) entails a vast range of issues. In addition to necessary institutional requirements, why are some countries more likely to become EU members than others? While previous studies have mainly focused on the role of economic factors, democratic regime, and cultural identity, few studies examine how levels of corruption affect the probability of EU accession. This thesis contends that the level of corruption is a crucial factor for the EU to consider an applicant country’s qualification for obtaining the candidacy status or the membership of the EU after the fifth enlargement (2004-2007). Specifically, I hypothesize that a higher level of corruption tends to reduce the probability of joining the EU, and such a reduction effect is stronger after 2007, compared to the effect before 2008. Using data for 19 European countries from 1990 to 2018, my quantitative analysis supports my hypothesis. The comparative case studies of Croatia and Kosovo further illustrates the impact of corruption on the prospect of joining the EU. Overall, this thesis aims to fill the gap in the literature of European Union politics and provide policy implications for countries that intend to apply for EU membership.
|Reference: ||Acharya, Amitav. 2014. Constructing a Security Community in Southeast Asia: ASEAN and the Problem of Regional Order. Abingdon: Routledge.|
Amundsen, Inge. 1999. Political Corruption: An Introduction to the Issues, Bergen, Norway: Chr. Michelsen Institute Development Studies and Human Rights.
Anderson, Benedict. 1991. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso.
Arslanagic, Sabina. 2010. “Killers of Prominent Croatian Editor Sentenced.” Balkan Insight. November 3. https://balkaninsight.com/2010/11/03/killers-of-prominent-croatian-journalist-sentenced. (Accessed December May 13, 2020).
Baldwin, Richard. 1989. “The Growth Effects of 1992.” Economic Policy 4(9): 247-281.
Batorashina, Irina A. 2011. “The Fifth Wave of the European Union Enlargement: Pro et Contra.” Baltic Region 3(1): 42-50.
BBC News. 2012. “Croatia jails ex-PM Ivo Sanader for taking bribes.” BBC News. November 20. 2012. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-20407006. (Accessed, April 28, 2020).
Beha, Adem. 2014. “Minority Rights: An Opportunity for Adjustment of Ethnic Relations in Kosovo.” Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe (JEMIE) 13(4): 85-110.
Beha, Adem and Gëzim Selaci. 2018. “Statebuilding Without Exit Strategy in Kosovo: Stability, Clientelism, and Corruption.” Regional Studies of Russia, Eastern Europe, and Central Asia 7(2): 97–123.
Belloni, Roberto and Francesco Strazzari. 2014. “Corruption in Post-Conflict Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo: a Deal among Friends.” Third World Quarterly 35(5): 855-871.
Belloni, Roberto. 2009. “European Integration and the Western Balkans: Lessons, Prospects and Obstacles.” Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies 11(3): 313–331.
Ben-Meir. 2019. ”Corruption in the Balkans Is Impeding EU Membership Addressing the Problem of Corruption in the Balkans is Central to the EU’s Geostrategic Interests and the Balkans’ Future Wellbeing.” The Globalist, January 11. https://www.theglobalist.com/european-union-membership-balkans-corruption (Accessed December 17, 2019).
BIRN. 2008. “Croatian Journalists Protest Beating.” Balkan Insight. June 6. https://balkaninsight.com/2008/06/06/croatian-journalists-protest-beating/. (Accessed May 14, 2020)
Boduszyński, Mietek. 2010. Regime Change in the Yugoslav Successor States: Divergent Paths Toward a New Europe. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Bokshi, Alban, Ibrahim Rexhepi, Leon Malazogu and Pëllumg Kallaba. 2011. “Assessment of Institutional Integrity Kosova 2011”. Kosovo Democratic Institution (KDI) and Transparency International Kosova (TIK).
Bosanac, Gordan. 2012. “Civil Society and EU Accession: The Croatian Experience.” https://eu-monitoring.ba/en/gordan-bosanac-civil-society-and-eu-accession-the-croatian-experience/. (Accessed May 12, 2020).
