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    Title: 由現實主義論國際法律規範
    On International Legal Norms: the Viewpoint of Realism
    Authors: 譚偉恩
    Tan,Wei-en
    Contributors: 陳純一
    張亞中
    王元綱

    Chang,Chun ei
    Zhang,Ya-chun
    Wang,Yuan-Kang

    譚偉恩
    Tan,Wei-en
    Keywords: 秩序
    權力平衡
    現實主義
    古典現實主義
    守勢現實主義
    攻勢現實主義
    新古典現實主義
    英國學派現實主義
    國際社會
    國際法律規範
    Order
    Balance of Power
    Realism
    Classical Realism
    Defensive Realism
    Offensive Realism
    Neoclassical Realism
    Realism in English School
    International Society
    International Legal Norms
    Date: 2004
    Issue Date: 2009-09-14 10:11:18 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 現實主義的理論特色在於偏好以權力的角度理解國際政治(特別是國家的行為)並且認為在一個處處充滿衝突的無政府狀態體系中,國家是最主要的分析單元。惟類此觀點不僅是一般研究者對於現實主義的誤認,更是現實主義對自我認知的不完備。雖然現實主義將法律或規範置於權力的概念之下,認為國際法只是國家可有可無的一項工具,但事實上國際法律規範與權力卻經常彼此相互影響。

    本論文之目的並非要否定現實主義,而是欲對之進行修正及反省。由國際秩序此項議題作為起點,作者處理了下列幾個問題:首先,在國家所組成的國際社中,現實主義維持秩序的策略及其效果為何?其次,若此方法不具成效或有所疏漏,吾人是否有其它的選項可供作為維持國間家往來關係穩定與和平的方法?藉由探索國家創建國際法律規範的原因以及國際法的法源等諸問題,吾人發現國際法律規範之創立往往並沒有一套如同國內法那般正式且專責的機制,但被國家承認為規範或被接受為法律者的方式(例如:國家間的共識),卻不可反駁地存在於國際社會,在這些形成法律規範的方式中,國家(或其他行為者)可以清楚的認知到規範內容中所要求的義務與責任。

    因此,儘管現實主義認為國際法不具重要性,但吾人仍應探就國家為何有時願意遵守法律規範的原因。並且設法釐清在現實主義是項研究典範中不同流派的現實主義理論,對於客觀存在的國際法律規範之評價與認知。基於現實主義並非單一的理論而是為一研究典範,故本文在內容上分別從古典現實主義、結構現實主義(包括守勢與攻勢兩種現實主義)、新古典現實主義,以及較為一般人忽略的英國學派等現實主義理論的派別中去探討國際法律規範在國際政治中的地位及功能。文中指出,長期以來人們對於現實主義的理解受限於權力政治這樣的標籤,從而視現實主義與國際制度或國際法為水火而不相容!但事實上,採用現實主義理解國際關係,不意謂著就必須對國際法持以否定的態度。毋寧,在現實主義與國際法律規範之間,存在的不是一種絕對的互斥關係。非結構理論型的現實主義,如古典現實主義,對於國際法即是採取正面肯定其功能的態度。

    當瞭解現實主義的秩序觀及其維持秩序策略(權力平衡)的疏漏所在之後,本文解釋了國際法律規範形成的原因以及不同流派現實主義理論對於它的評價和觀點。接著,作者就國際政治的變遷情形做了觀察和檢驗,國際政治自冷戰結束後有了鉅幅轉變,雖然體系的本質依舊如昔,即由主權國家所組成的無政府狀態體系;但是體系內部已有了不同以往的發展和變革。舉例來說,全球化現象已經從經濟領域擴展到政治和文化等其它層面,並向傳統的國家主權及其權力提出挑戰。其它諸如民族分離運動、環境生態等問題也對冷戰後的國際政治造成衝擊,這些影響主要體現在:行為體之間高度的互賴性、行為體之間差異性的擴大,以及對國際法律規範的迫切需要。上述事實使得傳統現實主義以國家作為主體的國際政治體系正朝向一個近似中世紀主義的新政治體系在形成。在此體系中,國家將喪失其原本在體系中的優勢主導性地位,而國際法律規範的發展也將相應的有所提升及調整。

    事實上,並非所有行為者的行為皆忠實反映現實主義關於國際法無用論的主張。學者布爾即就國際法律規範所具有的三項政治性功能來解釋國際政治與法律規範間的關係:一、幫助國家認同與瞭解在他們彼此間所形成的「社會」事實;二、在國家和其他行為者間定訂一套基本的互動規則;三、裨益國際社會的成員達成進一步的共識與承諾。結論指出,國際法律規範是國際政治中一項不可獲缺的部分,為了克服傳統現實主義及以結構理論為核心的現實主義在解釋上的不足,「國際社會」的概念必須被深入瞭解和應用在現實主義的理論建構中。同時,吾人應投入心力展開對全球性議題的研究,例如:人權與環保,因為在這些領域中,一項現實主義最為核心的思考—國家主權的獨立與完整,將會遭遇到越來越多的挑戰並使國家藉口主權作為脫逸國際法律規範的可能性大為減低。
    The characteristic feature of Realism is its use of the power concept to explain the course of international politics (especially the behavior of state). The primary unit of analysis is the State which is regarded as operating in an anarchical system dominated by conflict. However, both notions above are misunderstood not only by general students, but the partial of Realism itself as well. Although Realism aligns norms or law with power in so far as international law is considered a tool at the disposal of the most powerful. Yet international legal norms and power also frequently do interact actually.

    This thesis doesn’t mean to deny the value of Realism, instead, tries to modify and introspect its viewpoints. Starting at the issue of international order, there are several tasks having been done: what is the strategy for Realism to keep order in the society of states and how does it work? Then, if the way for keeping order in Realism wasn’t constructive or in vain, do we have other choices to retain the relationship among the states stable and peaceful? By way of finding out why the states created international law and what the sources of international law are, we can think that the making process of international legal norms and norms itself don’t possess one formal mechanism responsible for law creation like the domestic law, but there are recognized and accepted methods by which legal norms or rules came into existence, for example, the consent of states. In those methods the precise content of legal norms can be identified by states (or other actors).

