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    Title: 從「聯合國跨界與高度洄游魚類協定」論公海海域登臨及檢查權之理論與實踐---以WCPFC為例
    A Study on the theory and practice of high seas boarding and inspection from the provisions of 1995 UNFSA: With a special reference to the practice of WCPFC
    Authors: 陳盈廷
    Chen, Ying Ting
    Contributors: 趙國材
    王冠雄

    陳盈廷
    Chen, Ying Ting
    Keywords: 中西太平洋漁業委員會
    登船臨檢
    公海
    捕魚實體
    區域漁業管理組織
    WCPFC
    Boarding and Inspection
    High Seas
    Fishing Entity
    Regional Fisheries Management Organization
    Date: 2007
    Issue Date: 2009-09-14 10:09:42 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 1982年《聯合國海洋法公約》確立了專屬經濟區的制度後,公海成為海洋生物資源養護與管理的一大缺口,特別是在養護與管理跨界及高度洄游魚群上產生防護的漏洞。1995年國際間通過《聯合國跨界與高度洄游魚類協定》,旨在履行《聯合國海洋法公約》關於養護跨界與高度洄游魚群之規定,並進一步訂立更完善之規範,特別是協定重視各區域性漁業組織之功能,期能透過該些組織,更有效率地管理並養護各區域之跨界與高度洄游魚群。因此,《聯合國海洋法公約》、1995年協定與區域性漁業組織相互間透過法律規範,從架構、實踐與實際執行這三方面試圖形塑一個較為嚴謹及嚴密的網絡。
    2004年中西太平洋漁業委員會(WCPFC)成立。協定與委員會透過登臨與檢查的方式,以養護與管理在公海海域之跨界與洄游魚群。然公海自由及公海上由船旗國管轄乃習慣國際法,而為在保育海洋生物資源,在公海上採取相互登臨與檢查為國際海洋法發展之趨勢。由於登臨與檢查乃涉及一國之主權問題,台灣因於國際上之特殊地位,在WCPFC中之登臨與檢查權便為一值得探討之議題。
    《WCPFC登檢程序》規定《WCPFC公約》之締約方有相互登臨檢查之權利與義務,而WCPFC之會員有被登檢之義務。由於台灣乃以漁業實體之身份加入,成為WCPFC之會員,並非《WCPFC公約》之締約方,因此台灣是否有登檢其他會員船舶之權利便為我方關切之議題。筆者透過對1995年協定、《WCPFC公約》,以及《WCPFC登檢程序》之分析,認為台灣倘與其他會員或《WCPFC公約》締約方締結登檢協議,則台灣與協議締約方間當可享有《WCPFC登檢程序》中規定之完整的登檢權利與義務,而不受僅為「會員」身份所造成之模糊地位所限制。
    As the 1982 LOS Convention establishes the concept of Exclusive Economic Zone, the high seas has not only become the rest areas without authorities’ jurisdiction, but also been a breach of the conservation and management of living recourses, especially in aspect of the conservation and management of straddling and highly migratory stocks. In 1995, Straddling Stocks Agreement was approved, in which the main purpose is to enforce the principles of LOS Convention relating to the conservation and management of straddling and highly migratory stocks. Straddling Stocks Agreement respects the functions of the regional fishing organizations and expects it to manage and conserve straddling and highly migratory stocks more efficiently in each region. Consequently, through making stipulations, the LOS Convention, 1995 Agreement, and regional fishing organizations attempt to build up a strict network of framework, implementation, and enforcement.
    In 2004, WCPFC Commission was founded. Through boarding and inspection, 1995 Agreement and WCPFC Commission conserve and manage the straddling and highly migratory stocks. Although the high-seas freedoms and flag State jurisdiction are the parts of customary international law, it is the trend in development of international law to adopt boarding and inspection in high seas for conserving living resources in ocean. Due to boarding and inspection concerning the sovereignty, as the special status in international society, Taiwan’s boarding and inspection rights in WCPFC Commission become a disputed issue.
    WCPFC Boarding and Inspection Procedures imply that the Contracting Parties of WCPFC Convention have rights and obligations to board and inspect each other’s ships, but the members of WCPFC only have the obligation of being boarded and inspected. Since Taiwan, as the fishing entity, participated in WCPFC as the Member rather than the Contracting Parties. As a result, whether Taiwan possessing any rights to board and inspect other members’ ships is concerned by Taiwan’s authority. By analyzing 1995 Agreement, WCPFC Convention, and WCPFC Boarding and Inspection Procedures, the author concludes that if Taiwan has the agreements relating to boarding and inspection with other Members or Contracting Parties, Taiwan would absolutely possess the full rights and obligations, which the WCPFC Boarding and Inspection Procedures stipulate, without constrained by its ambiguous status caused by the role of Member.
