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    Title: 從氣候正義看德國氣候財務機制
    Germany Climate Finance Mechanism from the Perspective of Climate Justice
    Authors: 陳韻如
    Chen, Yun-Ju
    Contributors: 楊文琪
    陳韻如
    Chen, Yun-Ju
    Keywords: 氣候正義
    分配正義
    程序正義
    代際正義
    羅爾斯正義論
    氣候財務機制
    Climate justice
    Distributive justice
    Procedural justice
    Intergenerational justice
    Theory of justice
    Climate finance mechanism
    Date: 2020
    Issue Date: 2021-02-01 14:27:17 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 氣候變遷對全世界數百萬甚至數十億人的人權產生深遠影響,一般來說,那些最容易受到氣候影響的人民很少造成地球環境的負擔,而他們在資源已經很少的情況下,卻又要為氣候變遷付出巨大代價,因而產生氣候正義的問題。其中,已開發國家排放溫室氣體所引發的「負外部性」是其中最不公不義之處。然而,氣候變遷是一全球現象,需要的是全球共同努力。有鑑於此,已開發國家透過氣候財務機制援助他國日益頻繁之際,本文以氣候正義評估指標作為分析框架,考察德國氣候財務機制是否符合氣候正義原則。

    氣候變遷不僅是科學和經濟問題,同時也是倫理道德問題;倫理道德又與氣候正義息息相關,處理的是責任的分配與能力的負擔;其分為分配正義、程序正義、代際正義三個面向,若不能同時符合三者之標準,就無法實現學者羅爾斯之公平正義原則。本核心研究問題為德國氣候財務機制是否符合氣候正義原則,筆者透過導引出的初探性氣候正義評估指標框架與氣候財務機制分析二部曲,將理論與實務結合應用在德國氣候財務機制,並依以上基礎,評估氣候正義操作化結果,以供未來相關氣候資金機制設計者有建設性的參考。
    Climate change has a profound impact on human rights. Generally speaking, those people who are most vulnerable to climate change rarely burden the earth's environment. At the same time, it has to pay a huge price for climate change, which has created the issue of climate justice. In view of this, as developed countries use climate finance mechanisms to aid other countries more and more frequently, this article uses climate justice evaluation indicator as an analysis framework to examine whether Germany's climate finance mechanism complies with climate justice principles.

    Climate change is not only a scientific and economic issue, but also an ethical issue. Ethics and morality are closely related to climate justice, dealing with the distribution of responsibilities and the burden of capacity; it is divided into three aspects: distributive justice, procedural justice, and intergenerational justice. If the standards of the three cannot be met at the same time, the principle of fairness and justice of Rawls cannot be realized. On the basis of the above, whether the German climate financial mechanism complies with the principles of climate justice is this paper’s core research question. Hope the operational indicators and evaluation of climate justice framework can give future scholars constructive reference of designing relevant climate finance mechanisms.
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    Selin, H. (2016). “Climate Finance and Developing Countries: The Need for Regime Development,” Global Economic Governance, 9, pp. 3-13.
    Shahar, D. (2009). “Justice and Climate Change T%rtarian Analysis,” The Independent Review, 14(2), pp. 219-237.
    Vanderheiden, S.(2013). “What Justice Theory and Climate-Change Politics Can Learn from Each Other,” Political Science and Politics, 46(1), pp. 18-22.
    Vermunt, R. & Törnblom, K. (2015). “Introduction: Distributive and procedural justice,” Social Justice Research, 9(4), pp. 305-310.
    Voigt, C. (2016). “The Compliance and Implementation Mechanism of the Paris Agreement,” Review of European Community & International Environmental Law, 25(2), pp. 161-173.
    (四) 碩博士論文
    Agarwal, A. & Narain, S. (2003). “Global Warming in an unequal world, a case of environmental colonialism,” Centre For Science and Environment.
    Durkin, A. (2016). “The Development of a Preference for Procedural Justice,” Yale University, pp. 24.
    Friman, M. (2013). “Historical responsibility: Assessing the past in international climate Negotiations,” Linkoeping University, Department of Thematic Studies in Arts and Science, pp. 1-71.
    King, D., et, al. (2012). “The response of China, India and Brazil to climate change: a perspective for South Africa,” Centre for Development and Enterprise by Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment, University of Oxford.
    MacGregor, S. & Szerszynski, B. (2003). “Environmental Citizenship and the Administration of Life,” paper presented at “Citizenship and the Environment” Workshop, Newcastle University, pp. 4-6.
    Mulgaonkar, P. “Toward a Climate Justice Frame: How Social Movement Organizations Articulate Climate Change,” Honors Thesis in Environmental Studies, New York University, College of Arts and Science, Undergraduate., pp. 11.
