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    題名: 不同創新類型之知識資源建置過程研究
    作者: 劉俊毅
    Lu,Chun-Yi.
    貢獻者: 吳思華
    Wu,Sehwa.
    劉俊毅
    Lu,Chun-Yi.
    關鍵詞: 知識基礎理論
    創新
    知識流通
    知識整合
    innovation
    knowledge-based theory
    knowledge integration
    knowledge flow
    日期: 2005
    上傳時間: 2009-09-11 17:49:50 (UTC+8)
    摘要: Peter Drucker於1993 年在其著作中指出,在新的經濟體系裡,知識並不是和人力、資本或土地等並列為製造資源之一,而是唯一有意義的一項資源,在一個以知識為基礎的社會裡,最根本的經濟資源,不再是資本或自然資源,也不再是勞力,取而代之的是知識。既然知識是最重要的一項資產,企業就應該花更多的時間來管理知識,才能為企業帶來創新並創造價值。因此企業如何有效的創造和應用知識,就成為經營管理的主要手段(Soo & Park,1999)。而知識也逐漸被視為一種策略性的資產,知識的取得、整合、儲存、分享和應用為企業建立競爭優勢的必備能力(Zack 1999)。

    Grant (1996)進一步提出知識基礎理論,他認為動態競爭環境的成功的要訣,就是將組織能力視為一種知識整合之方法,並且認為知識是組織最重要的策略性資源。不管是任何產品,無形或是有形的產品其背後的基礎都是知識智慧的累積,因此以知識為基礎的創新,是決定企業成功的關鍵因素。

    本研究嘗試從知識基礎論的角度出發來探討在不同的創新類型之間,應採用何種的知識流通模式與知識整合機制較容易成功,研究方法採用質性研究之個案訪談法,研究對象為知識密集產業,總共訪談了八位高階主管,並將之整理成四個個案,經由分析歸納後得到以下幾點結論。

    一、技術創新所需的知識屬性偏向於專屬性高;管理創新所需的知識屬性偏向於內隱性低。

    二、知識屬性會影響創新過程中的知識取得與流通模式。當知識屬性為路徑相依性高時,組織的知識與流通傾向於採用內部自行發展;當知識屬性為路徑相依性低時,組織的知識與流通傾向於採用外部知識來源。

    三、知識的取得與流通模式並不會對創新類型造成顯著影響,這是因為知識的取得與流通若要對企業創新造成進一步的影響,尚須配合組織本身的吸收與整合機制以及組織內部知識創造的過程,才能有效的進行企業創新。

    四、創新類型與知識屬性會影響創新過程中的知識吸收與整合。當創新類型為技術創新,知識屬性為內隱性高、專屬性高時,組織的知識吸收與整合機制傾向於採用多方面的模式,包括了個人知識整合、團隊交流與文件化;當創新類型為管理創新,知識屬性為內隱性低時,組織的知識吸收與整合機制傾向於採用單方面的模式,而且多為團隊交流。

    五、企業所擁有的互補性資產越高越有利於創新,從個案中發現企業若擁有良好的互補性資產,則在取得知識後,越能快速的進行企業創新。

    六、不同的創新為企業所帶來的效益也不同,研究發現技術創新(產品創新與製程創新)為企業所帶來的效益通常是局部的;而管理創新(組織創新與策略創新)為企業所帶來的效益通常是全面的。
    Peter Drucker refer to knowledge, not compare with manufacturing resource such as labor or capital or land, is the only meaningful resource in new economy system in his writings in 1993.The fundamental economic resource in knowledge based society is not capital or natural resource or labor but knowledge. The enterprise should spend more time to manage knowledge since knowledge is the most important assets. Thus knowledge could bring innovation and create value for enterprise. Therefore, how to create and apply knowledge effectively has become a major issue for business administration(Soo & Park,1999). The knowledge has been regard as a strategic asset gradually. The acquisition, integration, accumulation and diffusion of knowledge is a necessary capability of enterprise to build competitive advantage.

    Grant refer to knowledge based theory further in 1996.He consider the successful method in dynamic competitive environment is to regard organization capability as a method of knowledge integration and knowledge is the most important strategic resource of organization. The fundamental of all product, visible or invisible, is the accumulation of wisdom. Therefore, the knowledge-based innovation is the critical point of enterprise’s success.

