English  |  正體中文  |  简体中文  |  Post-Print筆數 : 27 |  Items with full text/Total items : 93218/123590 (75%)
Visitors : 27717072      Online Users : 541
RC Version 6.0 © Powered By DSPACE, MIT. Enhanced by NTU Library IR team.
Scope Tips:
  • please add "double quotation mark" for query phrases to get precise results
  • please goto advance search for comprehansive author search
  • Adv. Search
    HomeLoginUploadHelpAboutAdminister Goto mobile version
    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/131932


    Title: 拉丁美洲的性別不平等、族群分歧和經濟增長
    Gender Inequality, Ethnic Cleavages, and Economic Growth in Latin America
    Authors: 丹尼斯·平托
    Pinto, Denise
    Contributors: 蘇彥斌
    Yen-Pin Su
    丹尼斯·平托
    Denise Pinto
    Keywords: 性別落差
    族群分歧
    經濟成長
    拉丁美洲
    玻利維亞
    智利
    Gender gap
    ethnical fractionalization
    economic growth
    Latin America
    Bolivia
    Chile
    Date: 2020
    Issue Date: 2020-09-02 13:14:21 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 近期已有不少研究探討性別不平等的現象對於一國經濟表現的影響,然而,相關的實證結果莫衷一是。本論文主張,性別不平等對於一國經濟成長的效應視該國的族群分歧程度而定。具體而言,本論文假設:性別不平等與族群分歧對於經濟成長的交互作用將會降低經濟成長。本論文聚焦於教育、勞力與就業三個層面的性別不平等,並利用18個拉丁美洲國家在1980年至2018年的資料進行分析。本論文的實證分析結果顯示,當一國的性別不平等情況愈嚴重,而且其族群分歧程度愈高時,則該國會出現較低的經濟成長率。除了量化分析之外,本論文亦透過玻利維亞與智利的比較案例研究,說明經濟成長如何受到性別不平等與族群分歧程度的交互作用所影響。總體而言,本論文試圖為政治經濟學的文獻提供補充觀點,同時也為開發中國家的經濟發展提供政策啟發。
    Recent literature has been analyzing the key role of gender inequality for explaining economic performance. However, findings about the effects of gender inequality are inconclusive. In this thesis, I contend that the effect of gender inequality on economic growth is conditional on ethnic fractionalization. I hypothesize that the combined effect of greater levels of gender gaps and ethnic cleavage reduces economic growth. Focusing on gender inequality in education, labor force, and employment, I empirically test my hypothesis based on data in 18 Latin American countries from 1980 to 2018. The quantitative analyses demonstrate that that a country with a wider gender gap and a higher degree of ethnic fractionalization is more likely to have low economic growth. The qualitative comparative case studies of Bolivia and Chile further illustrate how economic performance is affected by the interaction effects of gender gaps and ethnic fractionalization. Overall, this thesis aims to fill the gap in the literature of political economy and provide policy implications for the economic development of developing countries.
    Reference: Alesina, Alberto, Arnaud Devleeschauwer, William Easterly, Sergio Kurlat, and Romain Wacziarg. 2003. “Fractionalization”. Journal of Economic Growth 8(2): 155-194.
    Baez, Cristian. 2018. “Reflections on the Afro-Chilean Social Movement: We Entered as Blacks, and We Left as Afro descendants and Afro-Chileans Appeared on the Scene”. ReVista: Harvard Review of Latin America. https: //revista. drclas. Harvard. edu/book/reflections-afro-chilean-social-movement-we-entered-blacks-and-we-left? (Accessed July 31, 2020).
    Banda, Fareda and Christine Chinkin. 2004. “Report Gender, Minorities and Indigenous Peoples”. https: //minorityrights. org/advocacy-statements/report-launch-gender-minorities-and- indigenous-peoples/ (Accessed December 19, 2019).
    Becker, Gary, Edward Glaeser, and Kevin Murphy. 1999. “Population and Economic Growth”. American Economic Review 89(2): 145–149.
    Braunstein, Elissa. 2012. “Neoliberal Development Macroeconomics: A Consideration of its Gendered Employment Effects”. UNRISD Research Paper 2012-1, United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD).
    Collier, Paul. 2001. “Ethnic Diversity: An Economic Analysis”. Economic Policy 32: 127–66.
    Cruz, Cesi, Philip Keefer, and Carlos Scartascini. 2018. Database of Political Institutions 2017 (DPI2017). Inter-American Development Bank. Available at https: //mydata. iadb. org/Reform-Modernization-of-the-State/ Database-of-Political-Institutions-2017/938i-s2bw.
    De Gregorio, Jose, and Jong-Wha Lee. 1999. “Economic Growth in Latin America: Sources and Prospects”. Paper prepared for the Global Development Network Conference, Cairo, Egypt.
    De Paula, Carmen. 2018. Gender Gaps in Chile : An Overview. Washington, D. C: World Bank Group.
    Easterly, William and Ross Levine. 1997. “Africa's Growth Tragedy: Policies and Ethnic Divisions”. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 112(4): 1203–1250.
    ECLAC. 2014. Guaranteeing Indigenous People’s Rights in Latin America. Progress in the Past Decade and Remaining Challenges. Summary. Santiago, Chile: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, United Nations.
    ECLAC. 2016. The Social Inequality Matrix in Latin America. Santiago, Chile: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, United Nations.
    ECLAC. 2017. Social Panorama of Latin America, 2016. Santiago, Chile: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, United Nations.
    ECLAC. 2018. Afro Descendent Women in Latin America and the Caribbean: Debts of Equality. Santiago, Chile: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, United Nations.
    ECLAC. 2019a. Social Panorama of Latin America, 2019. Santiago, Chile: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, United Nations.
    ECLAC. 2019b. Gender Equality Plans in Latin America and the Caribbean: Road Maps for Development. Santiago, Chile: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, United Nations.
    Freedom House. 2020. Freedom in the World Data. Available at https: //freedomhouse. org/report/freedom-world.
    Goodrick, Delwyn. 2014. Comparative Case Studies: Methodological Briefs - Impact Evaluation No. 9. Florence, Italy: United Nations.
    International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance. 2020. Data & Tools | International IDEA. Available at https: //www. idea. int/data-tools.
    International Labour Office. 2013. “Statistics of Work, Employment and Labour Underutilization”. In Geneva. https: //www. ilo. org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---stat/documents/publication/wcms_220535. pdf.
    Jimenez, Wilson and Miguel Vera. (2010). Indigenous Population and Differences in Access to Primary Education in Bolivia. Ottawa: FOCAL.

