This was a longitudinal study designed to examine whether gender differences would exist in acquired preparedness model (APM) for explaining the risk of alcohol use in Chinese college students. Impulsivity was assessed for 3584 students in 2002. In 2003, 1377 students were traced and assessed in alcohol outcome expectancy, drinking behavior, and alcohol related problems, with 1122 valid data (male = 438). Separated by gender, the data was analyzed with the Structural Equation Model. Results showed that positive, not negative, outcome expectancy for alcohol mediated impulsivity's effect on alcohol use, and alcohol use had a direct effect on alcohol related problems in both males and females. In males, both negative and positive outcome expectancies failed to mediate impulsivity and alcohol related problems. In females, only positive outcome expectancy mediated the relation between impulsivity and alcohol related problems. This longitudinal data supported the acquired preparedness model for the risk in alcohol use among Chinese college students, providing a reference for designing prevention and intervention strategies guided towards both genders.