Box-Steffensmeier, Janet M., and Bradford S. Jones. 2004. Event History Modeling: A Guide for Social Scientists. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Brancati, Dawn. 2001. “The Wisdom of Widening: The Enlargement of the EU to Central and Eastern Europe.” Working paper, New York: Columbia University.
Burchill, Scott, Linklater Andrew Linklater, Richard Devetak, Jack Donnelly, Matthew Paterson, Christian Reus-Smit and Jacqui True. 2005. “Liberalism” In Theories of International Relations. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Čaldarović, Ognjen, Aleksandar Štulhofer, Krešimir Kufrin, Bojan Glavašević, Iva Odak, Margareta Gregurović. etal. 2009. “Combating Corruption in Croatia: From Expert Perceptions to Policy Oriented Action Strategies and Back.” Revija za sociologiju 40(2): 3-22.
Capussela, Andrea. 2015. State-Building in Kosovo: Democracy, Corruption and the EU in the Balkans. London: Tauris.
Checkel, T. Jeffrey. 2005. “International Institutions and Socialization in Europe: Introduction and Framework.” International Organization 59(4): 801-826.
Coppedge, Michael, John Gerring, Carl Henrik Knutsen, Staffan I. Lindberg, Jan Teorell, David Altman, Michael Bernhard, M. Steven Fish, Adam Glynn, Allen Hicken, Anna Lührmann, Kyle L. Marquardt, Kelly McMann, Pamela Paxton, Daniel Pemstein, Brigitte Seim, Rachel Sigman, Svend-Erik Skaaning, Jeffrey Staton, Steven Wilson, Agnes Cornell, Lisa Gastaldi, Haakon Gjerløw, Nina Ilchenko, Joshua Krusell, Laura Maxwell, Valeriya Mechkova, Juraj Medzihorsky, Josefine Pernes, Johannes von Römer, Natalia Stepanova, Aksel Sundström, Eitan Tzelgov, YitingWang, Tore Wig, and Daniel Ziblatt 2019. ”V-Dem Dataset v9” Varieties of Democracy (V-Dem) Project.
Currie, John. 1998. “NATO's Humanitarian Intervention in Kosovo: Making or Breaking International Law.” Canadian Yearbook of International Law 36: 303-334.
Danielsson, Anna. 2014. “On the Power of Informal Economies and the Informal Economies of Power: Rethinking Informality, Resilience and Violence in Kosovo.” PhD diss. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Uppsala.
de Wet, Erika. 2009. “The Governance of Kosovo: Security Council Resolution 1244 and the Establishment and Functioning of Eulex.” American Journal of International Law 103(1): 83-96.
Diez, Thomas and Antje Wiener. 2009. “Introducing the Mosaic of Integration Theory” In European Integration Theory, eds. Antje Wiener and Thomas Diez. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1–22.
Elbasani, Arolda and Senada S. Šabić. 2017. “Rule of Law, Corruption and Democratic Accountability in the course of EU Enlargement.” Journal of European Public Policy 25(9): 1317-1335.
European Commission. 2007. “Croatia 2007 Progress Report”. https://op.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/35ffefbb-8364-4370-95d9-8e2723857140. (Accessed April 9, 2020).
European Commission. 2008. “Croatia 2008 Progress Report”. https://ec.europa.eu/neighbourhood-enlargement/sites/near/files/pdf/press_corner/key-documents/reports_nov_2008/croatia_progress_report_en.pdf. (Accessed April 14, 2020).
European Commission. 2009. “Croatia 2009 Progress Report”. https://danube-inco.net/object/document/10750/attach/hr_rapport_2009_en.pdf. (Accessed April 19, 2020).
European Commission. 2010. “Croatia 2010 Progress Report”. https://ec.europa.eu/neighbourhood-enlargement/sites/near/files/pdf/key_documents/2010/package/hr_rapport_2010_en.pdf. (Accessed April 29, 2020).
