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    Title: 知識互補建構過程分析-以技術知識與顧客知識為例
    An examination of the process of knowledge complementarity between technological knowledge and customer knowledge
    Authors: 姚成彥
    Yao, Chen Yen
    Contributors: 吳思華

    Wu, Se Hwa
    Shang , Shari S. C.

    Yao, Chen Yen
    Keywords: 知識互補
    Knowledge complementarity
    Business innovation
    Knowledge interaction
    Technological knowledge
    Customer knowledge
    Date: 2008
    Issue Date: 2009-09-11 17:45:20 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 在快速變動的環境下,全球企業致力於持續創新以維持競爭優勢。創新是不同知識重組的過程。技術知識與顧客知識成為建構知識互補,達到創新的重要因素。過去的研究著重於測試互補效果的存在以及對於結果的影響。然而,針對知識互補的過程缺乏詳細的瞭解。本研究的目的即希望經由瞭解技術知識與顧客知識如何互補達到創新的過程,對於知識互補建構完整的概念。本研究包含兩個研究問題: (1) 如何定義兩種組織知識(技術知識與顧客知識)的知識互補?(2) 組織如何管理知識互補(技術知識與顧客知識)以達到創新?



    Global enterprises are currently engaged in continuous innovation to compete and sustain themselves in the dynamic changing market. The development of innovation is a process of novel combination of different kinds of knowledge. Both technological and customer knowledge have been identified as crucial for building knowledge complementarity for delivery of innovation. Researches have examined the existence of complementarity between inputs and the effect of output. Nevertheless, detailed understanding of the process of knowledge complementarity development is still lacking. The objective of this study is to develop a complete concept of knowledge complementarity with a thorough understanding of how technological knowledge complements customer knowledge in the process of adaptation and innovation. There are two research questions, as follows. (1) How can we define knowledge complementarity between the two kinds of organizational knowledge (technological knowledge and customer knowledge)? (2) How do organizations manage knowledge complementarity between technological knowledge and customer knowledge for innovation?

    Through iterative analyses of the existing literature and examination of empirical data, this study clarifies the definition of knowledge complementarity as a situation in which one source supplies knowledge that another source lacks, thus increasing the total value for achieving a specific purpose through knowledge interaction.

    The process of building knowledge complementarity starts with sensing the insufficiency of knowledge for a specific goal and identifying sources that can satisfy the deficiency. Then, through knowledge interactions, the scope and depth of the knowledge of the interactive parties are increased and evolved, resulting in an increased innovative value for the specific purpose.

    Based on the literature review and observation of case studies of T Probe Card and Cyber Software, five propositions were formulated. These propositions concern the sequences of the process of knowledge complementarity and different types of knowledge interaction for knowledge complementarity. The three types of knowledge complementarity identified are: infrastructural complementarity, emergent complementarity, and opportunity complementarity.

    In different to the static view to examine the relationship between knowledge management variables, this study uses a dynamic view to understand knowledge interaction between R&D and sales department in the process of building knowledge complementarity. This process-oriented study not only examines the existence of complementarity but also provides the explanation for "how" something happened and the sequence of events leading to the outcome. Rather than placing focus on the interactive activities, the underlying point of this study is on the knowledge itself. Operationalizable indexes of the scope and depth of knowledge interaction have been clearly developed for the purpose of examining knowledge interaction and their interplay in different types of knowledge complementarity. The concept, process and distinctive types of knowledge complementarity provide essential input to innovation and knowledge management. Organizations intent to build sustained innovation capability could benefit from this study by dynamically managing knowledge interactions for complementarity of different purposes.
    Chapter One : Introduction 1
    1.1 Motivation 1
    1.2 Research Objective 2
    1.3 Research Questions 3
    1.4 Research Process and Thesis Framework 3

    Chapter Two : Literature Review 6
    2.1 Knowledge 6
    2.2 Technological Knowledge 10
    2.3 Customer Knowledge 15
    2.4 Studies of Complementarity 18
    2.5 Previous Studies of Complementarity 20
    2.6 The Structuration for Knowledge Complementarity 26
    2.7 The Concept of Knowledge Complementarity 27
    2.8 Knowledge Interaction 30

    Chapter Three : Research Methodology 35
    3.1 Case Selection and Data Collection 36
    3.2 Case Background 39

    Chapter Four : Research Results- Case Study of T Probe Card 41
    4.1 The Beginning of the Establishment of T Probe Card 41
    4.2 Major Waves of Innovative Activities 46

    Chapter Five : Research Results- Case Study of Cyber Software 56
    5.1 Infrastructural Complementarity 56
    5.2 Emergent Complementarity 63
    5.3 Opportunity Complementarity 68

    Chapter Six : Discussion 80
    6.1 Process and their Sequence of Knowledge Complementarity 80
    6.2 Different Kinds of Knowledge Complementarity-Building Processes 84

    Chapter Seven : Conclusion 89
    7.1 Research Summary 89
    7.2 Academic Contributions 91
    7.3 Managerial Implications 93
    7.4 Limitations and Future Research 94

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