    Despite, therefore, the realist perspective deems international law to have no significance in its own right but we still have to seek to ascertain why do the States obey international law sometimes, if not always, but at least. And make it clear to know what the appraisal and perception in different schools under the Realism Paradigm. As we have known the Realism is not a single theory but a research paradigm, the author investigated respectively the different schools of Realism; they are Classical Realism, Structural Realism (including Offensive and Defensive Realism), Neoclassical Realism and Realism in English School. As the content points out, people whose stereotype of Realism has been limited to power politics are used to thinking that international institutions (and regimes) or international law is incompatible with the Realism, usually. However, it’s not absolute for us to consider that Realism turns down international law necessarily. For one instance, Realism without using structural concept, like Classical Realism, takes the positive attitude toward the role and the functions of international legal norms.

    After realizing the Realism’s conception of order and what the flaw of its strategy (Balance of Power) to maintain order is, this thesis then mentioned about the reasons why international law is created, and how different school under the Realism Paradigm evaluates international law. Following up, the author inspected the change in international politics. In the post Cold War era, though the nature of international system is still like what it used to be, a Anarchical system, the different and new phenomena do really happen. Globalization, for instance, is one momentous challenge to the sovereignty of States and their political power. The rest like separatist movements, environmental problems are also influential to international politics. The central issues of those influences are the interdependence among actors, the dissimilarities among actors and the yearning for international legal norms. Under the perceptions like this, the traditional state-centric international system of Realism has been being toward a Neo-Medieval system. In that system, state actors will lose their predominant and leading stand. On the other hand, the development of international legal norms will adjust itself to the new world and become more important.

    In fact, the behavior of international actors does not seem to bear out the realist assumption of the impotence of international law. Bull, for example, explains the international law-international politics relationship in terms of three political functions fulfilled by international law: to identify the idea of a society of sovereign States, to state the interactive basic rules of coexistence among States and international actors, and to help mobilize compliance with the rules of international society. As the conclusion in this thesis pointed out, international legal norms is one part of international politics. In order to overcome the inadequacies of the traditional and structural realist interpretation, the concept of ‘International Society’ must be dealt and applied explicitly and deeply in constructing theory of Realism. Meanwhile, people should spend more time researching the global issues, such as human rights and environmental protection, because in these sectors, the most core of realist thinking, independence and integrity of sovereignty, will get into plight and encounter more and more challenges, and the possibility for the States to get rid of international legal norms in the name of sovereignty becomes less and less.