    Johnson, Burke, and Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie. 2004. “Mixed Methods Research: A Research Paradigm Whose Time Has Come”. Educational Researcher 33(7): 14-26.
    Kabeer, Naila, and Luisa Natali. 2013. “Gender Equality and Economic Growth: Is There a Win-Win”? IDS Working Papers 2013(417): 1–58.
    Klasen, Stephan. 2000. Does Gender Inequality Reduce Growth and Development: Evidence from Cross-Country Regressions (English)? Policy research report on gender and development working paper series; no. 7 Washington, D. C: World Bank Group. http: //documents. worldbank. org/curated/en/612001468741378860/Does-gender-inequality-reduce-growth-and-development-evidence-from-cross-country-regressions (Accessed December 13, 2019).
    Klasen, Stephan. 2002. “Low Schooling for Girls, Slower Growth for All? Cross‐Country Evidence on the Effect of Gender Inequality in Education on Economic Development”. The World Bank Economic Review 16(3): 345-373.
    Klasen, Stephan and Francesca Lamanna. 2009. “The Impact of Gender Inequality in Education and Employment on Economic Growth: New Evidence for a Panel of Countries”. Feminist Economics 15(3): 91-132.
    Lundvall, Jonna Maria, Santiago Garriga, Anna Tabitha Bonfert, Emcet Oktay Tas and Maria Villegas-Otero. 2015. Bolivia - Challenges and Constraints to Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment. Washington, D. C: World Bank Group.
    Mainwaring, Scott, and Aníbal Pérez-Liñán. 2013. Democracies and Dictatorships in Latin America – Replication Dataset. University of Notre Dame and University of Pittsburgh. Available at http: //kellogg. nd. edu/democracies-materials. shtml.
    Minority Rights Group. 2019. “Chile - Minority Rights Group”. https: //minorityrights. org/country/chile/ (Accessed May 16, 2020).
    Montalvo, José G. and Marta Reynal-Querol. 2005. "Ethnic Polarization, Potential Conflict, and Civil Wars”. American Economic Review 95(3): 796-816.
    North, Douglass C. 1991. “Institutions”. The Journal of Economic Perspectives 5(1): 97-112.
    OHCHR. 2011. Manual on Human Rights Monitoring: Integrating Gender into Human Rights Monitoring. Geneva, New York: Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, United Nations.
    Raul Madrid. 2016. Latin American Ethnicity Database. University of Texas Austin. Available at https: //raulmadrid. org/.
    Richards, Patricia. 2005. “The Politics of Gender, Human Rights, and Being Indigenous in Chile”. Gender and Society 19(2): 199-220.
    Rodrik, Dani. 2002. “Institutions, Integration, and Geography: in Search of the Deep Determinants of Economic Growth”. https: //wcfia. Harvard. edu/publications/institutions-integration-and-geography-search-deep-determinants-economic-growth (Accessed December 20, 2019).
    Sachs, Jeffrey D. and Andrew Warner. 1995. “Economic Reform and the Process of Global Integration”. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 26: 1-118.
    Seguino, Stephanie. 2000a. “Gender Inequality and Economic Growth: A Cross-Country Analysis”. World Development 28(7): 1211-1230.
    Seguino, Stephanie. 2000b. “Accounting for Gender in Asian Economic Growth”. Feminist Economics 6(3): 27-58.
    Seguino, Stephanie. 2010. “Gender, Distribution, and Balance of Payments Constrained Growth in Developing Countries”. Review of Political Economy 22(3): 373–404.
    Stromquist, Nelly. 2001. “What Poverty Does to Girls’ Education: The Intersection of Class, Gender and Policy in Latin America”. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education 31(1): 39-56.