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    FAO, Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/005/v9878e/v9878e00.htm.
    FAO, International Plan of Action for Reducing Incidental Catch of Seabirds in Longline Fisheries (1999), ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/006/x3170e/X3170E00.pdf.
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    FAO, International Plan of Action for the Management of Fishing Capacity (1999), http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/x3170e/x3170e04.htm.
    FAO, International Plan of Action to Prevent, Deter And Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing (2001), http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/003/y1224e/y1224e00.HTM.
    FAO, The Cancun Declaration (1992), http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/003/V5321E/V5321E11.htm#ch9.5.
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    FFA. http://www.ffa.int/ .
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    François, J.P.A.. Second Report on the Regime of the High Seas (U.N. Doc. No. A/CN.4/42, 1951). available at: http://untreaty.un.org/ilc/documentation/english/a_cn4_42.pdf .
    Gidel, “Memorandum”, in United Nations Secretariat, Memorandum on the Regime of the High Seas (U.N. Doc. No. A/CN.4/32) (1950). available at: http://untreaty.un.org/ilc/documentation/english/a_cn4_32.pdf.
    IAEA. http://www.iaea.org/.
    IATTC. http://www.iattc.org/.
    姜皇池。2005年3月。「台灣參與國際漁業組織:國家地位與實際利益之衡量」。台灣國際法季刊,第二卷第一期,頁17-93。
    ICCAT. http://www.iccat.es/.
    ICJ. http://www.icj-cij.org/homepage/index.php?p1=0.
    International Atomic Energy Agency, Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident (26 September 1986), http://www.iaea.org/Publications/Documents/Infcircs/Others/inf335.shtml.
    International Convention for the High Seas Fisheries of the North Pacific Ocean, http://www.intfish.net/treaties//nphs.htm.
    International Opium Convention (signed at the Hague January 23, 1912), http://www.tc.edu/centers/cifas/drugsandsociety/background/OpiumConvention.html.
    International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea. http://www.itlos.org/.
    International Whaling Commission, International Convention For The Regulation Of Whaling Washington (2nd December, 1946), http://www.iwcoffice.org/commission/convention.htm#convention.
    International Whaling Commission. http://www.iwcoffice.org/.
    Internet Guide to International Fisheries Law. http://www.intfish.net/.
    IOTC, Agreement for the Establishment of the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission, ftp://ftp.fao.org/fi/cdrom/iotc_proceedings(1999-2002)/files/proceedings/miscellaneous/ComReportsTexts/IOTC%20Agreement.pdf.
    宋燕輝。民國95年1月。「台灣在『WCPFC』及『CCSBT』啟動爭端解決機制可能性之研究」。律師雜誌,第316期,頁13-28。
    IOTC. http://www.iotc.org/.
    ISC. http://isc.ac.affrc.go.jp/index.html.
    McGill University. http://www.mcgill.ca/.
    Meltzer, Evelyne, Global Overview of Straddling and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks (Final Report of Conference on the Governance of High Seas Fisheries and the UN Fish Agreement). available at: http://www.un.org/Depts/los/consultative_process/documents/6_meltzer.pdf.
    Munro, Gordon, Annick Van Houtte, and Rolf Willmann, “The conservation and management of shared fish stocks: legal and economic aspects,” FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 465 (2004). http://www.fao.org/docrep/007/y5438e/y5438e00.htm (2007/4/2).
    NAFO. http://www.nafo.int/.
    NEAFC. http://www.neafc.org/.
    NPFMC. http://www.fakr.noaa.gov/npfmc/.
    OceanLaw. http://www.oceanlaw.net/.
    Oceans and Law of the Sea. http://www.un.org/Depts/los/index.htm.
    林享能。民國78年。「從國際法觀點論『中美北太平洋公海流刺網捕漁協定』」。問題與研究,第29卷第1期,頁1-13。
    OFDC, International Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks (1999), http://www.ofdc.org.tw/organization/01/fao/04_E_fao04.pdf.
    OFDC. http://www.ofdc.org.tw/.
    OSPAR Commission, Convention for the Protection of The Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (1992), http://www.ospar.org/eng/html/convention/ospar_conv1.htm.
    OSPRA Commission. http://www.ospar.org/eng/html/welcome.html.
    Republic of Molossia—Official Website. http://www.molossia.org/countryeng.html.
    Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs (1961), http://www.ukcia.org/pollaw/lawlibrary/singleconventiononnarcoticdrugs1961.php.
