|Reference: ||Berger, A.N., Cummins, J.D. and Weiss, M.A., 1997, The Coexistence of Multiple Distribution Systems for Financial Services: The Case of Property-Liability Insurance, The Journal of Business, 70(4): 515-546.|
Berger, A.N., Cummins, J.D. and Weiss, M.A., and Zi, H., 2000, Conglomeration versus strategic focus: evidence from the insurance industry, Journal of Financial Intermediation, 9:323–362.
Berger, A.N. and Humphrey, D.B., 1992, Measurement and Efficiency Issues in Commercial Banking in Zvi Griliches, ed. Output Measurement in the Service Sectors, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.
Berger, A. N., and Mester, L. J., 1997, Inside the black box: what explains differences in the efficiencies of financial institutions, Journal of Banking Finance, 21,:895–947.
Brockett, P. L., Cooper, W. W., Golden, L. L., Rousseau, J., and Wang, Y., 2004, Evaluating Solvency versus Efficiency Performance and Dif ferent Forms of Organization and Marketing in US Property-Liability Insurance Companies, European Journal of Operational Research, 154:492-514.
Brockett, P. L., Cooper, W. W., Golden, L. L., Rousseau, J., and Wang, Y., 2005, Financial Intermediary Versus Production Approach to Efficiency of Marketing Distribution Systems and Organizational Structure of Insurance Companies, Journal of Risk and Insurance, 72, 393-412.
Cagle, J., Lippert, R. L. and Moore, W. T., 1996, Demutualization in the Property-Liability Insurance Industry, Journal of Insurance Regulation, 14 (3): 343-369.
Comment, R., and Jarrell, G. A., 1995, Corporate Focus and Stock Returns, Journal of Financial Economics, 37: 1, 67-88.
Chidambaran, N.K., Pugel, T., and Saunders, A., 1997, An investigation of the performance of the U.S. property-liability insurance industry, Journal of Risk and Insurance, 64:371–381.
Coelli, T., 1996, A Guide to DEAP Version 2.1: A Data Envelopment Analysis Program, Working Paper, University of New England, Armidale, Australia.
Cummins, J. D., Weiss, M. A. and Zi, H., 1999, Organizational Form and Efficiency: An Analysis of Stock and Mutual Property-Liability Insurers, Management Science, 45: 1254–1269.
Cummins, J. David and Mary A. Weiss, 1993, Measuring Cost Efficiency in the Property-Liability Insurance Industry, Journal of Banking and Finance, 17:463-481.
Cummins, J. David and Mary A. Weiss, 2000, Analyzing Firm Performance in the Insurance Industry Using Frontier Efficiency and Productivity Method, in: Georges Dionne, eds., Handbook of Insurance (Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers).
Cummins, J. David, Mary A. Weiss, and Hongmin Zi, 2003, Economies of Scope in Financial Services: A DEA Bootstrapping Analysis of the US Insurance Industry, Working paper.
Cummins, J. David, Maria Rubio-Misas, and Hongmin Zi, 2004, The effect of organizational structure on efficiency: Evidence from the Spanish insurance industry, Journal of Banking and Finance, 28: 3113–3450.
Cummins, J. David, Tennyson, S. and Weiss, M. A., 1999b, Consolidation and Efficiency in the U.S. Life Insurance Industry, Journal of Banking and Finance, 23: 325-357.
Cummins, J. David and Hongmin Zi, 1998, Comparison of Frontier Efficiency Methods: An Application to the U.S. Life Insurance Industry, Journal of Productivity Analysis, 10: 131–152.
Grace, Martin F. and Stephen G. Timme, 1992, An Examination of Cost Economies in the United States Life Insurance Industry, Journal of Risk and Insurance, 59:72-103.
Hirao Y., and T. Inoue, 2004, On the cost structure of the Japanese property-casualty insurance industry , Journal of Risk and Insurance, 71:501–530.
Hughes, M.D., 1988, A Stochastic Frontier Cost Function for Residential Child Care Provision, Journal of Applied Econometrics, 3, 203-214.
Jeng, Vivian S.C., and Gene C. Lai, 2005, Ownership Structure, Agency Costs, Specialization and Efficiency: The Analysis of Keiretsu and Independent Insurers in the Japanese Non-life Insurance Industry, Journal of Risk and Insurance, 72:105–158.
Jeng, Vivian, Lai, Gene C. and McNamara, Michael J., 2007, Efficiency and Demutualization: Evidence From the US Life Insurance Industry in the 1980s and 1990s, Journal of Risk and Insurance, 683-711.
Kellner, S. and F.G. Mathewson, 1983, Entry, Size Distributio, Scale, and Scope Economies in the Life Insuranc Industry, Journal of Business, 56: 25-44.
Kwan, Simon H., 2006, The X-efficiency of commercial banks in Hong Kong, Journal of Banking and Finance, 30:1127-1147.
Mayers, David, and Smith, C.W., 1986, Ownership Structure and Control-The Mutualization of Stock Life Insurance Companies, Journal of Financial Economics, 16：73-98.
McNamara, Michael J. and Rhee, S. Ghon, 1992, Ownership Structure and Performance：The Demutualization of Life Insurers, Journal of Risk and Insurance, 59: 221-238.
Meador, Joseph W., Harley E. Ryan, Jr., and Carolin D. Schellhorn, 1998, Product Focus Versus Diversification: Estimates of X-Efficiency for the U.S. Life Insurance Industry, working paper, Northeastern University, Boston.
Mester, L.J., 1989, Testing for expense preference behavior: Mutual versus stock savings and loans, The Rand Journal of Economics, 20:483-498.
Nissan, E., 2003, Relative market power versus concentration as a measure of market dominance: Property and liability insurance, Journal of Insurance Issues, 26: 129–141.
Santalo, Juan and Manuel Becerra, 2008, Competition from Specialized Firms and the Diversification-Performance Linkage, Journal of Finance, 63(2):851-883.
Schmidt, P. and C.A.K., Lovell, 1979, Estimating Technical and Allocative Inefficiency Relative to Stochastic Production and Cost Frontiers, Journal of Econometrics, 9, 343-366.
Servaes, H., 1996, The Value Of Diversification During The Conglomerate Merger Wave, Journal of Finance, 51:1201–1225.
Viswanathan, Krupa S. and Cummins, J. David, 2003, Ownership Structure Changes in the Insurance Industry: An Analysis of Demutualization, Journal of Risk and Insurance, 70: 401-437.
Yuengert, A., 1993, The measurement of efficiency in life insurance: Estimates of a mixed normal-gamma error model, Journal of Banking and Finance, 17:483–496.