    Perez, A., et al. (2015). “Evolution of the environmental justice movement: activism, formalization and differentiation,” Environmental Research Letters, pp. 1-13.
    Prior, T. (2013). “Addressing Climate Vulnerability: Promoting the Participatory Rights of Indigenous Peoples and Women through Finnish Foreign Policy,” University of Lapland Printing Centre, pp. 11-16.
    Silveira, A. (2016). “The multiple meanings of justice in the context of the transition to a low carbon economy,” a working paper presented at Cambridge Institute for Sustainability Leadership, University Cambridge, pp. 1-20.
    Walsh, S. & Whalley, J. (2009). “Bridging the North-South Divide on Climate Post Copenhagen,” Centre for International Governance Innovation, 17, pp. 1-8.
    (五) 網路資源
    An initiative by SEEK Development. (2017). “Germany Donor Profile,” available from: https://donortracker.org/sites/default/files/donor_pdfs/DonorTracker_profile_Germany.pdf.
    Appunn, K. & Russell, R. & Thalman, E. (2015). “Controversial climate summit issues –positions in Germany, ” Clean Energy Wire, available from: https://www.cleanenergywire.org/factsheets/controversial-climate-summit-issues-positions-germany.
    “Aid Transparency Index 2018,” What You Fund, pp. 1-28, available from: www.publishwhatyoufund.org.
    Bruno, K., Karliner, J. & Brotsky, C. (1999). “Greenhouse Gangsters vs. Climate Justice,” Transnational Resource and Action Center, available from: http://www.corpwatch.org/sites/default/files/Greenhouse%20Gangsters.pdf.
    Chloé Farand. (2020). ”Merkel: don’t neglect climate finance to the world’s poor,” available from: https://www.climatechangenews.com/2020/04/28/merkel-dont-neglect-climate-finance-worlds-poor/.
    “Climate Change Vulnerability Index 2017,” available from: https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/verisk%20index.pdf.
    CorpWatch. (2000). “Alternative Summit Opens With Call for Climate Justice,” available from: https://corpwatch.org/article/alternative-summit-opens-call-climate-justice.
    Donor Tracker. “Germany is one of the world’s top donor countries to climate,” available from: https://donortracker.org/node/11142.
    Ellen Thalman, Julian Wettengel, (2020). “The story of Climate Chancellor Angela Merkel,” Clean Energy Wire, available from: https://www.cleanenergywire.org/factsheets/making-climate-chancellor-angela-merkel.
    Falconer, A. & Stadelmann, M. (2014). “What is climate finance? Definitions to improve tracking and scale up climate finance,” Climate Policy Initiative, available from: https://climatepolicyinitiative.org/publication/climate-finance-definitions-improve-tracking-scale-climate-finance/.
    Farand, C. (2020). ”Merkel: don’t neglect climate finance to the world’s poor,” available from: https://www.climatechangenews.com/2020/04/28/merkel-dont-neglect-climate-finance-worlds-poor/.
    Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development(BMZ). “How we work,” available from: https://health.bmz.de/ghpc/how-we-work/index.html.
    Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety(BMU) “NDCs – a key tool for international climate change mitigation,” available from: https://www.international-climate-initiative.com/en/about-the-iki/ndcs.
    Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety(BMU). (2020). “Federal Environment Ministry launches new climate action support programme for global North-South cooperation,” available from: https://www.bmu.de/en/pressrelease/federal-environment-ministry-launches-new-climate-action-support-programme-for-global-north-south-co/.
    Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety(BMU). “Together for more environmental protection and climate action,” available from: https://www.bmu.de/en/topics/climate-energy/climate/.
    Guardian, “Climate change will determine humanity's destiny, says Angela Merkel,” available from: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/nov/15/climate-change-will-determine-humanitys-destiny-says-angela-merkel.
    King, E. (2012). “Merkel: equity means all states making equal efforts to fight climate change,” Climate Home News, available from: https://www.climatechangenews.com/2012/07/16/angela-merkel-tells-petersberg-climate-dialogue-that-equity-means-all-states-making-equal-efforts-to-fight-climate-change/.
    Mahadeva, L. (2014). “The Oxford Approach – Operationalizing the UNFCCC Principle of Respective Capabilities,” European Capacity Building Initiative, available from: www.eurocapacity.org.
    Mary Robinson Foundation. (2011). “The Geography of Climate Justice,” The Royal Irish Academy, available from: www.ria.ie/climatejustice.aspx.
    Politico. (2020). “Merkel: Tackling climate change a matter of ‘survival,” available from: https://www.politico.eu/article/angela-merkel-climate-change-survival/.
    Reuters. (2019). “I'm using all my strength to fight climate change, says Merkel,” available from: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-germany-climatechange-idUSKBN1YY1IF.
    Submission to the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP) by the Mary Robinson Foundation – Climate justice on March 01, 2013, available from: https://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2013/smsn/un/306.pdf.