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    Evans Tony, and Peter Wilson. “Regime Theory and the English School of International Relations: A Comparison.” Millennium 21, No. 3 (1992): 329-351.
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    湯普生 (Kenneth W. Thompson)著。《國際思想大師:二十世紀主要理論家與世界危機》(Masters of International Thought : Major Twentieth-Century Theorists and the World Crisis),朱建民譯。台北:台灣商務印書館,民國76年。
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    Jones, R. J. Barry. “Globalization and Change in the International Political Economy.” International Affairs 75 (April 1999): 357-367.
    Kaplan, Lisa M. “International Responsibility of an Occupying Power for Environmental Harm: The Case of Estonia.” The Transnational Lawyer 12 (Spring 1999): 153-201.
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    Keohane, Robert O. “International Institutions: Two Approaches.” International Studies Quarterly 32 (December 1988): 379-396.
    Keohane, Robert O. “International Institutions: Can Interdependence Work?”
    Foreign Policy 110 (Spring 1998): 82-96.
    Kingsbury, Benedict. “Legal Positivism as Normative Politics: International Society, Balance of Power and Lassa Oppenheim's Positive International Law.” European Journal of International Law 13 (2002 Number 2): 401-437.
    楊永明。《國際安全與國際法》。台北:楊永明出版;元照總經銷,2003年。
    Krasner, Stephen D. “Think again Sovereignty” Foreign Policy 122 (January/February 2001): 20-29
    Kupchan, Charles A., and Clifford A. Kupchan. “The Promise of Collective Security.” International Security 20 (Summer 1995): 52-61.
    Levy, Marc A., Oran R. Young, and Michael Zurn. “The Study International Regimes.” European Journal of International Relations 1(September 1995): 267-330
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    Lynn-Jones, Sean M. “Realism and America’s Rise: A Review Essay.” International Security 23 (Fall 1998): 157-182.
    Lynn-Jones, Sean M. “Book Reviews on the Tragedy of Great Power Politics.” International Affairs 78 (April 2002): 365-366.
    Makinda, Samuel M. “Reading and Writing International Relations.” Australian Journal of International Affairs 54 (November 2000): 389-402
    Martin, Lisa L., and Beth A. Simmons. “Theories and Empirical Studies of International Institutions.” International Organization 52 (Autumn 1998): 729-757.
    Mastanduno, Michael. “Preserving the Unipolar Moment: Realist Theories and U.S. Grand Strategy after the Cold War.” International Security 21 (Spring 1997): 49-88.
    雷崧生。《國際法原理(下)》。台北:中正書局,民國60年。
    Mathews, Jessica T. “Power Shift.” Foreign Affairs 76 (January/February 1997): 50-66.
    Matthews III, John C. “Current Gains and Future Outcomes: When Cumulative Relative Gains Matter.” International Security 21(Summer 1996): 112–146.
    McLain, Patrick. “Resolution 1441 and Parallel Justifications for The Use of Force against Iraq.” Duke Journal of Comparative & International Law 13 (Winter, 2003): 267-272.
    Mearsheimer, John J. “The False Promise of International Institutions.” International Security 19 (Winter 1994/1995): 5-49.
    Mearsheimer, John J. “A Realist Reply.” International Security 20 (Summer 1995): 82-93.
    Mercer, Jonathan. “Anarchy and Identity.” International Organization 49(Spring 1995): 229-252.
    Naim, Moises. “Globalization.” Harvard International Review 26 (Spring 2004): 84-86.
    Nardin, Terry. “International Ethics and International Law.” Review of International Studies 18 (January 1992): 19-30.
    O'Neill, Kate, Jörg Balsiger, and Stacy D. VanDeveer. “Actors, Norms, and Impact: Recent International Cooperation Theory and the Influence of the Agent-Structure Debate.” Annual Review of Political Science 7 (Issue1, 2004): 149-175.