    UNDP. 2019a. “Inequalities in Human Development in the 21st Century a Briefing Note for Countries on the 2019 Human Development Report Bolivia (Plurinational State Of Bolivia)”. http: //hdr. undp. org/sites/all/themes/hdr_theme/country-notes/BOL. pdf.
    UNDP. 2019b. “Inequalities in Human Development in the 21st Century: Briefing Note for Countries on the 2019 Human Development Report, Chile.” http: //hdr. undp. org/sites/all/themes/hdr_theme/country-notes/CHL. pdf.
    United Nations. 2019a. “Goal 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth”. https: //www. un. org/sustainabledevelopment/economic-growth/ (Accessed December 13, 2019).
    United Nations. 2019b. “Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and Disability | United Nations Enable”. https: //www. un. org/development/desa/disabilities/about-us/sustainable-development-goals-sdgs-and-disability. html (Accessed May 16, 2020).
    Villarroel, Gratzia. 2011. “Bolivian Women: Making the Revolution”. ReVista: Harvard Review of Latin America. https: //revista. drclas. harvard. edu/book/bolivian-women (Accessed July 31, 2020).
    Werner, Alejandro. 2020. “Outlook for Latin America and the Caribbean: New Challenges to Growth”. IMF Blog. https: //blogs. imf. org/2020/01/29/outlook-for-latin-america-and-the-caribbean-new-challenges-to-growth/ (Accessed June 16, 2020).
    World Bank. 2012. “World Development Report 2012: Gender Equality and Development”. https: //openknowledge. worldbank. org/handle/10986/ (Accessed December 19, 2019).
    World Bank. 2013. Inclusion Matters: The Foundation for Shared Prosperity. Washington, DC: World Bank.
    World Bank. 2015. Indigenous Latin America in the Twenty-First Century. Washington, DC: World Bank.
    World Bank. 2018. “World Development Indicators 2018”. https: //openknowledge. worldbank. org/handle/10986/26447 (Accessed December 19, 2019).
    World Bank. 2019. World Bank Open Data. Available at https: //data. worldbank. org/ .
    World Bank. 2020a. “The World Bank in Bolivia”. https: //www. worldbank. org/en/country/bolivia/overview (Accessed May 27, 2020).
    World Bank. 2020b. “The World Bank in Chile”. https: //www. worldbank. org/en/country/bolivia/overview (Accessed May 27, 2020).
    World Bank Group. 2020. “World Bank Climate Change Knowledge Portal”. https: //climateknowledgeportal. worldbank. org/ (May 27, 2020).
    Young, Alwyn. 1995. “The Tyranny of Numbers: Accounting for the Economic Miracle in East Asia”. Quarterly Journal of Economics 110(3): 641-680.
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    國際研究英語碩士學位學程(IMPIS)
    107862018
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0107862018
    Data Type: thesis
    DOI: 10.6814/NCCU202001355
    Appears in Collections:[國際研究英語碩士學位學程] 學位論文

    Files in This Item:

    File Description SizeFormat
    201801.pdf1517KbAdobe PDF9View/Open


    All items in 政大典藏 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.


    社群 sharing

    著作權政策宣告
    1.本網站之數位內容為國立政治大學所收錄之機構典藏,無償提供學術研究與公眾教育等公益性使用,惟仍請適度,合理使用本網站之內容,以尊重著作權人之權益。商業上之利用,則請先取得著作權人之授權。
    2.本網站之製作,已盡力防止侵害著作權人之權益,如仍發現本網站之數位內容有侵害著作權人權益情事者,請權利人通知本網站維護人員(nccur@nccu.edu.tw),維護人員將立即採取移除該數位著作等補救措施。
    DSpace Software Copyright © 2002-2004  MIT &  Hewlett-Packard  /   Enhanced by   NTU Library IR team Copyright ©   - Feedback