European Commission. 2011. “Croatia 2011 Progress Report”. https://ec.europa.eu/neighbourhood-enlargement/sites/near/files/pdf/key_documents/2011/package/hr_rapport_2011_en.pdf. (Accessed May 14, 2020).
European Commission. 2011b. “EU Closes Accession Negotiations with Croatia.” https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/IP_11_824. (Accessed June 20, 2020).
European Commission. 2011c. “Interim Report from The Commission to the Council and The European Parliament on Reforms in Croatia in the Field of Judiciary and Fundamental Rights (Negotiation Chapter 23).” https://ec.europa.eu/neighbourhood-enlargement/sites/near/files/pdf/hp/interim_report_hr_ch23_en.pdf. (Accessed May 11, 2020).
European Commission. 2012a. Enlargement Strategy and Main Challenges 2012–2013. https://ec.europa.eu/neighbourhood-enlargement/sites/near/files/pdf/key_documents/2012/package/strategy_paper_2012_en.pdf. (Accessed April 4, 2020).
European Commission. 2012b. “Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on the Main Findings of the Comprehensive Monitoring Report on Croatia’s state of preparedness for EU membership”. https://ec.europa.eu/neighbourhood-enlargement/sites/near/files/pdf/key_documents/2012/package/hr_rapport_2012_en.pdf. (Accessed June 2, 2020).
European Commission. 2015. “Kosovo 2015 Report, Communication on EU Enlargement Policy: Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions”https://ec.europa.eu/neighbourhood-enlargement/sites/near/files/pdf/key_documents/2015/20151110_report_kosovo.pdf (Accessed June 1, 2020).
European Commission. 2017. “European Semester: Thematic factsheet – Fight against corruption - 2017”. https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/info/files/file_import/european-semester_thematic-factsheet_fight-against-corruption_en_0.pdf. (Accessed March 8, 2020).
European Commission. 2018a. “A credible enlargement perspective for and enhanced EU engagement with the Western Balkans” https://ec.europa.eu/commission/sites/beta-political/files/communication-credible-enlargement-perspective-western-balkans_en.pdf. (Accessed June 1, 2020).
European Commission. 2018b. “Visa Liberalisation: Commission Confirms Kosovo Fulfils all Required Benchmarks.” European Commission, July 18, 2018. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/IP_18_4562. (Accessed May 1, 2020).
European Commission. 2018c. “Strategy for the Western Balkans: EU sets out New Flagship Initiatives and Support for the Reform-driven Region.” 6 February 2018, European Commission. https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/IP_18_561. (Accessed June 3, 2020).
European Commission. 2019. “Kosovo 2019 Report, Communication on EU Enlargement Policy: Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions”. https://ec.europa.eu/neighbourhood-enlargement/sites/near/files/20190529-kosovo-report.pdf (Accessed June 2, 2020).
European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo (EULEX). 2015. “Kosovo Compact Progress Report 2015”. https://www.eulex-kosovo.eu/eul/repository/docs/CPReport_2N.pdf . (Accessed June 12. 2020).
European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo (EULEX). 2016. “Kosovo Compact Progress Report 2016”. https://www.eulex-kosovo.eu/eul/repository/docs/English-Report-2016.pdf. (Accessed June 14. 2020).
Finkel E. Steven, Aníbal Pérez-Liñán and Mitchell A. Seligson. 2007. “The Effects of U.S. Foreign Assistance on Democracy Building, 1990–2003.” World Politics 59(3): 404-439.
Freedom House. 2020. “Freedom in the World 2020”. https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2020/leaderless-struggle-democracy. (Accessed July 1, 2020).
Grabbe, Heather. 1999. “A Partnership for Accession? The Implications of EU Conditionality for the Central and East European Applicants.” Robert Schuman Centre Working Paper 99(12). https://www.researchgate.net/publication/252489498_A_Partnership_for_Accession_The_Implications_of_EU_Conditionality_for_the_Central_and_East_European_Applicants. (Accessed March 14, 2020).
