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    Title: 大鵬鐘為誰響起?談維吉尼亞˙吳爾芙《戴洛維夫人》中的城市游擊
    What Happens as Big Ben Strikes? The Politics of City Adventure in Virginia Woolf's Mrs. Dalloway
    Authors: 陳怡君
    Contributors: 陳音頤
    陳怡君
    Keywords: 維吉尼亞˙吳爾芙
    戴洛維夫人
    城市
    空間
    德瑟多
    Virginia Woolf
    Mrs. Dalloway
    city
    space
    Michel de Certeau
    Date: 2006
    Issue Date: 2009-09-14 12:14:52 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 在晚近的現代城市論述裡,城市常被認為是一抽象、陽剛且具有排外性質的空間;二十世紀初開始成形的概念城市(concept city)即是其例。概念城市將空間轉為清晰可讀,以便於居民生活及加速其政經發展;但相對地來說,這樣的空間也極其霸道。概念城市以其單義、同質的空間性質削弱了、甚至替代了城市裡既存的多元差異;這包含了城市原有的建築、文化及居民生活。
    以二十世紀初的英國倫敦為例,當維吉尼亞˙吳爾芙著手撰寫《戴洛維夫人》時,倫敦地鐵(London Underground)已縱行於地底下數十年;地鐵改變了倫敦白天的城市地貌,也影響著外來客的行動、改變了倫敦居民的生活習慣與文化。倫敦地標大鵬鐘(Big Ben)則是另一例的城市指標。鑄造於十九世紀中葉的大鵬鐘,根據格林威治(Greenwich)時間準點報時,迄今已有百餘年;它的報時已成為倫敦人重要的時間指示,它的存在也日復一日地提醒著有關大英帝國過去輝煌的殖民偉業及其驕傲。在《戴洛維夫人》裡,吳爾芙將大鵬鐘的鐘聲與小說人物生命橫向交織;大鵬鐘常在小說人物生命中重要的時刻出現,又或者說,它的每一次報時同時也在小說人物的生命中印下不一樣的記憶。在二十世紀初的倫敦,地鐵已四通八達,而吳爾芙《戴洛維夫人》小說中的人物仍選擇以步行方式體驗城市;這體驗既帶有享受雙腳自由行動的意味,其無可預測的移動性也是對城市既定空間與人為客觀時間規劃的無聲抵抗。十九世紀法國詩人波特萊爾(Charles Baudelaire)在其詩作中,勾勒出了女性行人與男性漫遊者擦身而過下的微妙關係;其中,我們也約略可見現代巴黎城市的初貌。在一次大戰後出版的《戴洛維夫人》裡,書中的主要漫遊者換成了女性;主角克萊麗莎(Clarissa Dalloway)漫步於倫敦市街頭時,她的思緒時而被大鵬鐘的鐘聲所擾,但實際上她又那麼地喜愛它,只因它是大英帝國的驕傲,而身為英國居民的她多年來也深受其惠。相較之下,小說中其他的人物對大鵬鐘的鐘聲也有不同的迴響,但大多數既服從其律、也有抵抗。
    因此,本論文第一章將回顧大鵬鐘及其所代表的帝國操控及時間單意化意涵,佐以傅柯(Michel Foucault)空間與權力的論述來強調城市空間權威化與概念化的過程作為中調,最後以近代法國批評家德瑟多(Michel de Certeau)提出的城市使用者的戰術性(tactics)抵抗作為整篇論文概念的啟蒙,來分析吳爾芙《戴洛維夫人》小說人物選擇步行城市的意義。論文第二章以城市漫遊者為主調,再探德瑟多提出的城市步行者的日常生活實踐(practice of everyday life);德瑟多認為處於弱勢的普羅大眾有能力主動創造屬於自己的空間,而此一能動性(mobility)剛好用以規避、抵抗或者顛覆原有空間中所含附的權力論述。在此架構中,處於弱勢的總是大眾整體,所以德瑟多的城市步行者理論男女兼備。但當回溯十九世紀初成形的現代都市漫遊者(flâneur)時,在性別議題上卻爭議不斷,因為當時只有少數女性可以自由在街上行動而不會被視作招攬性生意者(streetwalkers)。因此在探討波特萊爾及班雅明對其詩作及的理解之外,女性主義者對男性漫遊者的觀看(gaze)及其性別(gender)批判也為此章節必要之回顧。而一次戰後的女權運動,也間接影響著吳爾芙小說中的女性角色及其自主意識的塑造。第二章最後以吳爾芙所寫的二篇文章作為結尾;吳爾芙的二文中皆揭露了女性漫遊者與男性漫遊者的不同,在她的文字中,我們已可以嗅到《戴洛維夫人》克萊麗莎行走倫敦的樂趣及限制所在。第三章及第四章則分別為《戴洛維夫人》小說的文本分析;第三章著重於大鵬鐘對人物角色塑造與其故事中日常生活行動的影響,且依據小說中鐘聲敲響的時間先後來鋪序。第四章則與城市空間相關,先提出小說人物為何選擇行走而不搭地鐵為開頭,再分析城市空間如何直接或間接塑造小說人物特質或心理。第五章則為本論文的終章;總結中先提出德瑟多對城市生活的切入觀點,其實是欲挖掘出城市使用者如何在此一愈趨綿密的城市架構下生存,及如何用他們的能動性走出與這城市性格相異的空間故事。吳爾芙的《戴洛維夫人》也許已為現代城市的步行樂趣及抵抗游擊做出最好的註解。
    This thesis starts with an exploration of the ambivalent role of Big Ben in relation to Clarissa Dalloway and some other characters in Virginia Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway. The assumption and focus of the thesis is that they, when walking through London, both succumb to and resist in some ways the imperial symbol and all the others in complicity with it. The urban space that is an abstract, masculine, and exclusionary one which represents a manipulative gaze of city planners is one such example. With that discussion of Big Ben and the urban space that impact a lot upon London residents as a valuable basis, the thesis then proceeds to use Michel de Certeau’s theory on the mobility of city users and their interactions with the urban space as an enlightenment idea. With that, this thesis would be able to present a more positive and encouraging portrayal of the early twentieth century Londoner, particularly female, who has started lately to experience pleasure in urban life that provides both convenience in public transportation as the London Underground and places to shop and stay in as department stores. The main proposition is that women would be the most complicated site of urban pleasure and resistance that deserves detailed analysis in the cityscape of London.
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    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    英國語文學研究所
    90551002
    95
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0905510021
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[英國語文學系] 學位論文

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