Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
A Case Study of Model-based Writing Instruction in Senior High School English Class
structure in writing
|Issue Date: ||2009-09-14 12:17:54 (UTC+8)|
In the history of English writing pedagogy, there has long been a dispute over the use of models in English writing. Some researchers propose that learners can learn English organizational structures through the analysis and imitation of organization and logical arrangement in model paragraphs or essays. On the other hand, some process-oriented researchers argue that the use of models will prevent students from thinking on their own. An integrated approach was thus proposed to incorporate the strengths of the two approaches. Models were used to familiarize students with the rhetorical organization in English written discourse. In the meantime, peer-editing, revision and teacher feedback were used to facilitate the writing process.
The present study examines the effects of model-based instruction in organization on the writing of senior high school students. Thirty-nine subjects, who were senior high students in the third year, participated in this study. A pretest writing was used before the instruction to group the subjects into different proficiency levels according to the criterion set by the College Entrance Examination Center (CEEC). Two proficiency groups, namely, the middle proficiency group (M.P.G) and low proficiency group (L.P.G), were found among the subjects. A Writing Habit questionnaire was applied to investigate the subjects’ conception and habits about writing before the instruction. Then, a ten-week model-based writing instruction was conducted on all the participants in the study. Description and cause-effect writing were the two genres for instruction. After the instruction, a post-test writing was conducted to compare with the pre-test to examine whether students had made progress in their writing after the instruction. The Response Questionnaire and three in-depth interviews were conducted to further explore students’ perception and attitude toward the model-based writing.
The results of the study reveal that the instruction helps to improve students’ abilities to organize ideas more effectively and logically. The significant increase in scores on overall writing quality in the posttest also show that the model-based writing instruction helps to yield higher quality in students’ overall writing. In addition, subjects in the L.P.G. seem to make more progress than those in the M.P.G.
Moreover, the subjects seem to have more confidence in writing after the treatment.
|Reference: ||Applebee, A. N. (1986). Problems in process approaches: toward a reconceptualization of process instruction. In A. R. Petrosky, & D. Bartholomae (Eds.), The teaching of Writing (pp.148-155). Chicago: National Society for the Study of Education.|
Arapoff, N. (1967). Writing: a thinking process. TESOL Quarterly 1(2), 33-37.
Arnaudet, M. L., & Barrett, M. E. (1990). Paragraph development: A guide for students of English. NY: Longman.
Ashwell, T. (2000). Patterns of teacher response to student writing in a multiple-draft composition classroom: Is content feedback followed by form feedback the best method? Journal of Second Language Writing, 9 (3), 227-257.
Badger, R., & White, G. (2000). A process genre approach to teaching writing. ELT Journal, 54 (2), 153-160.
Beach, R. (1979). The effect of between-draft teacher evaluation versus student self-evaluation on high school students’ revision of rough drafts. Research in the Teaching of English, 13 (2), 111-119.
Blanchard, K., & Root, C. (1998). Get ready to write. London: Longman.
________ (2003). Ready to write. (3rd ed.). London: Longman.
Brown, H. D. (2001). Principles of language learning and teaching. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Regents.
Byrne, D. (1989). Teaching writing skills. London; New York: Longman.
Cai, G.. (1993, April). Beyond “Bad Writing”: Teaching English composition to Chinese ESL students. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Conference on College Composition and Communication, 44th, San Diego, CA.
Stanley, J. (1992). Coaching student writers to be more effective peer evaluators. Journal of Second Language Writing, 1, 217-233.
Stolarek, E. (1994). Prose modeling and metacognition: the effect of modeling on developing a metacognitive stance toward writing. Research in the Teaching of English, 28 (2), 154-174.
Stotsky, S. (1983). Research on reading/ writing relationships: A synthesis and suggested directions. Language Arts, 60, 627-642.
Straub, R. (1997). Students' reactions to teacher comments: An exploratory study. Research in the Teaching of English, 31 (1), 91-119.
Susser, Bernard. (1994). Process approach in ESL/ EFL writing instruction. Journal of Second Language Writing, 3 (1), 31-47.
Taylor, A. (1991). Shaping the Short Essay. Harper Collins.
Taylor, B. P. (1981). Content and written form: A two-way street. TESOL Quarterly, 15 (1), 5-13.
Tso, W. W. (2002). The Effectiveness of Peer Evaluation on EFL Writing. MA. Thesis, Department of English, National Kaoshiung Normal Univeristy.
Tsui, B. & Ng, M. (2000). Do secondary L2 writers benefit from peer comments? Journal of Second Language Writing, 9 (2), 147-170.
Watson, C. B. (1982). The use and abuse of models in the ESL writing class. TESOL Quarterly, 16 (1), 5-14.
Canseco, G.., & Byrd, P. (1989). Writing required in graduate courses in business administration. TESOL Quarterly 23(3), 305-316.