    Overy, Richard. “History Will Damn Them: We must not Accept Our Leaders’ Illegal Occupation of A Sovereign State.” The Guardian (March 20, 2004): 23-25
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    Partan, Daniel G. “International Administrative Law.” American Journal of International Law 75 (July 1981): 639-644
    Pastor, Robert A. “North America’s Second Decade.” Foreign Affairs (January/February 2004): 124-135.
    Pietrzyk, Mark E. “Explaining The Post-Cold War Order: An International Society Approach.” International Journal on World Peace 18 (September 2001): 31-54.
    Price, Richard. “A Genealogy of the Chemical Weapons Taboo.” International Organization 49 (Winter 1995): 73-103.
    Putnam, Robert. “Diplomacy and Domestic Politics.” International Organization 42 (Summer 1998): 427-460.
    Ray, Sarah M. “Domesticating International Obligations: How to Ensure U.S. Compliance with the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations.” California Law Review 91 (December 2003): 1729-1744.
    Ramsbotham, Oliver. “Humanitarian Intervention 1990-1995: A Need to Reconceptualize?” Review of International Studies 23 (1997): 445-468.
    Roberts, Colonel Guy B. “The Counter-Proliferation Self-Help Paradigm.” Denver Journal of International Law and Policy 27 (Summer 1999): 483-537.
    Rose, Gideon. “Neoclassical Realism and Theories of Foreign Policy.” World Politics 51 (October 1998): 144-172.
    Rosecrance, Richard, and Chih-Chen Lo. “Balance, Stability, and War: the Mysterious Case of the Napoleonic International System.” International Studies Quarterly 40 (1996): 479-500.
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    Schroeder, Paul. “The Collapse of the Second Coalition.” Journal of Modern History 59 (June 1987): 244-290
    Schroeder, Paul. “Did the Vienna Settlement Rest on a Balance of Power?” American Historical Review 97 (June 1992): 683-706.
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    Schultz, Kenneth A., and Barry R. Weingast. “The Democratic Advantage: Institutional Foundations of Financial Power in International Competition.” International Organization 57(Winter 2003):3-42.
    Schweller, Randall L. “Neorealism's Status-Quo Bias: What Security Dilemma?” Security Studies 5 (Spring 1996): 90-121.
    Schweller, Randall L., and William C. Wohlforth. “Power Test: Evaluating Realism in Response to the End of the Cold War.” Security Studies 9 (Spring 2000): 60-108..
    Schweller, Randall L. “Unanswered Threats: A Neoclassical Realist Theory of Underbalancing.” International Security 29 (Fall 2004): 159-201.
    Shank, Gregory. “Issue Overview: Structures of Power and Inequality.” Social Justice 24 (Spring 1997): 1-6.
    穗積陳重著。《法律進化論》,黃尊三等譯。台北:台灣大學法學院圖書館,民國74年。
    Singer, David. “The Level-of-Analysis Problem in International Relations.” World Politics 14 (October 1961): 77-92.
    Smith, Edwin M. “The Laws of War and Humanitarian Law.” Global Governance 9 (January-March 2003): 115-134.
    Strange, Susan. “The Defective State.” Daedalus 124 (Spring 1995): 55-72.
    Stubbs, Richard. “ASEAN Plus Three: Emerging East Asian Regionalism?” Asian Survey 42 (May/June 2002): 440-455.
    Snyder, Glenn H. “Mearshimer’s World: Offensive Realism and the Struggle for Security.” International Security 27 (Summer 2002): 151-159.
    Taliaferro, Jeffrey W. “Security Seeking under Anarchy.” International Security 25 (Winter 2000/2001): 128-161.
    Tarzi, Shah M. “The Role of Norms and Regimes in World Politics: A Grotian Perspective.”International Relations 14 (December 1998): 71-84.
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    Vasquez, John A. “The Realist Paradigm and Degenerative versus Progressive Research Programs: An Appraisal of Neotraditional Research on Waltz's Balancing Proposition.”American Political Science Review 91(December 1997): 899-890.
    二、期刊論文
    Wendt, Alexander. “The Agent-Structure Problem in International Relations Theory.” International Organization 41 (Summer 1987): 335-370.
    Wendt, Alexander. “Collective Identity Formation and the International State.” American Political Science Review 88 (June 1994): 384-396.