    Ted Talk by Mary Robinson. “Why climate change is a human rights issue,” available from: https://www.ted.com/talks/mary_robinson_why_climate_change_is_a_threat_to_human_rights?referrer=playlist-why_climate_change_is_a_human.
    Thalman, E. & Wettengel, J. (2020). ”The story of Climate Chancellor Angela Merkel,“ Clean Energy Wire, available from: https://www.cleanenergywire.org/factsheets/making-climate-chancellor-angela-merkel.
    The Federal Government. (2015). “Statement by Federal Chancellor Angela Merkel at the United Nations Climate Change Conference,” available from: https://www.bundesregierung.de/breg-en/issues/europe/statement-by-federal-chancellor-angela-merkel-at-the-united-nations-climate-change-conference-604934.
    The Federal Government. “We must act today,” available from: https://www.bundesregierung.de/breg-en/issues/europe/-we-must-act-today--438666.
    The Triple Injustice of Climate change. (n.d.). Retrieved July 15, 2018, available from: http://www.unesco.org/education/tlsf/mods/theme_c/popups/mod19t04s01.html.
    Troilo, P. (2011). “Alleviating the confusion: Germany’s new aid structure and business model,” available from: https://www.devex.com/news/alleviating-the-confusion-germany-s-new-aid-structure-and-business-model-76022.
    UNFCCC. (2013). “NAMA: International Climate Initiative,” available from: https://www4.unfccc.int/sites/PublicNAMA/_layouts/mobile/dispform.aspx?List=162696e7%2Dba65%2D46a5%2D8070%2D883d26e0df6b&View=fff371d2%2D781e%2D44c5%2Dbf33%2Dbef0c4e10dc7&ID=40.
    Watson, C. & Schalatek, L. (2019). “The Global Climate Finance Architecture,” Climate Funds Update, available from: https://climatefundsupdate.org/about-climate-finance/global-climate-finance-architecture/.


    三、德文書目
    (一) 政府網站及出版品
    Bundesministerium fuer wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung(BMZ). (2019). “BMZ-Klimaengagement 2019,” available from: http://www.bmz.de/de/themen/klimaschutz/klimafinanzierung/.
    Bund für Umwelt. (2019). “Bundposition Klimagerechtigkeit, ”available from: https://www.bund.net/fileadmin/user_upload_bund/publikationen/bund/position/klimagerechtigkeit_position.pdf.
    Deutscher Bundestag. (2015). “Zur Informationspflichtigkeit der Deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit nach dem Informationsfreiheitsgesetz,” pp. 1-5, available from: https://www.bundestag.de/resource/blob/405540/21fab35ff71cd6c6ee8ae43234686f9b/WD-3-158-15-pdf-data.pdf.
    Martens, J. (2014). “Gemeinsame Ziele – unterschiedliche Verantwortung/ Das Gerechtigkeitsprinzip in der Klima- und Post-2015-Verhandlungen,” Global Policy Forum Europe, pp. 1-49.
    (二) 網路資源
    Bundesministerium fuer wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung. (2019).“Bilaterals und regionales Engagement,” available from: http://www.bmz.de/de/themen/klimaschutz/klimafinanzierung/.
    Bundesministerium fuer wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung. (2019).“Klimazahlen konkret- Methodik der BMZ-Berichterstattung,” available from: http://www.bmz.de/de/themen/klimaschutz/klimafinanzierung/.
    “Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit,” pp. 1-5, available from: https://www.gtai.de/gtai-de/trade/entwicklungsprojekte/geber/deutsche-gesellschaft-fuer-internationale-zusammenarbeit-73360.pdf.
    Federal Ministry of the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety(BMU). “Transparenz,” Internationale Klimaschutzinitiative, available from: https://www.international-climate-initiative.com/de/ueber-die-iki/transparenz.
    Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety(BMU), “Erhalt natürlicher Kohlenstoffsenken/REDD+,” available from: https://www.international-climate-initiative.com/de/themen/natuerliche-kohlenstoffsenken-/-redd.
    Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety(BMU). (2020). “Gender-Gerechtigkeit in der Klimadebatte,” available from: https://www.international-climate-initiative.com/de/details/project/gendergerechtigkeit-in-der-klimadebatte-08_I_013-82.
    “Förderauftrag und Geschichte,” available from: https://www.kfw.de/KfW-Konzern/F%C3%B6rderauftrag-und-Geschichte/.
    “Gesetz ueber die Kreditanstalt fuer Wiederaufbau,” pp. 1-7, available from: https://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/kredanstwiag/KredAnstWiAG.pdf.
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    外交學系
    107253007
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0107253007
    Data Type: thesis
    DOI: 10.6814/NCCU202100012
    Appears in Collections:[外交學系] 學位論文

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