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    Title: 金融集團資本適足性及監理制度之研究
    Study on Capital Adequacy and Regulation of Financial Conglomerates
    Authors: 邱虹元
    Chiu, Hung-Yuan
    Contributors: 林建智
    彭金隆



    邱虹元
    Chiu, Hung-Yuan
    Keywords: 金融集團
    資本適足性
    金融監理
    歐盟金融集團指令
    金融控股公司合併資本適足性管理辦法
    Financial Conglomerate
    Capital Adequacy
    Financial Regulation
    EU Financial Conglomerate Directive
    Regulations Governing the Consolidated Capital Adequacy of A Financial Holding Company
    Date: 2004
    Issue Date: 2009-09-18
    Abstract: 在當前競爭態勢下,台灣金融市場的發展,勢必朝向跨業經營的方向前進。我國亦於民國九十年六月二十七日通過金融控股公司法,賦予台灣金融業跨業經營的法源,為國內金融業創造成為金融集團的契機,以達成金融跨業經營現代化、國際化的目標。雖然金融機構業務營運多樣化,但金融機構承擔風險亦隨之增加,金融監理機制在面臨這樣的挑戰下勢必得做一番調整,才能持續扮演健全及穩定國內金融體系的重要角色。

    我國主管機關對於金融控股公司要求以合併基礎計算資本適足比率,並訂定了「金融控股公司合併資本適足性管理辦法」,以期能發揮適度的監理功能。然該辦法中僅以簡單的加減乘除運算求得之資本適足率,是否為反映集團資本需求的良好指標實不無疑問。因此,本文除了研究國際監理官組織所發布的相關報告外,並藉由介紹和討論歐盟指令對金融集團的補充監理原則和措施,如:資本適足性、集團內部交易、風險集中等問題,以及美國對於金融控股公司之相關監理規範,加以比較研究後,來探討我國現行規範是否妥當,並提出相關監理制度改善之建議,以期能作為我國建構健全金融市場之參考。
    Under current competitive circumstances, the development of Taiwan’s financial market will be bound to move forward in the direction of cross-sector business. In Taiwan, Legislative Yuan also has passed the “Financial Holding Company Act” in June 2001. With the passage of the act, it not only gives Taiwan’s financial institutions authority to operate cross-sector activities, but also creates a trigger for financial institutions to become financial conglomerates in order to meet the objectives of financial modernization and globalization. Although financial institutions may diversify their business, additional risks may arise. Financial regulatory mechanisms have to adjust their function to ensure the safety and soundness of financial system.

