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    政大機構典藏 > 文學院 > 歷史學系 > 期刊論文 >  Item 140.119/17007
    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/17007


    Title: 唐代和糴問題試論
    Other Titles: A Study of the Harmonious Purchase of Grains (Hedi) during the Tang Dynasty
    Authors: 羅彤華
    Lo, Tung-Hwa
    Keywords: 唐代;和糴;敦煌;度支;戶部;商業
    Tang dynasty;Harmonious purchase of grains hedi;Dunhuang;Department of Public Revenue;Board of Finance;commerce
    Date: 2004-03
    Issue Date: 2008-12-18 10:17:19 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 和糴是官方透過交易形式,向民間徵集穀物的措施,原為供給西北邊區軍糧,其後實施地區向關中及江淮一帶擴散,功能也延伸向京畿官用及平價、備荒的民用。敦煌文書裏顯示和糴實施的具體情形,但亦發現造假帳之隱欺手法。和糴原則上是只糴不糶,隨著政府彈性運用倉儲,與功能轉向民用,其操作方式也有了調整。啟動和糴的兩個要件是官方有糴本,民間有剩餘穀物。糴本的多寡、有無受時局與賦稅的影響最大,唐政府至遲在玄宗時已編列預算項目,但國家財力不足時也會臨時動支腳錢、鹽利等應變。民間的剩餘穀物除了由政府調撥外,往往靠商人運來交易,以達成物資調節的目的。但唐代不利的交通條件與政府管制措施,有時反而削弱了和糴的商業性。和糴是一種補充性的財政措施,唐政府在軍國之用上對之依賴甚深,故除非糴本空乏,從未輕率停廢。
    The harmonious purchase of grains (hedi) was a system whereby the government collected grains from civilians through equitable purchasing measures. The original purpose was to supply rations and forage for military bases along the northwest frontier in the Tang dynasty. Later, the system was expanded to the Guanzhong and Jianghuai regions. The purposes of hedi were expended to to obtain supplies for official use, to stabilize the prices of commodities, and to prevent famines. The actual implementation of hedi was clearly described in Dunhuang documents. Hedi gave rise to many falsified accounting records and cheating methods. Basically, hedi only involved the purchasing but not the selling of grains. As the government arranged for granaries to store grains and food flexibly and hedi was gradually turned into a civilian program, and its operations were adjusted accordingly. There were two major requirements for implementing hedi. First, that the government have enough capital, and second, that the civilians produced extra grain beyond their immediate needs. Furthermore, the amounts of the hedi capital were greatly influenced by the current political situation and taxation. The Tang government budgeted hedi until the reign of Emperor Xuan Zong. If the country's financial capacity was not enough to implement hedi, it would sometimes create a special budget to deal with emergencies. Apart from government allocations, the extra grains from civilians were generally traded and transported by merchantsto create a balanced flow of commodities. However, the inconvenient transportation and incomplete governmental controlling measures in the Tang period limited the commercialization of hedi. Nonetheless, the government heavily relied on hedi as a supplementary financial policy. Unless there was insufficient funding for hedi, the Tang government would never considerabandoning the hedi system.
    Relation: 新史學, 15(1), 45-92
    Data Type: article
    Appears in Collections:[歷史學系] 期刊論文

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