    This thesis try to discuss what kind of knowledge-diffusion model and knowledge-integration model would easily success in different innovation type from knowledge-based theory. The research methodology is case study of quality method and research target is knowledge intensive industry. The research has interviewed eight managers and concluded four case. Finally, we have some conclusion below :

    1. The knowledge of technical innovation is partial to high specificity; the knowledge of managerial innovation is partial to low tacit.

    2. The character of knowledge would influence knowledge acquisition and flow model. When character of knowledge is partial to high path dependent, the knowledge acquisition and flow model is partial to develop by enterprise itself;When character of knowledge is partial to low path dependent, the knowledge acquisition and flow model is partial to acquire from outside.

    3. The knowledge acquisition and flow model would not influence innovation type obviously. If knowledge acquisition and flow model would influence innovation type obviously, it should match up with organization’s absorptive and integrative mechanism.

    4. The innovation type and knowledge character would influence knowledge absorption and integration during innovation process. When innovation type is partial to technical innovation and knowledge character is partial to high tacit and high specificity, then organization’s absorption and integrative mechanism will be partial to adopt all-around methods, include personal knowledge integration, organizational communication and documentlization. When innovation type is partial to managerial innovation and knowledge character is partial to low tacit, then organization’s absorption and integrative mechanism will be partial to adopt one-way method, such as organizational communication.

    5. The more complementary assets enterprise have, the easier enterprise to innovate. If enterprise have higher complementary assets, then they could proceed innovation immediately after acquire knowledge.