    Slave Trade Act (25 March 1807), http://www.anti-slaverysociety.addr.com/huk-1807act.htm.
    Southern Bluefin Tuna Cases (New Zealand v. Japan; Australia v. Japan) (1999), http://www.itlos.org/start2_en.html.
    Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water (1963), http://www.mcgill.ca/iasl/research/treaties/space_law/nuclear/.
    U.S. Government Printing Office. http://www.access.gpo.gov/index.html.
    姜皇池。民國91年。「論聯合國《跨界魚類種群協定》—台灣參與國際漁業組織之突破?或困境之加深?」。台大法學論叢,第31卷第6期,頁70。
    UK Cannabis Internet Activists(NKCIA). http://www.ukcia.org/cannabis.php.
    UNEP. http://www.unep.org/.
    UNFCCC. http://unfccc.int/2860.php.
    United Naions, Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, A/Res/34/68 (5 December 1979), http://www.unoosa.org/pdf/publications/STSPACE11E.pdf.
    United Nations Evironment Programme, Agenda 21 (1992), http://www.unep.org/Documents.Multilingual/Default.asp?DocumentID=52.
    United Nations Evironment Programme, Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (21st plenary meeting 16 June 1972 ), http://www.unep.org/Documents.multilingual/Default.asp?DocumentID=97&ArticleID=1503.
    United Nations Evironment Programme, Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, Report of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm, 5-16 June 1972), http://www.unep.org/Documents.Multilingual/Default.asp?DocumentID=78&ArticleID=1163.
    United Nations, A/CONF.62/L.114, 13 APRIL 1982 in UNCLOS III Official Reports, Vol. XVI (United Nations, 1984), p. 224.
    United Nations, A/RES/46/215, http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/46/a46r215.htm.
    United Nations, Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 Relating to the Convention and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks, A/CONF.164/37 (8 September 1995), http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N95/274/67/PDF/N9527467.pdf?OpenElement.
    高聖惕。民國九十六年二月。「論國際漁業法中涉及捕魚實體的爭端解決機制(上)」。政大法學評論,第九十五期,頁229-263。
    United Nations, Agreement relating to the implementation of Part XI of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982, A/RES/48/263 (101st plenary meeting 28 July 1994), http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/48/a48r263.htm.
    United Nations, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (1996), http://disarmament.un.org/wmd/ctbt/A-50-1027-CTBT-English.pdf.
    United Nations, Convention on Biological Diversity (1992), http://www.cbd.int/doc/legal/cbd-un-en.pdf.
    United Nations, Large-scale pelagic drift-net fishing and its impact on the living marine resources of the world's oceans and seas, A/RES/46/215 (79st plenary meeting 20 December 1991), http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/46/a46r215.htm.
    United Nations, Large-scale pelagic driftnet fishing and its impact on the living marine resources of the world's oceans and seas, A/RES/44/225 (85th plenary meeting 22 December 1989), http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/44/a44r225.htm.
    United Nations, Large-scale pelagic driftnet fishing and its impact on the living marine resources of the world's oceans and seas, A/RES/45/197 (71st plenary meeting 21 December 1990), http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/45/a45r197.htm.
    United Nations, Non-Legally Binding Authoritative Statement of Principles for a Global Consensus on the Management, Conservation and Sustainable Development of All Types of Forests, A/CONF.151/26 (Report of The United Nations Conference on Environment and Developmen t, Vol. III, Rio de Janeiro, 3-14 June 1992), http://www.un.org/documents/ga/conf151/aconf15126-3annex3.htm.
    United Nations, Plan of Implementation (2002),
    United Nations, Protocol amending the Convention to Suppress the Slave Trade and Slavery of 25 September 1926 (New York, 7 December 1953), http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/dfat/treaties/1953/8.html.
    United Nations, Reparations for Injuries Suffered in the Service of the United Nations (Advisory Opinion), available at: http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/index.php?p1=3&p2=4&k=41&case=4&code=isun&p3=4.
    高聖惕。民國九十六年四月。「論國際漁業法中涉及捕魚實體的爭端解決機制(下)」。政大法學評論,第九十六期,頁233-275。
    United Nations, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, FCCC/INFORMAL/84 (1992), http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/convkp/conveng.pdf.
    United Nations. http://www.un.org.
    UNOOSA. http://www.unoosa.org/oosa/index.html.
    WCPFC, Convention On The Conservation And Management Of Highly Migratory Fish Stocks In The Western And Central Pacific Ocean (2000), http://www.wcpfc.int/.