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    Wang, Yuan-Kang. “Offensive Realism and the Rise of China.” Issues & Studies 40 (March 2004): 186.
    Walt, Stephen M. “The Progressive Power of Realism.” American Political Science Review 91 (December 1997): 931-935
    Waltz, Kenneth N. “Force, Order and Justice.” (Report on Panel Discussions at ISA annual meeting) International Studies Quarterly 11 (September 1967): 279
    Waltz, Kenneth. “America as a Model for World? A Foreign Policy Perspective.” Political Science and Politics (December 1991): 667-670.
    Waltz, Kenneth. “Evaluation Theories.” American Political Science Review 91 (December 1997): 913.
    Waltz, Kenneth N. “Structural Realism after the Cold War.” International Security 25 (Summer 2000): 5
    Weil, Prosper. “Toward Relative Normativity in International Law?” American Journal of International Law 77 (1983): 413; 420.
    王德育。〈美國柯林頓政府的對華政策〉。《美歐月刊》,九卷十二期,民國八十三年十二月,頁30-39。
    Weiss, Thomas G. “The Illusion of UN Security Council Reform.” Washington Quarterly 26 (Autumn 2003): 147-150.
    Wendt, Alexander. “Anarchy Is What States Make of It: The Social Construction of Power Politics.” International Organization 46 (Spring 1992): 391-425.
    Wendt, Alexander. “Constructing International Politics.” International Security 20 (Summer 1995): 77-81.
    Wendt, Alexander. “Why a World State is Inevitable.” European Journal of International Relations 9 (December 2003): 491-542.
    Williams, Jody. “David with Goliath: International Cooperation and the Campaign to Ban Landmines.” Harvard International Review 22 (Fall 2000): 87-96.
    Wohlforth, William C. “The Perception of Power: Russia in the Pre-1914 Balance.” World Politics 39 (April 1987): 353-381
    Zakaria, Fareed “Realism and Domestic Politics.” International Security 17 (Summer 1992): 177-198.
    參、研討會論文暨研究報告
    Asgarkhani, Abumohammad Hegemony, Challenge and Compromise [microform]: The Iran-United States Claims Tribunal as an International Regime in Conflict Resolution : Theory and Practice, January 1981-January 1993 (Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms International Dissertation Services, A Bell & Howell Co., 1995)
    Callahan, William A . “Nationalizing International Theory: the Emergence of English School and IR Theory with Chinese Characteristics.” This paper resented at IR Theory in the 21st Century British and Chinese Perspectives (中國人民大學,2002年4月22日)
    秦亞青。〈層次分析法與國際關係研究〉。《歐洲》,1998年第3期,頁4-10。
    Cronin, Bruce, and Joseph Lepgold. “A New Medievalism? Conflicting International
    Authorities and Competing Loyalties in the Twenty-First Century.” Paper delivered at the conference on The Changing Nature of Sovereignty and the New World Order, Center for International Affairs, Harvard University (April 22-23, 1995)
    Friedrichs, Jörg. “When Push comes to Shove: The Territorial Monopoly of Force and the Travails of Neomedieval Europe.” This Paper presented to the Conference of Europeanists, Chicago, 11-13 March 2004, Panel on Geopolitics, Territoriality and Space in the EU, chaired by Daniel Ziblatt.
    Goetschel, Laurent. “Small States and the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP)of the EU: A Comparative Analysis.” NRP42 Project-4042-044205 Final Report (Berne, May 2000)
    Hall, Rodney B. “Dialectics as Constitutive Process in Historical International Systems: From Concrete Totality to Context Sensitivity.” For delivery at Fifth Pan European International Relations Conference, The Hague, Netherlands (September 9-11, 2004). A previous draft of this paper was delivered at the conference on “History, Systemic Transformations, and IR Theory” sponsored by the University of Wales at Gregynog / Newtown, U.K (27-29 April 2000).
    Kacowicz, Arie M. “Regionalization, Globalization, and Nationalism: Convergent, Divergent, or Overlapping?” This is a revised version of a paper presented at the IPSA Study Group II: “New World Orders?” Workshop on “Globalisms and Regionalisms.” Center for Development and the Environment, University of Oslo, Norway (7 August 1998).
