This study is to examine people’s attitudes towards the ideal and practice of social citizenship in Taiwan. The framework of analyses includes: (1) views no social rights at the ideal level and the practice level, (2) views on social responsibilities at the ideal level and the practice level, (3) balance between social rights and social responsibilities at both the ideal and practice levels, (4) factors affecting people’s attitudes.
Main findings are as follows: (1) People expect to own social rights. The current conditions of social welfare system indicate the practice of social rights. (2) People also accept that they still need to fulfill social responsibilities. There are gaps between the ideal level and the practice level in the following areas: the duty to work for one’s own living, to guarantee one’s own basic income, and to take care of elders. (3) There are some variations among different types of social rights/responsibilities in terms of the balance between social rights and social responsibilities. (4) Different demographic factors also affect people’s perceptions towards social rights/responsibilities both at the ideal and practice level. Finally, policy implications have been presented.