    WCPFC, WCPFC Monitoring, Control and Surveillance (MCS) Scheme. http://www.wcpfc.int/mcs/hsbi.htm.
    WCPFC, Summary Report in Fourth Regular Session of WCPFC, http://www.wcpfc.int/wcpfc4/pdf/WCPF4%20Summary%20Report%20and%20Attachments.pdf.
    WCPFC, The Attachment O in Third Regular Session of WCPFC, http://www.wcpfc.int/.
    WCPFC, WCPFC/Comm.2/07/Rev.1 (18th November 2005), http://www.wcpfc.int/.
    WCPFC, WCPFC4-2007-15 (Annual Report on the Work of Commission in the fourth Regular Session of WCPFC), available at: http://www.wcpfc.int/wcpfc4/pdf/WCPFC4-2007-15%20[Annual%20Report%20on%20the%20Work%20of%20the%20Commission].pdf.
    WCPFC, WCPFC-TCC3-2007/11 (Rev.1) (in Third Regular Session of WCPFC Technical and Compliance Committee), available at: http://www.wcpfc.int/tcc3/pdf/WCPFC-TCC3-2007-11%20_Rev.1%20[High%20Seas%20Boarding%20and%20Inspection%20Procedures%20_Revised].pdf.
    高聖惕。民國九十六年十月。「台灣與區域性漁業管理組織---論大西洋鮪類保育委員會對台灣動用貿易制裁之05-02號前置性決議的合法性」。政大法學評論,第九十九期,頁61-153。
    WCPFC. http://www.wcpfc.int/.
    WTO. http://www.wto.org/.
    葉秉鑫。2005年12月30日。「台灣開拓國際關係的另一條道路---從國際環境保護合作原則切入」。新世紀智庫論壇,第32期,頁49-61。
    蒲國慶。2004年10月。「台灣向國際海洋法法庭申訴之研究」。台灣國際法季刊,第一卷第四期,頁139-218。
    (四)報紙資料來源:
    台北訊,<我堅持不得在公海登船臨檢 中美漁業談判昨未達成協議>,經濟日報(1989年6月24日),第23版。
    崔慈悌,<我暫不與美簽署漁業協定>,中國時報(1996年7月16日),焦點新聞第三版。
    張銘潭,<中美漁業談判雖准美方登船 我仍擁有國際法公海捕魚權 邱茂英說明在兼顧漁業發展及國家利益下達成協議>,經濟日報(1989年7月4日),第15版;賈亦珍,<吉羊一號嚴重涉嫌公海捕鮭 美方發布證據對我方不利 農委會堅持反對登船臨檢>,聯合報(1989年5月30日),第5版。
    曹敏吉,<中美同登 長得二號 漁船檢查 並無流刺網>,聯合報(1996年7月15日),第一版。
    黃經緯、曹敏吉。<越區作業 不利漁業談判?公海登船 侵犯延伸領土! >,聯合報(1989年4月22日),第3版。
    賈亦珍,<公海登船臨檢 我採彈性因應 廿一日中美漁業談判,我不排除硬接「培利修正案」的可能>,聯合報(1989年6月18日),第5版。
    賈亦珍,<非法越界撈捕鮭鱒魚 我一漁船被美國查獲 漁民一再違規 政府要替他們爭權益也難>,聯合報(1989年6月9日),第9版。
    趙國材,<我應拒絕美國登船臨檢之要求>,中央日報(1989年7月24日),社論第二版。
    (五)網路資料來源:
    大英百科全書線上(台灣)。http://tw.britannica.com/。
    王冠雄。2003年。養護與管理跨界與高度洄游魚種:其現況與發展,中國國際法學會網站--會員論壇。http://www.csil.org.tw/bbs/。
    中華民國對外漁業合作發展協會全球資訊網。http://www.ofdc.org.tw/。
    出席「國際區域性漁業組織聯席會議」報告書, http://open.nat.gov.tw/OpenFront/report/show_file.jsp?sysId=C09600509&fileNo=001。
    行政院國家永續發展委員會全球資訊網。http://sta.epa.gov.tw/NSDN/。
    行政院農業委員會漁業署全球資訊網。http://www.fa.gov.tw/。
    全國法規資料庫。http://law.moj.gov.tw/。
    教育部「自然生態學習網」。http://nature.edu.tw/。
    (六)訪談
    2008年4月30日於對外漁業發展合作協會,與「對外漁業發展合作協會」執行長何勝初先生進行訪談。
    2008年5月30日於行政院農委會漁業署,與行政院農委會漁業署簡任技正郭宗海先生進行訪談。
    2008年5月30日於行政院農委會,與行政院農委會副主委胡興華先生進行訪談。
    2008年5月30日分別於林享能先生個人工作室,與前行政院農委會主委林享能先生進行訪談。
    2008年6月17日於外交部,與外交部條法司專門委員浦國慶先生進行訪談。
    二、 外文部分
    (一) Official Documents
    Admiralty and Maritime Law Guide, International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-Operation (London, 30 November 1990).