Grabbe, Heather. 2002. “European Union Conditionality and the Acquis Communautaire.” International Political Science Review 23(3): 249-268.
Grabbe, Heather and Ulrich Sedelmeier. 2010. “The Future Shape of the European Union.” In Research Agendas in EU Studies: Stalking the Elephant, eds. Michelle Egan, Neill Nugent and William E. Paterson. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 375-395.
Greenwood, Christopher. 2000. “International Law and the NATO Intervention in Kosovo.” The International and Comparative Law Quarterly 49(4): 926-934.
Grubiša, Damir. 2010. “Anti-corruption Policy in Croatia: Benchmark for EU Accession.” Politička misao 47(5): 69–95.
Hehir, Aidan. 2007. “Kosovo's Final Status and the Viability of Ongoing International Administration.” Civil Wars 9(3): 243-261.
Hillion, Christophe. 2004. “The Copenhagen Criteria and Their Progeny.” In EU Enlargement: A Legal Approach, ed. Christophe Hillion, 1-21. Oxford: Hart Publishing.
Hooghe, Liesbet and Gary Marks. 2004. “Does Identity or Economic Rationality Drive Public Opinion on European Integration?” Political Science and Politics 37(3): 415-20.
Huntington, Samuel. 1993. “The Clash of Civilizations” Foreign Affairs 72(3): 22-49.
Huntington, Samuel. 1996. The Clash of Civilisations and the Remaking of World Order. New York: Touchstone.
Ilic, Igor. 2009. “Croatia’s PM Sanader Resigns, Quits Politics.” Reuters. July. https://in.reuters.com/article/idINIndia-40733720090701. (Accessed April 11, 2020).
International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD). 2008. “European Commission Freezes Subsidies to Romania and Bulgaria over Charges of Corruption.” IISD. September 1. https://www.iisd.org/gsi/news-events/european-commission-freezes-subsidies-romania-and-bulgaria-over-charges-corruption. (Accessed December May 11, 2020).
Jovič, Dejan. 2006. “Croatia and the European Union: A Long Delayed Journey.” Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies 8(1): 85.
Judah, Tim. 2000. “The Kosovo Liberation Army.” Journal of International Affairs 61-77.
Kartal, Mert. 2014. “Accounting for the Bad Apples: the EU's Impact on National Corruption Before and After Accession.” Journal of European Public Policy 21(6): 941- 959.
Katchanovski, Ivan. 2011. “Puzzles of EU and NATO Accession of Post-Communist Countries.” Perspectives on European Politics and Society 12(3): 304–319.
Kosovar Institute for Policy Research and Development (KIPRED). 2016. “Impunity in Kosovo: The Fight Against High Profile Corruption.” January 2016. http://www.kipred.org/repository/docs/Final_4th_Paper_2016_Impunity_in_Kosovo_The_Fight_Against_High_Profile_Corruption_247857.pdf. (Accessed Februar 11, 2020).
Knudsen, Rita Augestad. 2013. “Privatization in Kosovo: ‘Liberal Peace’ in Practice.” Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding 7(3): 287–307.
Kochenov, Dimitry. 2008. “Commission's Fusion of Democracy and the Rule of Law.” In EU Enlargement and the Failure of Conditionality: Pre Accession Conditionality in the Fields of Democracy and the Rule of Law. The Netherlands: Kluwer Law International, 85-117.
Kolo, Philip. 2012. “Measuring a New Aspect of Ethnicity: The Appropriate Diversity Index.” Ibero America Institute for Economic Research (IAI) Discussion Papers 221. Goettingen, Germany: Ibero‐America Institute for Economic Research. https://www.econstor.eu/handle/10419/92997. (Accessed Januar 4, 2020).