    6. The different types of innovation bring different benefit to enterprise. We find technical innovation(product innovation and process innovation)bring partial benefit to enterprise, and managerial innovation (organizational innovation and strategic innovation)bring all-around benefit to enterprise.
    第一章 緒論………………………………………………………………4
    第一節 研究背景與動機…………………………………………………4
    第二節 研究目的與問題…………………………………………………5
    第二章 文獻探討…………………………………………………………6
    第一節 創新之類型………………………………………………………6
    第二節 知識屬性…………………………………………………………12
    第三節 知識流通…………………………………………………………22
    第四節 知識整合…………………………………………………………33
    第三章 研究設計…………………………………………………………42
    第一節 研究方法…………………………………………………………42
    第二節 研究對象…………………………………………………………42
    第三節 資料收集方法……………………………………………………42
    第四節 研究架構…………………………………………………………43
    第五節 研究變數定義……………………………………………………44
    第六節 研究限制…………………………………………………………49
    第四章 個案整理…………………………………………………………50
    第一節 研華科技DTOS(Design to Order Service)創新……………50
    第二節 研華科技Cell Production創新………………………………64
    第三節 光寶科技噴墨印表機創新………………………………………71
    第四節 光寶科技四合一創新……………………………………………97
    第五章 個案分析與命題發展 …………………………………………103
    第一節 個案分析………………………………………………………103
    第二節 命題發展………………………………………………………104
    第六章 結論與建議 ……………………………………………………113
    第一節 結論………………………………………………………………113
    第二節 後續研究建議……………………………………………………115
    參考文獻……………………………………………………………………117
    參考文獻: 一、 英文部份
    1. Abernathy & Clark(1985), “Innovation : Mapping the Winds of Creative Destruction”,Research Policy.14 :3-22
    2, Badaracoo J.(1991), The Knowledge Link: How Firm Compete Through StrategicAlliances, Boston, Mass: Harvard Business Scholl
    3. Cohen W.M.& Levinthal D.(1990),”Absorptive Capacity: A New Perspective onLearning and Innovation ”, Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol.35, No.1 ,pp.128-152。
    4. Davenport T.H., & Prusak L.(1999), Working Knowledge: How Organizations Manage What They Know, Boston: Harvard Business School Press
    5. Drucker, Peter F.(1985), Innovation and Entrepreneurship , Oxford: Butterworth Henemann
    6. Drucker, Peter F.(1993), Post-Capitalist Society, NY: Harper Business
    7. Grant, Robert M.(1996),”Toward a Knowledge-Based Theory of the Firm”, Strategic Management Journal ,Vol. 17, Winter Special Issue,1996, pp.109-122
    8. Grant, Robert M.(1996),”Prospering in Dynamically-Competitive Environment:Organizational Capability as Knowledge Integration”, Organization Science, Vol.7, No.4
    9. Hedlund, Gunnar(1994), “A Model of Knowledge Management and The N-Form Corporation”, Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 15, pp.73-90
    10. Helleloid D.& Simonin(1994),” Organizational Learning and a Firm's Core Competence ”, Competence-Based Competition edited by Gray Hamel and Aime Heene, N. Y. :John Wiley & Sons Press, pp.111-114
    11. Henderson & Clark(1990), ”Architectural Innovation: The Reconfiguration of Existing Product Technologies and the Failure of Established Firms ”, Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol.35, No.1, pp.9-30
    12. Holt, Kunt(1988), Product Innovation Management, London Butterworth
    13. Inkpen A.C. & Dinur A. (1998),“ Knowledge Management Process and International Joint Venture.”, Organization Science,19(4),pp.454-468.
    14. Katz R., Rebentisch E.S. & Allen T.J. (1996)," A study of technology transferin multinational cooperative joint venture", IEEE Transaction on Engineering Management,43 (1),pp. 97-105.
    15. Leonard-Barton(1995), Wellsprings of Knowledge: Building and Sustaining the Sources of Innovation, Harvard Business school Press
    16. Nonaka, Ikujiro & Hirotaka Takeuchi(1995), The Knowledge-Creating Company, N.Y.:Oxford University Press
    17. Polanyi, Michael(1967), The Tacit Dimension, New York M. E. Sharp Inc.
    18. Quinn J. B.(1992), Intelligent Enterprise. A Knowledge and Service Based Paradigm for Industry, New York: The Free Press
    19. Smith K.(1995),”Interactions in Knowledge Systems: Foundations, Policy Implications and Empirical Methods ”, STI Review, No. 16, pp. 69-102
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    21. Teece D. J.(1980),”Economics of Scope and The Scope of The Enterprise”, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, Vol. 1, pp.223-247
    22. Teece D.J. (1996),”Firm Organization, Industrial Structure, and Technological Innovation.”, Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization,31,pp.193-224
    23. Tushman M. & Nadler D.(1986), “Organizing for Innovation”, California Management Review , v28n3, Spring p.74-92
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    27. Zander U. & Kought B. (1995),”Knowledge and the speed of the transfer and Limitation of Organizational capabilities: An empirical Test.”, Organizational Science,6(1),pp.76-92.
    二、 中文部份
    1. 王美音、楊子江譯(1997),創新求勝-智價企業論,遠流出版社 / lkujiro Nonaka著 / The Knowledge-Creating Company
    2. 王美音譯(1998),知識創新之泉-智價企業的經營,遠流出版社 / Leonard Barton,Dorothy 著 / Wellsprings of Knowledge
    3. 王展宇(2000),網路設備業外部知識取得策略之研究,政大企研所未出版碩士論文
    4. 呂鴻德、朱倍瑩(2000),「知識整合、創新策略與知識移轉績效之研究」,中華民國科技管理論文集
    5. 吳思華(1998),「知識流通對產業創新之影響」,第七屆產業管理研討會,政大科技管理研究所主辦
    6. 吳思華(2001),「知識經濟、知識資本與知識管理」,台灣產業研究第四期
    7. 吳若君(1998),網路事業知識整合與創新類型關聯之研究,政大科管所未出版碩士論文
    8. 陳世運(1999),知識屬性、網路關係與知識移轉關聯之研究,政大科管所未出版碩士論文
    9. 游雅祺(2000),技術知識特性、知識整合機制與知識移轉績效關係之研究,中央大學企管所未出版碩士論文
    10. 楊曙維(2001),知識型團隊特性與知識管理策略關聯之研究,政大科管所未出版碩士論文
    11. 蔡宗憲(2001),聯盟合作網路、知識流通、創新績效之關連性研究,成大企管所未出版碩士論文
    12. 賴威龍(1998),組織知識流通之研究-以台灣資訊硬體業為例,政大科管所未出版碩士論文
    羅懷英(2000),技術知識特性,組織知識平台與情境對組織知識流通之影響,輔大管研所未出版碩士
    描述: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    科技管理研究所
    92359019
    94
    資料來源: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0923590191
    資料類型: thesis
    顯示於類別:[科技管理研究所] 學位論文

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