Williams, J. D. (1998). Preparing to teach writing: research, theory, and practice (2nd ed.). London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Wingfield, R. J. (1975). Five ways of dealing with errors in written composition. ELT Journal, 29 (4), 311-313.
Wu, Ja-jen. (2002). A case study of the effect of rhetorical analysis via expository models on Taiwanese freshmen’s English compositions. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Tsing-hwaUniversity. Taiwan, R.O.C.
Zamel, V. (1976). Teaching composition in the ESL classroom: what we can learn from research in the teaching of English. TESOL Quarterly, 10(1), 67-74.
Zamel, V. (1982). Writing: the process of discovering meaning. TESOL Quarterly, 16 (2), 195-209.
Zamel, V. (1983). The composing processes of advanced ESL students: six case studies. TESOL Quarterly, 17 (2), 165-187.
_______. (1985). Responding to student writing. TESOL Quarterly, 19 (1), 79-101.
Zemach, D. E. & Islam, C. (2005). Paragraph writing. Oxford: Macmilian.
Zhang, S (1995). Reexamining the affective advantage of peer feedback in the ESL writing class. Journal of Second Language Writing, 4, 209-222.
Carr, D. H. (1967). A second look at teaching reading and composition. TESOL Quarterly 1 (1), 30-34.
Carter , R., & McCarthy, M. (1994). Language as discourse. Longman: New York.
Chang, C.C. (1998). A case study of the effect of error correction on the grammatical structures of three Chinese university students’ EFL writing. MA. Thesis, Department of Foreign Language and Literature, National Chin-Hua University.
Chang, S. C. (2004). The effect of multi-draft writing procedure on EFL high school students' writing quality and their attitudes toward writing and revision. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Chang, Vincent, W. (1987). Paragraph structure in Chinese and English: A pilot study. Studies in English Literature and Linguistics, No. 13, 171-88. Taipei: Department of English, National Taiwan Normal University.
Chao, S, T., (2006). The role of predictive words in reading comprehension instruction. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Cheng-chi University, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Charney, D. H., & Carlson, R. A. (1995). Learning to write in a genre: What student writers take from model texts. Research in the Teaching of English, 29 (1), 88-125.
Caulk, N. (1994). Comparing teacher and student responses to written work. TESOL Quarterly, 28 (1), 181-188.
Chaudron, C. (1984). Evaluating writing: Effects of feedback on revision. RELT Journal, 15, 1-14.
Chen, B.L. (2004). A comparative study of teacher evaluation and peer evaluation on the English writing of senior high school students. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Chen, F. (2003). The EFL beginning writers’ perception and metacognitive knowledge of English writing— A study on the freshman at university of science and technology. Unpublished master thesis. Taiwan: National Yunlin Univeristy of Science and Technology.
Chen, S.I. (1992). Pedagogy for discourse structure in ESL academic writing: Developmental factors and the socio-cultural background of L1. Selected papers from the 8th Conference on English Teaching and Learning in the Republic of China. Taipei: The Crane Publishing.
Chiang, M.C. (1998). The effects of model-based instruction on Chinese students’ English writing. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C. 321-329.
Charles, M. (1990). Responding to problems in written English using a student self-monitoring technique. ELT Journal, 44 (3), 286-293.
Chou, Hsien-li.(1989). Contrastive rhetoric: Chinese and English. Papers from the 6th Conference on English Teaching and Learning in the Republic of China. Taipei: The Crane Publishing.
Clifford, J. (1981). Composing in stages: Effects of feedback on revision. Research in the Teaching of English, 15, 37-53.
Cobb, C, M. (1985). Process and pattern: Controlled composition practice for ESL students. Wadsworth Publishing Company.
Connor, U., & Asenavage, K. (1994). Peer response groups in ESL writing classes: How much impact on revision? Journal of Second Language Writing, 3(2), 257-276.
Conrad, S. & Goldstein, L. (1999). ESL student revision after teacher-written comments: Texts, contexts and individuals. Journal of Second Language Writing, 8 (2), 147-179.
Emig, J. (1967). On teaching composition: Some hypothesis as definitions. Research in the Teaching of English, 1, 127-135.
Fagan, E. R. & Cheong, P. (1987). Contrastive rhetoric: Pedagogical implications for the ESL teacher in Singapore. RELC Journal, 18 (1), 19-30.
Fathman, A. & Whalley, E. (1990) Teacher response to student writing: Focus on form versus content. In B. Kroll (Ed.), Second language writing: Research insights for the classroom (pp. 178-190). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Ferris, D. R. (1995a). Students reactions to teacher response in multiple-draft composition classrooms. TESOL Quarterly, 29 (1), 33-53.
Ferris, D. R. (1995b). Teaching students to self-edit. TESOL Quarterly, 4 (4), 18-22.