    Agreement Amending The Agreement Of 10 September 1982 Between The Government Of Japan And The Government Of The United States Of America Concerning Fisheries Off The Coasts Of The United States Of America (1987).
    Agreement between the Government of the Spain and the Government of the United states of America Concerning Fisheries Off the Coasts of the United States (1977).
    Agreement between the Government of the United states of America and the Government of the Polish People’s Republic Concerning Fisheries Off the Coasts of the United States (1976).
    Agreement between the Government of the United states of America and the Government of the Republic of China Concerning Fisheries Off the Coasts of the United States(1976).
    Agreement between the Government of the United states of America and the Government of the People’s Republic of Bulgaria Concerning Fisheries Off the Coasts of the United States (1976).
    Agreement between the Government of the United states of America and the Government of the Socialist Republic of Romania Concerning Fisheries Off the Coasts of the United States (1976).
    Agreement between the Government of the United states of America and the Government of the Republic of Korea Concerning Fisheries Off the Coasts of the United States (1977).
    Agreement between the Government of the United states of America and the Government of the Republic of Cuba Concerning Fisheries Off the Coasts of the United States (1977).
    Agreement between the Government of the United states of America and the Government of Mexico Concerning Fisheries Off the Coasts of the United States (1977).
    Agreement between the Government of the United states of America of the one part and the Government of Demark and the Home of the Government of the Faro Islands of the other part Concerning Fisheries Off the Coasts of the United States.
    Agreement between the Government of the United states of America and the Government of Portugal Concerning Fisheries Off the Coasts of the United States (1980).
    Agreement between the Government of the United states of America and the Government of Norway Concerning Fisheries Off the Coasts of the United States (1981).
    Agreement between the Government of the United states of America and the Government of the Republic of Iceland Concerning Fisheries Off the Coasts of the United States (1984).
    Agreement between the Government of the United States of America and the European Economic Community concerning fisheries off the coasts of the United States (1984).
    Canada Government, Coastal Fisheries Protection Act Amendment, S.C.1994, c.14 (12 May 1994).
    CCSBT, Convention For The Conservation Of Southern Bluefin Tuna.
    Council of Europe, European Agreement For The Prevention Of Broadcasts Transmitted From Stations Outside National Territories (Strasbourg, 22.I.1965).
    FAO, Agreement to Promote Compliance with International Conservation and Management Measures by Fishing Vessels of the High Seas, Res/15/93 of the Twenty-Seventh Session of the FAO Conference.
    FAO, Basic Texts of theFood and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
    FAO, Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries.
    FAO, International Plan of Action for Reducing Incidental Catch of Seabirds in Longline Fisheries (1999).
    FAO, International Plan of Action for the Management of Fishing Capacity (1999).
    FAO, International Plan of Action to Prevent, Deter And Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing (2001).
    FAO, The Cancun Declaration (1992).
    François, J.P.A.. Report on the Regime of the High Seas (U.N. Doc. No. A/CN.4/17, 1950).
    François, J.P.A.. Second Report on the Regime of the High Seas (U.N. Doc. No. A/CN.4/42, 1951).
    Gidel, “Memorandum”, in United Nations Secretariat, Memorandum on the Regime of the High Seas (U.N. Doc. No. A/CN.4/32) (1950).
    International Atomic Energy Agency, Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident (26 September 1986).
    International Convention for the High Seas Fisheries of the North Pacific Ocean.
    International Opium Convention (signed at the Hague January 23, 1912).
    International Whaling Commission, International Convention For The Regulation Of Whaling Washington (2nd December, 1946).
    IOTC, Agreement for the Establishment of the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission.
    Munro, Gordon, Annick Van Houtte, and Rolf Willmann, “The conservation and management of shared fish stocks: legal and economic aspects,” FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 465 (2004).
    OFDC, International Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks (1999).
    OSPAR Commission, Convention for the Protection of The Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (1992).
    Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs (1961).
    Slave Trade Act (25 March 1807).
    Southern Bluefin Tuna Cases (New Zealand v. Japan; Australia v. Japan) (1999).
    Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water (1963).
    United Naions, Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, A/RES/34/68 (5 December 1979).
    United Nations Evironment Programme, Agenda 21 (1992).
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    外交研究所
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    96
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0094253018
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