Kosova Anti-Corruption Agency (KACA). 2010. “Anti-Corruption Strategy 2009-2011.” https://www.akk-ks.org/repository/docs/Strategjia_-_versioni_final_anglisht_-_janar_2010.pdf. (Accessed Februar 4, 2020).
Kosovo Anti-Corruption Agency (KACA). 2019. “Annual Report”. https://www.akk-ks.org/en/publikimet/107/raporte/107. (Accessed May 20, 2020).
Kuris, Gabriel. 2013. “Cleaning House: Croatia Mops Up High-Level Corruption, 2005-2012.” Princeton, NJ: Princeton University, Innovations for Successful Societies website. http://successfulsocieties.princeton.edu/sites/successfulsocieties/files/Policy_Note_ID226.pdf. (Accessed June 11, 2020).
Kuris, Gabriel. 2015a. “How a Resurgent Antigraft Bureau Helped Croatia Turn a Corner on Corruption.” In Government Anti-Corruption Strategies: A Cross-Cultural Perspective, eds. Yahong Zhang and Cecilia Lavena. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. 167-186.
Kuris, Gabriel. 2015b. “The Little Anti-Corruption Agency That Could.” Foreign Policy. August. https://foreignpolicy.com/2015/08/07/the-little-anti-corruption-agency-that-could/. (Accessed May 15, 2020).
Kuris, Gabriel. 2019. “Comparing Peer-Based Anti-Corruption Missions in Kosovo and Guatemala.” U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Center 6: 1-46.
Lischer, Sarah Kenyon. 2007. “Military Intervention and the Humanitarian ‘Force Multiplier’.”. Global Governance 13(1): 99-118.
Lilyanova, Velina. 2017. “Anti-corruption Efforts in the Western Balkans” European Parliamentary Research. https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2017/599417/EPRS_BRI(2017)599417_EN.pdf. (Accessed January 4, 2020).
Marović, Jovana, Tena Prelec and Marko Kmezić, M. 2019. “Strengthening the Rule of Law in the Western Balkans: Call for a Revolution against Particularism.” The Balkans in Europe Policy Advisory Group (BiEPAG). https://biepag.eu/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Strengthening-the-Rule-of-Law.pdf. (Accessed June 28, 2020).
Mattli, Walter and Thomas Plümper. 2002. “The Demand-side Politics of EU Enlargement: Democracy and the Application for EU membership.” Journal of European Public Policy 9(4): 550-574.
Moravcsik, Andrew. 1993. “Preferences and Power in the European Community: A Liberal Intergovernmentalist Approach.” Journal of Common Market Studies 31(4): 473-524.
Nenadović, Meja. 2010. “An Uneasy Symbiosis: The Impact of International Administrations on Political Parties in Postconflict Countries.” Democratization 17(6): 1153-1175.
Niksic, Sabina. 2010. “Former PM Stuns Croatia by Announcing Return to Politics.” Balkan Insight. January 4. https://balkaninsight.com/2010/01/04/former-pm-stuns-croatia-by-announcing-return-to-politics/. (Accessed May 11, 2020).
Noutcheva, Gergana and Dimitar Bechev. 2008. “The Successful Laggards: Bulgaria and Romania’s Accession to the EU.” East European Politics and Societies 22(1): 114-144.
Nye, S. Joseph. 1967. “Corruption and Political Development: A Cost-Benefit Analysis.” American Political Science Review 61(2): 417-427.
Open Society Institute. 2002. “Monitoring the EU Accession Progress: Corruption and Anti-corruption Policy.” Open Society Institute, Budapest. Parliamentary Research. https://www.esiweb.org/pdf/bulgaria_OSI-EUMAP-corruption-CEE-2002.pdf. (Accessed June 4, 2020).
Pavelic, Boris. 2011. “Croatia’s Kukuriku Coalition Ousts HDZ.” Balkan Insight, December 5. https://balkaninsight.com/2011/12/05/croatia-s-kukuriku-coalition-ousts-hdz/. (Accessed May 29, 2020).