Ferris, D. R. (1997). The influence of teacher commentary on student revision. TESOL Quarterly, 31, (2), 315-339.
Ferris, D. (2003). Responding to writing. In B. Kroll(Ed.), Exploring the Dynamics of Second Language Writing, pp.119-136. NY: Cambridge University Press.
Flachmann, K. (1986). Literacy: The convergence of reading, writing and thinking. The Writing Instructor spring, 132-138.
Flowerdew, L. (2000). Using a genre-based framework to teach organizational structure in academic writing. ELT Journal, 54 (4), 369-375.
Folse, K. S., Vokoun, A. M., & Solomon, E. V. (2002). Great sentences for great paragraphs. NY: Houghton Mifflin Company.
_____________ (2004). Great paragraphs. NY: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Gate, J. T. (1984). The teaching of writing: Theory and Practice. In Bartholomae, D & Petrosky, A. (Eds), The teaching of writing: Eighty-fifth yearbook of the ational Society for the Study of Education (p25). Illinois: Chicago University Press.
Gorman, T. P.(1979). The teaching of composition. In M. Celce-Murcia & L. McIntosh (Eds.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language.. Rowley, MA: Newbury House, 189-202.
Grabe, W., & Kaplan, R. B. (1996). Theory and practice of writing. London: Longman.
Hamp-Lyons, L. (1986). No new lamps for old yet, please. TESOL Quarterly, 20 (4), 790-796.
Hedgcock, J., & Lefkowitz, N. (1992). Collaborative oral/ aural revision in foreign language writing instruction. Journal of Second Language Writing, 1, 255-276.
__________. (1994). Feedback on feedback: Assessing learner receptivity to teacher response in L2 composing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 3(3), 141-163.
__________. (1996). Some input on input: Two analyses of student response to expert feedback in L2 writing. The Modern Language Journal, 80(3), 287-307.
Hendrickson, J. (1978). Error correction in foreign language teaching: Recent theory, research and practice. The Modern Language Journal, 62, 387-398.
Hillcocks, G.., Jr. (1986). Research on written composition: New directions for teaching. Urbana, IL: ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills. ED 265 552.
Hillcocks, G.. (1982). The interaction of instruction, teacher comment and revision in teaching the composing process. Research in the Teaching of English, 16 (1), 261-278.
Hirose, K., & Sasaki, M. (1994). Explanatory variables for Japanese students’ expository writing in English: An exploratory study. Journal of Second Language Writing, 3 (3), 203-229.
Horowitz, D. (1986). The author responds to Liebman-Kleine. TESOL Quarterly, 20 (4), 788-790.
Huang, H. H. (2004). A Study of Senior High Students’ Responses to Peer and Teacher Feedback on EFL Compositions. MA. Thesis, Department of English, National Taipei Normal Univeristy.
Hung, S.C. (1998). A Case Study of College Freshmen’s Responses to Teacher and Peer Feedback in English Compositions. MA. Thesis, Department of English, National Kaoshiung Normal Univeristy.
Huang, T. L. (1993). English composition pedagogy. Applied Linguistics and Teaching English Language, (pp. 197-205). Taipei, Taiwan: Crane.
Jacobs, G., Crutis, A., Braine, G.., & Huang, S. Y. (1998). Feedback on student writing: Taking the middle path. Journal of Second Language Learning, 7 (3), 307-317.
Kamimura, T. (2000). Integration of process and product orientations in EFL writing instruction. RELC Journal, 31(2),1-18.
Kaplan, R. B. (1966). Cultural thought patterns in inter-cultural education. Language Learning, 16, 1-20.
Kaplan, R. B. (1967). Contrastive rhetoric and the teaching of composition. TESOL Quarterly, 1 (3), 10-16.
Keh, C. (1990). Feedback in the writing process: a model and methods for implementation. ELT Journal, 44, 294-304.
Leki, I. (1991). Twenty-five years of contrastive rhetoric: text analysis and writing pedagogies. TESOL Quarterly, 25(1), 123-143.
Li, H. H. (2002). A Case Study of Peer Review for University-level Undergraduate Writing Students in Taiwan. MA. Thesis, Department of English, National Kaoshiung Normal Univeristy.
Lin, T. L. (2000). Student revision from teacher feedback in a writing conference. Selected Papers from the Ninth International Symposium on English Teaching , pp. 448-459. Taipei, Taiwan: Crane
Liu, C.K. (1999). Identifying the writing process a college student has to undergo: The general model. The proceedings of the 16th Conference on English Teaching and Learning in the Republic of China. Taipei, 16, 303-312.
Macgowan-Gilhooly., A. (1991). Fluency first: Reversing the traditional ESL sequence. In Bruce Leeds (Ed.), Writing in a second language: Insights from first and second language teaching and research (pp. 10-26). White Plains, N.Y.: Longman.
