This is an editorial guide for the special issue on computational intelligence (CI) in economics and finance. A historical introduction to the background is given. This research paradigm is traced back to Herbert Simon, who, as a founder of artificial intelligence, pioneered the applications of AI to economics. The move from the classical AI to CI indicates a continuation of the legacy of Herbert Simon. Computational intelligence has proved to be a constructive foundation for economics. In responding to what Herbert Simon referred as procedural rationality, our study of bounded rationality has been enriched by bringing autonomous agents into the economic analysis.