Pew Reasearch Center. 2017. “World Muslim Population by Country”. https://www.pewforum.org/chart/interactive-data-table-world-muslim-population-by-country/. (Accessed July 2, 2020).
Pollack, A Mark. 1993. “International Relations Theory and European Integration.” Journal of Common Market Studies 39(2): 221-244
Pridham, Geoffrey. 2007. “Romania and EU Membership in Comparative Perspective: A Post-accession Compliance Problem? The Case of Political Conditionality.” Perspectives on European Politics and Society 8(2): 168-188.
Radosavljevic, Zoran. 2014. “Croatia's ex-PM, Biggest Party Sentenced over Slush Funds.” Reuters. March 11. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-croatia-corruption/croatias-ex-pm-biggest-party-sentenced-over-slush-funds-idUSBREA2A0MI20140311. (Accessed June 12, 2020).
Risse, Thomas. 2004. “Social constructivism and European integration.” In European Integration Theory, eds. Antje Wiener and Thomas Diez. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 145-159.
Risse, Thomas. 2005. “Neofunctionalism, European Identity, and the Puzzles of European Integration.” Journal of European Public Policy 12(2): 291-309.
Risse, Thomas. 2012. “Identity Matters: Exploring the Ambivalence of EU Foreign Policy.” Global Policy 3(1) 87–95.
Rosamond, Ben. 2007. “The Political Sciences of European Integration: Disciplinary History and EU Studies.” In Handbook of European Union Politics, eds. Knud Erik Jørgensen, Mark A. Pollack and Ben Rosamond. London: Sage, 7-30.
Russell, Martin. 2019. “Serbia-Kosovo Relations Confrontation or Normalisation?.” European Parliament Breifing. European Parliamentary Research Service. https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2019/635512/EPRS_BRI(2019)635512_EN.pdf. (Accessed March 14, 2020).
Schimmelfennig, Frank and Berthold Rittberger. 2015. “The EU as a System of Differentiated Integration: A Challenge for Theories of European Integration?” In European Union: Power and Policy-Making, eds. Jeremy Richardson and Sonia Mazey. Abingdon: Routledge, 33-63.
Schimmelfennig, Frank and Sedelmeier Ulrich. 2002. “Theorizing EU Enlargement: Research Focus, Hypotheses, and the State of Research.” Journal of European Public Policy 9(4): 500-528.
Schimmelfennig, Frank and Ulrich Sedelmeier. 2006. “The Study of EU Enlargement: Theoretical Approaches and Empirical Findings.” In Palgrave Advances in European Union Studies, eds. Angela K. Bourne and Michelle Cini. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 96-117.
Schimmelfennig, Frank. 2001. “The Community Trap: Liberal Norms, Rhetorical Action, and the Eastern Enlargement of the European Union.” International Organization 55(1): 47–80.
Schimmelfennig, Frank. 2002. “Liberal Community and Enlargement: an Event History Analysis.” Journal of European Public Policy 9(4): 598-626.
Schimmelfennig, Frank. 2003. The EU, NATO and the Integration of Europe. Rules and Rhetoric. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Schimmelfennig, Frank. 2010. “Integration Theory.” In Research Agendas in EU Studies: Stalking the Elephant, eds. Michelle Egan, Neill Nugent and William E. Paterson. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 37-54.
Sedelmeier, Ulrich. 2011. “Europeanisation in New Member and Candidate States.” Living Reviews of European Government 6(1): 1-52.
Šeperić, Darko. 2011. “To Europe and Back - The Croatian EU Accession Process and Its Outcomes.” SEER Journal for Labour and Social Affairs in Eastern Europe 14(4): 463-480.
Sleck, J. Torsten and Renke Deckarm. 2013. “Research Note A Cultured Club: Explaining EU Membership.” Turkish Journal of Politics 4(2): 127-132.