Mangelsdorf, K. (1992). Peer review in the ESL composition classroom: What do the students think? ELT Journal 46, 274-284.
Mendonca, C., & Johnson, K. (1994). Peer review negotiations: Revision activities in ESL writing instruction. TESOL Quarterly, 28, 745-769.
Meyer, B. J. F. (1982). Reading research and the composition teacher: The importance of plans. College Composition and Communication, 33 (1), 37-49.
McCarthy, S. J. (1994). Opportunities and risks of writing from person experience. Language Arts, 71(3), 182-191.
Meisuo, Z. (2000). Cohesive features in the expository writing of undergraduates in two Chinese universities. RELC Journal, 31 (1), 61-95.
Min, H. (2003). Why peer comments fail. English Teaching & Learning, 27 (3), 85-103.
Murray, D. M. (1968). A writer teaches writing. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
___________ (1978). Internal revision: A process of discovery. In C. Cooper & L. Odell (Eds), Research on composing. Urbana, Ill: National Council of Teachers of English.
Myers, M. (1986). The teaching of writing in secondary schools. In A. R. Petrosky, & D. Bartholomae (Ed.), The teaching of Writing (pp.148-155). Chicago: National Society for the Study of Education.
Neill, S. B. (1982). Teaching writing: Problems and solutions. Arlinton, VA: American Association of School Administrators. ED 219 766.
Nelson, G.., & Carson, J. (1996). Chinese students' perceptions of ESL peer response group interaction. Journal of Second Language Writing, 5, 1-19.
Nelson, G.., & Carson, J. (1998). ESL students' perceptions of effectiveness in peer response groups. Journal of Second Language Writing, 7(2), 113-131.
Nelson, G., & Murphy, J. (1993). Peer response groups: Do L2 writers use peer comments in revising their drafts? TESOL Quarterly,27, 135-142.
Paulston, C. B., & Bruder, M. N. (1976). Teaching English as a second language: Techniques and procedures. Cambridge: Winthrop Publishers.
Paulston, C. B., & Dykstra, G. (1973). Controlled composition in English as a second language. New York: Regents Publishing Company.
Paulus, T. (1999). The effect of peer and teacher feedback on student writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 8 (3).265-289.
Pennington, M, C., & So, S. (1993). Comparing writing process and product across two languages: A study of 6 Singaporean university student writers. Journal of Second Language Writing, 2 (1), 41-63.
Perl, S. (1979). The composing process of unskilled college writers. Research in the Teaching of English, 13 (4), 317-336.
Raphael, T. E., Carol S. E. & Becky W. K. (1989). Students’ metacognitive knowledge about writing. Research in the teaching of English, 23 (4), 343-379.
Raimes, A. (1983). Techniques in Teaching writing. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Raimes, A. (1985). What unskilled ESL students do as they write: A classroom study of composing. TESOL Quarterly, 19 (2), 229-258.
Raimes, A. (1996). Out of the woods: Emerging traditions in the teaching of writing. In Bruce Leeds (Ed.), Writing in a second language: Insights from first and second language teaching and research , pp. 10-26. White Plains, N.Y.: Longman.
Reid, J. (1984). Comments on Vivian Zamel’s “The composing processes of advanced ESL students: six case studies.” TESOL Quarterly, 18(1). 149-157.
Reid, J., & Lindstrom, M. (1985). The process of paragraph writing. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Reid, J. (1994). The Process of Paragraph Writing. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Regents.
Rollinson, Paul. (2005). Using peer feedback in the ESL writing class. ELT Journal, 59(1), 23-29.
Sasaki, M. (2000). Toward an empirical model of EFL writing processes: an exploratory study. Jouranl of Second Language Writing, 9(3), 259-291.
Sengupta, S. (1999). Rhetorical consciousness raising in the L2 reading classroom. Journal of Second Language Writing, 8(3), 291-319.
Shaghnessy, M, P. (1977). Errors and expectations. New York: Oxford University Press.
Silva, T. (1990). Second language composition instruction: Developments, issues, and directions in ESL. In Kroll, B. (Ed.) Second Language Writing: Research Insights for the Classroom (p.11-23). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Smalley, R. L., Ruetten, M, K., Kozyrev, J. R. (2001). Refining composition skills: Rhetoric and grammar. Boston: Heinle & Heinle Publishers.
___________ (2004). Focus on writing 1: Refining composition skills through instruction and practice. Singapore: Learners Publishing.
Sommers, (1982). Responding to student writing. College Composition and Communication, 33, 148-156.
|Source URI: ||http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0929510103|
|Data Type: ||thesis|
|Appears in Collections:||[英國語文學系] 學位論文|
Files in This Item:
There are no files associated with this item.
All items in 政大典藏 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.