    Rosenthal, Joel. “What Constitutes an Ethical Approach to International Affairs?” This is the lectures delivered by Carnegie Council president Joel Rosenthal at the Fletcher School of Diplomacy, Tufts University, over the 2000-2001 academic year.
    肆、網路新聞與資源
    王元綱。〈樂觀的現實主義:國際關係守勢現實主義之評析〉。《國際關係學報》,第十八期,2003年12月(即將出刊發行)。本文可至下列網址取得:http://www3.nccu.edu.tw/~ykwang/DefRealism.pdf
    Amoako, K. Y. “Globalization: An Opportunity For Catching Up or A Risk of Falling Behind in the Development Process?” The speech in UN Economic Commission for Africa (20 July, 2001), via at: http://www.uneca.org/eca_resources/ Speeches/amoako /2001 /072001speech_amoako_geneva.htm
    徐曉明。〈權力政治學派不是國際法虛無主義〉。《世界經濟與政治》(北京),2002年第3期,頁66-68。
    Deepak Lal, In Defense of Empires, via at: http://www.ccer.edu.cn/download/3932-1.pdf
    Don GÖte Appelberg. “Is The Military Order of The Collar a Legitimate Order of Chivalry?” via at: http://realaula.homestead.com/files/2002.pdf
    Kaplan, Robert D. “The Coming Anarchy.” The Atlantic Monthly 273 (February 1994), via at: http://dieoff.org/page67.htm
    Kemos, Alexander. “The Influence of Thucydides in the Modern World.” Point of Reference (Fall 1994), via at: http://www.hri.org/por/thucydides.html
    Kimball, Daryl G.. “Iraq’s WMD: Myth and Reality.” Arms Control Today 33 (September 2003), via at: http://www.armscontrol.org/act/2003_09 /focus_Sept03.asp
    Shafer, Greg, Lewis Lapham, and Samuel Johnson. “Lessons from the U.S. War on Iraq.” The Humanist 63 (July/August 2003), via at: http://www.findarticles. com/p/articles/mi_m1374/is_4_63/ai_104971394
    Tom Raum, “Bush Seeks to Mend Fences on Euripe Trip,” via at: http://abcnews.go. com/Politics/wireStory?id=515892
    “UN Remains Critical In Post-War Iraq,” Yale Global Online, via at: http://yaleglobalyale.edu/display.article?id=4908
    Walker, Thomas C. “Morgenthau's Dual Approach to International Politics.” International Studies Notes 24 (January 1999), via at: http://csf.colorado.edu /isa/isn/24-1/walker.html
    唐小松。〈論現實主義的發展及其命運〉。《世界經濟與政治》(北京),2004年第7期,頁7-14。
    陳一新。〈美國在單極為主多極政經體系中的新地位與挑戰〉。《美國月刊》,七卷二期,民國八十一年二月,頁4-16。
    陳宏銘。〈現實主義典範的進步或退化:以Vasquez採Lakatos科學研究綱領的論戰為焦點〉。《東吳政治學報》,第十七期,民國九十二年九月,頁53-91。
    楊永明。〈美國亞太安全戰略之理論分析〉。《美歐季刊》,十二卷三期,民國86年秋季號,頁35-71。
    貳、英文部分
    一、專書
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    Baldwin, David A. Neorealism and Neoliberalism: the Contemporary Debate. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.
    Bartkus, Viva Ona. The Dynamic of Secession. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
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    Bodin, Jean. Six livres de la Republique. (On Sovereignty: Four Chapters from the Six Books of the Commonwealth) translated by Julian H. Franklin. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992.
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    Boyle, Francis A. World Politics and International Law. Durham: Duke University Press, 1985.
    Brierly, James. L. The Law of Nations: An Introduction to the International Law of Peace, 6th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1963.
    Brown, Chris. “World Society and the English School: An ‘International Society’ Perspective on World Society.” European Journal of International Relations 7 (December 2001): 423-441.
    Brownlie, Ian. Principles of Public International Law, 4th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979.
    Brown, Peter R. L. The Rise of Western Christendom: Triumph and Diversity. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 1996.
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    Bull, Hedley. The Anarchical society: A Study of Order in World Politics. New York: Columbia University Press, 1977.
    Bull, Hedley, and Adam Watson. The Expansion of International Society. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1984.