Smith, Alasdair and Anthony Venables. 1988. "Completing the Internal Market in the European Community: Some Industry Simulations." European Economic Review 32: 1501-1525.
Sörensen, S. Jens. 2009. “Adaptaion and Resistance in a New Social Formation: Aspects of Cohesion and Fragmentation in Serbia Proper and in Kosovo.” In State collapse and Reconstruction in the Periphery: Political economy, Ethnicity and Development in Yugoslavia, Serbia and Kosovo. New York : Berghahn Books. 183-221.
Southeast European Leadership for Development and Integrity (SELDI). 2016. “Assessment of Corruption in Kosovo 2016.” Riinvest Institute. https://www.riinvestinstitute.org/uploads/files/2016/September/20/Assessment_of_Corruption_in_Kosovo1474359621.pdf. (Accessed June 2, 2020).
Spendzharova, Aneta and Milada AnnaVachudova. 2012. “Catching Up? Consolidating Liberal Democracy in Bulgaria and Romania.” West European Politics 35(1): 39-58.
Štulhofer, Aleksandar. 2004. “Perception of Corruption and the Erosion of Social Capital in Croatia 1995–2003.” Croatian Political Science Review 41(5): 74–86.
Sutaj, Visar and Artan Canhasi. 2015. “National Integrity System Assessment Kosovo” Kosova Democratic Institute (KDI) and Transparency International Kosova (TIK). http://kdi-kosova.org/wp-content/uploads/publikime/72-kdi-nis-eng_all_single_final.pdf. (Accessed Februar 11, 2020).
Tomić, Slobodan. 2019. “Croatia (Case Study 5): Bureau for the Suppression of Organised Crime and Corruption (USKOK).” In Leadership, Institutions and Enforcement:Anti-Corruption Agencies in Serbia, Croatia and Macedonia. Palgrave Macmillan, 155-182.
Transparency International. 2016. “Fighting Corruption in the Western Balkans and Turkey: Priorities for Reform.” https://www.transparency.org/whatwedo/publication/fighting_corruption_in_th e_western_balkans_and_turkey_priorities_for_reform. (Accessed December 26, 2019).
Vachudova, Milada Anna. 2009. "Corruption and Compliance in the EU's Post- Communist Members and Candidates." Journal of Common Market Studies 47(1): 43-62.
Vachudova, Milada Anna. 2014. “EU Leverage and National Interests in the Balkans: The Puzzles of Enlargement Ten Years On.” Journal of Common Market Studies 52(1): 122-138.
Wallace, Claire. 2002. “Opening and Closing Borders: Migration and Nobility in East- Central Europe.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 28(4): 603-625.
Warner, M. Carolyn. 2007. The Best System Money Can Buy: Corruption in the European Union. New York: Cornell University Press.
Weller, Marc. 1999. “The Rambouillet Conference on Kosovo.” International Affairs 75(2): 221-251.
Woolridge, Jeffrey M. 2003. “Cluster-Sample Methods in Applied Econometrics.” American Economic Review 93(2): 133–138.
World Bank. 2020. “World Development Indicators 2020”. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ (Accessed July 5, 2020).
Zhelyazkova, Asya, Ivan Damjanovski, Zoran Nechev and Frank Schimmelfennig. 2018. “European Union Conditionality in the Western Balkans: External Incentives and Europeanisation.” In The Europeanisation of the Western Balkans a failure of EU Conditionality?, eds. Jelena Džankić, Soeren Keil and Marko Kmezić. Palgrave MacMillan, 15-39.
Zorn, Christopher. 2006. “Comparing GEE and Robust Standard Errors for Conditionally Dependent Data.” Political Research Quarterly 59(3): 329-341.
|Source URI: ||http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0107862012|
|Data Type: ||thesis|
|Appears in Collections:||[國際研究英語碩士學位學程] 學位論文|
Files in This Item:
All items in 政大典藏 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.