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    政大機構典藏 > 理學院 > 心理學系 > 期刊論文 >  Item 140.119/20695
    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/20695


    Title: 我群與他群的分化:從生物層次到人的層次
    Other Titles: Ingroup-outgroup Differentiation: From the Biological to the Human Level
    Authors: 李美枝;李怡青
    Li,Mei-Chih;Lee, I-Ching
    Contributors: 心理系
    Keywords: 台灣歷史;社會認同;群體分類;認知表微
    categorization of groups;cognitive representation;social identity;Taiwan history
    Date: 2003-12
    Issue Date: 2008-12-31 10:46:01 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 「我」與「非我」之分有實徵資料可查者,始於分子生物學的免疫系統。在生態學的層次,蜂蟻類是社群性物種動物,以感覺系統的線索區分「我群」與「他群」。就演化生物學推而論之,靈長類包括人種在內,「我群」與「他群」之分有它先天的自然傾向,只是其分化情形反映了人類特有之認知特性的色彩-複雜、多元及變化。台灣民眾在不同的世代-再出現群體分類與群體對立事件。本文根據台灣發生於過去與當代的群際事件,以人類記憶系統的特性、社會認同理論及社會表徵理論說明群體分類的歷史文化基礎,及引發群體對立的各種群體分化依據,再根據當代台灣民眾的實徵調查責料的分析,展現直接與間接的群際經驗事實-群際分化線索-我群他群區別-群際對立的心理歷程。在政治性的分類事件中,發現種族、祖籍、地綠聚合、移民年代、階級、政治意識型態都曾在台灣的政治舞台上扮演喚起各種社會認同的角色,反映了「我群」與「他群」的分化為人類社會不可避免的人性特質,並因應情境線索的不同,提取由歷史經驗累積而成的各種對立的社會認同。因此推斷要避免社會的群際紛爭可能不在於消融「群」的區分,而在於包容異己者之民主精神的培養,公正法制的維護及理性判斷的能力。
    Empirical evidence of differentiation of "we-ness" and "other-ness" can be found at the level of the immunity system of the human body and at the ethological level in social animals and human beings. Categorization cues to elicit ingruop vs. outgroup discrimination in the animal kingdom are always sensory-dependent and simple in contrast to the cues used by human beings, which are characterized by multiplicity, complexity, and changeability. Because of human beings' long term and working memory, and social representation and subjective cognition construction abilities, differentiation of ingroup and outgroup members for humans is mainly cognitive and highly dependent on the social context. Categorization cues may retrieve one of many ingroup-outgroup representations built into a person's long term memory through direct or indirect experience with historical intergroup events. In the past four hundred years of Taiwan's history, the important ingroup/outgroup categorization cues have been: (1) Pro- vs. against the Ching dynasty; (2) Dutch sovereign government vs. Chinese Han people; (3) Same vs. different immigration origins from China; (4) Same origin but different village residence in Taiwan; (5) Same residence in Taiwan, but with preferences for different folk operas; (6) Japan sovereign government vs. Chinese Han people; (7) Immigration time to Taiwan; and (8)Taiwanese ideology vs. Chinese ideology. While the basic process of categorization cues-ingroup-outgroup differentiation, ingroup favoritism, and outgroup discrimination-has been well established in de-context studies, social identity theory can be enriched by involving social relevant issues and localized historical contexts.
    Relation: 本土心理學研究, 20, 3-39
    Data Type: article
    Appears in Collections:[心理學系] 期刊論文

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