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    Title: 國家控制與中國大陸高等教育的非均衡發展
    Other Titles: The State Control and Uneven Development of China's Higher Education
    Authors: 王瑞琦;胡宇芳
    Wang, Jueichi;Hu Yu-fang
    Keywords: 高等教育;均衡發展;菁英與大眾;國家角色;uneven development of higher education;massification;state control
    Date: 2004-12
    Issue Date: 2009-01-16 11:57:28 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 中國大陸高等教育的均衡發展有兩個主要內涵: 高等教育機構的佈局均衡, 以及質與量發展的均衡. 一九五0年代, 在平均主義的時代中, 中共藉由國家之力, 調整高等教育機構的佈局, 但是在質與量的均衡上, 卻是挫敗連連, 形成了菁英與群眾兩大路線之間的衝突, 終至對決. 一九八0年代, 鄧小平拋棄平均主義, 地區均衡發展的包袱, 採取一部分地區先富的非均衡發展政策. 高等教育一方面擴張為主, 另方面在重點發展的策略之下, 走向了階層化的發展. 一九九二年市場經濟推動之後, 大陸地區發展失衡加劇, 均衡發展之論逐漸成為主流, 終至促成了以均富與協調發展為基礎的[全面小康]的發展政策. 大陸高等教育亦朝向質與量的高速發展, 一方面建設世界一流大學, 將大陸高等教育帶向卓越, 一方面快速擴張, 實現高等教育大眾化. 然而, 本論文分析發現二十世紀末的質量並進的發展, 採取的是開放地方大學, 保護國家級大學, 並將教育市場化的發展侷限在民辦教育的策略. 此一失衡策略將因大陸社會二元結構的特質, 反而產生諸多負面效應, 不但令菁英與大眾並進的發展策略遭遇到嚴厲的挑戰, 對於遏止大陸高等教育地區發展失衡與資源分配不均持續惡化亦助益甚微. In the 1950s, higher education reform on the Chinese mainland undertook two major tasks. One is the mergers and movement of higher educational institutes to remedy the problems of an uneven distribution of higher educational institutes. The other is to keep the balanced development between quality and quantity. Conducted by the central government, the former had been accomplished within two years. The later, however, had engendered a sever conflict between the elite and mass line. In the 1980s, Teng Xiao-ping decided to allow a few regions to become rich first. This led to an increaded discrepancy in regional development and a strategy of giving key universities followed, contributing to the stratification of higher learning institutes. During the late 1990s, the Chinese government started a bid for a balanced regional development. For higher education, the projects of massification seeking excellence were simultaneously launched. Nonetheless, the strategy of concentrating investment in elite institutions and leaving the local ones to the market, especially the minban universities, only aggravates stratification and the uneven development of the higher education.
    Relation: 中國大陸研究,47(4),75-105
    Data Type: article
    Appears in Collections:[The Institute of International Relations ] Periodical Articles

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