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    Buzan, Barry. From International to World Society? English School Theory and the Social Structure of Globalisation. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
    Buzan, Barry, Charles Jones, and Richard Little. The Logic of Anarchy: From Neorealism to Structural Realism. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.
    Buzan, Barry, and Richard Little. International System in World History: Remaking the Study of International Relations. Oxford University Press, 2000.
    Carr, E.H. The Twenty Years Crisis 1919-1939: An Introduction to the Study of International Relations. London: Macmillan, 1956.
    Carroll, Marie J. Key to League of Nations Documents Placed on Public Sale, 1920-1929. Boston: World Peace Foundation, 1929.
    Cassese, Antonio. International Law in A Divided World. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.
    Christensen, Thomas J. Useful Adversaries: Grand Strategy, Domestic Mobilization, and Sino-American Conflict, 1947-1958. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996.
    Claude, Inis L. Power and International Relations. New York: Random House, 1962.
    Derian, James Der, ed. International Theory: Critical Investigations. New York: New York University Press, 1995.
    Dixon, Martin. Textbook on International Law, 4th ed. London: Blackstone Press Limited, 2000.
    Donnelly, Jack. Realism and International Relations. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
    Doyle, Michael W., and G. John Ikenberry, eds. New Thinking in International Theory. Colorado: Westview Press, 1997.
    Elman, Colin, and Miriam F. Elman, eds. Progress in International Relations Theory. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2003.
    Finnemore, Martha National Interests in International Society. New York: Cornell University Press, 1996.
    Frankel, Benjamin, ed. Realism: Restatement and Renewal. London: Frank Cass, 1996.
    Friedberg, Aaron L. The Weary Titan: Britain and the Experience of Relative Decline, 1895-1905. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988.
    Friedmann, Wolfgang. The Changing Structure of International Law. New York: Columbia University Press, 1964.
    George F, Mott. An Outline History of the Middle Ages: from the Decline of the Roman Empire through the Roman Catholic Reformation, 4th ed. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1950.
    George, Jim. Discourses of Global Politics: A Critical Introduction to International Relations. Boulder: Lynne Reinner, 1994.
    Gilpin, Robert. War and change in world politics. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1981.
    Gilpin, Robert. Global Political Economy: Understanding the International Economic Order. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001.
    Graus, Frantisek, and Geoffrey Barraclough. Eastern and Western Europe in the Middle Ages. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1970.
    Greenstein, F., and N. Polsby, eds. Handbook of Political Science 8. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1975.
    Grieco, Joseph. Cooperation among Nations: Europe, America and Non-Tariff Barriers to Trade. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1990.
    Goldsmith, Jack L., and Eric A. Posner. The Limits of International Law. New York: Oxford Univesity Press, 2005.
    Hanami, Andrew K. Perspectives on Structural Realism. New York, N.Y.: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.
    Hasenclever, Andreas, Peter Mayer and Volker Rittberger, Theories of International Regimes. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
    Hashmi, Sohail H., ed. State Sovereignty: Change and Persistence in International Relations. University Park, Penn.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1997.
    Harris, David J. Cases and Materials on International Law, 3rd ed. London: Sweet & Maxwell, 1983.
    Hasenclever, Andreas Peter Mayer and Volker Rittberger. Theories of International Regimes. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
    Held, David, and Anthony G. McGrew, eds. The Global Transformations Reader: An Introduction to The Globalization Debate. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Publishing, 2000.
    Henkin, Louis, Richard C. Pugh, Oscar Schachter, and Hans Smit. International Law: Cases and Materials, 3rd ed. St. Paul, Minn.: West Publishing Co., 1993.
    Herz, John. The Nation-State and the Crisis of World Politics: Essays on International Politics in the Twentieth Century. New York: D. McKay, 1976.
    Hobbes, Thomas. Leviathan: Authoritative Text, Backgrounds, Interpretations. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1997.
    Holland, Martin. European Integration: from Community to Union. London: Pinter Publishers, 1994.
    Hollis Martin, and Steve Smith. Explaining and Understanding International Relations. Oxford: Claredon Press, 1990.
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    外交研究所
    91253026
    93
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0912530261
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[外交學系] 學位論文

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