    Our competent authorities demand financial holding companies calculating their capital adequacy ratio on a consolidated basis, and enact “Regulations Governing the Consolidated Capital Adequacy of A Financial Holding Company.” However, in this regulation, the ratio was calculated in simple aggregated method, and it is doubtful that such ratio is a good index to reflect consolidated capital requirement. Therefore, this thesis not only studies on related publications issued by international supervision organizations, but also introduces EU Financial Conglomerate Directive with regard to some supervisory issues (e.g. capital adequacy, intra-group transactions and risk concentrations etc.) and U.S. framework for financial holding company supervision. After investigating and comparing different models, this study tries to find whether current regulation is appropriate or not, and make some suggestions concerning the supervisory system in order to construct a sound financial market as a reference in our country.
    Reference: 壹、中文資料
    一、書籍
    1. 巴曙松,巴塞爾新資本協議研究,北京,中國金融出版社,2003年6月。
    2. 王文宇,控股公司與金融控股公司法,台北,元照出版社,2003年10月。
    3. 王長斌,企業集團法律比較研究,北京,北京大學出版社,2004年。
    4. 呂慧芬譯述,古瀨政敏撰著,美國壽險公司之經營革新,財團法人保險事業發展中心出版,1998年11月。
    5. 李仁真,歐盟銀行法研究,武漢,武漢大學出版社,2002年6月。
    6. 周仲飛、鄭暉,銀行法原理,北京,中信出版社,2004年9月。
    7. 林建智,王儷玲,彭金隆等著,美國保險業財務分析及清償能力追蹤系統之研究與建議,台北,財團法人保險事業發展中心,2001 年。
    8. 姜波,商業銀行資本充足率管理,北京,中國金融出版社,2004年11月。
    9. 桂先農,金融集團監理之比較研究,台北,中華民國加強儲蓄推行委員會金融研究小組,2001年。
    10. 桂荷發,金融集團的發展與監管,北京,經濟管理出版社,2004年。
    11. 康書生,銀行制度比較與趨勢研究,北京,中國金融出版社,2004年11月。
    12. 陳允進、任慧莉、王邦旭合譯,金融集團之監理,中華民國加強儲蓄推行委員會金融研究小組,2000年2月。
    13. 陳沖,比較銀行法,金融人員研究訓練中心發行,民國1992年11月。
    14. 陳昭如、李懿哲、張美玲、陳品秋,金融集團監理重要議題之比較研究,中華民國加強儲蓄推行委員會金融研究小組,2004年11月。
    15. 彭金隆,金融控股公司 : 法制監理與經營策略,台北,智勝文化出版,2004年9月。
    16. 黃仁德、曾令寧,金融控股公司監理之研究,行政院經濟建設委員會委託研究報告,2002年11月。
    17. 黃仁德、曾令寧,現代銀行監理與風險管理,台北,台灣金融研訓院出版,增修訂二版,2003年6月。
    18. 鄭濟世,我國壽險業資本適足性之研究,財團法人保險事業發展中心出版,1998年12月。
    19. 羅平,巴塞爾新資本協議研究文獻及評述,北京,中國金融出版社,2004年10月。
    二、期刊專論
    1. 王文宇,我國銀行兼營證券業務法制之研究,經社法制論叢,第24期,1999年7月。
    2. 王志誠,金融控股公司之經營規範與監理機制,政大法學評論,第64期,2000年。
    3. 何思湘,由美國資本適足性監理經驗試論我國銀行法未來修正方向,存款保險資訊季刊,第十七卷第四期,2004年6月。
    4. 吳福山,風險基礎資本-僅以一個比率值判定償債能力的監理方式,壽險季刊,第93期,1994年9月。
    5. 李三榮,Basel II,台灣金融財務季刊,第3輯第2期,2002年6月。
    6. 李桐豪,由美國金融服務業現代化法看我國的金融控股公司法,台灣金融財務季刊,第2期第2輯,2001年6月。
    7. 李儀坤,Basel II與美國金融主管機關業者紛爭及解決之道,台灣金融經濟月刊,第四十卷第三期,2004年3月。
    8. 汪志勇、劉維琪,次順位債券與間接金融監督,風險管理學報,第5卷第3期,2003年11月。
    9. 阮品嘉,對金融控股集團以風險為基礎之監理,月旦法學雜誌,第102期,2003年11月。
    10. 周國端,保險公司之清償能力與保險監理制度之介紹,華信金融季刊,第5期,1999年3月。
    11. 林建智,論保險監理之改革-就財務監理方面,政大法學評論,第58期,1997年12月。
    12. 洪德欽,歐洲聯盟銀行體系之研究,歐美研究,第31卷第4期,2001年12月。
    13. 張冠群,The Supervision of the Capital Adequacy of the Financial Conglomerate,存款保險季刊,第14卷第3期,2001年3月。
    14. 張振山,我國證券商資本適足性制度(上),證券暨期貨管理,第17卷第4期,1999年。
    15. 許文彥,保險業的最低資本與研擬中的風險基礎資本規定,保險專刊第64輯,2001年6月。
    16. 許國勝、謝人俊譯,美國金融控股公司監理架構,存款保險資訊季刊,第14季第4期,2001年6月。
    17. 郭秋榮,美國、日本及我國立即糾正措施相關規定之比較,經濟研究,第2期,2002年3月。
    18. 陳欽奇,金融控股公司的資本適足性比率與監理原則,臺灣土地金融季刊,第39卷第2期,民國2002年6月。
    19. 陳寶瑞、郭秋榮,美、日、韓及我國金融監理機構立即糾正措施之比較,台灣經濟金融月刊,第39卷第3期,2003年3月。
    20. 曾令寧、黃仁德,新式資本適足性架構、資本協定衝擊與監理資本套利,存款保險資訊季刊,第13卷第1期,1999年9月。
    21. 楊蓁海,新版巴賽爾資本協定與銀行信用風險測度模型的發展:兼論對我國銀行體系與央行政策的影響,中央銀行季刊第二十七卷第一期,2005年3月。
    22. 趙慕芬,綜合銀行與金融控股公司之緣起與比較,產業金融季刊,第115期,2002年6月。
    23. 黎四奇,評析《2001年歐盟金融企業集團指令建議案》,歐洲,第2期,2002年。
    24. 戴銘昇,論金融控股公司之資本適足率,證交資料,第495期,2003年7月。
    三、學位論文
    1. 王儷珊,我國產物保險公司清償能力的探討,中山大學財務管理學系研究所碩士論文,2000年。
    2. 林光佑,台灣金融控股公司與金融監理一元化之研析,台灣大學財務金融研究所碩士論文,2004年10月。
    3. 林蕙玲,論金融統合監理之架構,政治大風險管理與保險學研究所碩士論文,2001年6月。
    4. 馬玉蘭,證券商資本適足性管制與分析-台灣上櫃券商之實證,交通大學經營管理研究所碩士論文,1999年6月。
    5. 張冠群,論保險業與其他金融行業組織上結合之監理,政治大學風險管理與保險研究所碩士論文,2000年6月。
    6. 許紋瑛,金融控股公司之法制建構-以美日比較法觀點評析我國相關立法,中原大學財經法律系碩士論文,2001年1月。
    7. 陳太齡,金融控股公司關鍵成功因素之分析,政治大學企管研究所碩士論文,2002年。
    8. 陳恭義,我國證券商自有資本管理制度之研究,台灣大學財務金融學研究所碩士論文,2001年6月。
    9. 陳憶芬,我國金融控股公司法架構下─自有資本適足性問題研究,銘傳大學金融研究所碩士論文,2002年。
    10. 葉俐妤,金融控股公司資本適足性規範之探討,台灣大學財務金融學研究所碩士論文,2003年6月。
    11. 蔡德曠,構建我國期貨商風險基礎資本適足制度及引用RAROC衡量報酬績效之研究,銘傳大學金融研究所碩士論文,2002年6月。
    12. 蘇源拓,美國NAIC壽險業風險資本需求之研究,政治大學保險研究所碩士論文,1994年。
    四、電子網路資源
    1. 中國銀行業監督管理委員會,國際交流,主題:美國貨幣監理署對新協議的基本態度,http://www.cbrc.gov.cn/chinese/module/viewinfo.jsp?infoID=323,最後瀏覽日期: 2005/5/30。
    2. 潘雅慧,美、英及我國實施新巴塞爾資本協定現況暨亞洲國家實施調查, http://www.jcic.org.tw/040501.doc, 最後瀏覽日期: 2005/5/31。
    3. 羅平、薛莉,新巴塞爾資本協定問答,金融時報金時網,http://www.financialnews.com.cn/lldx/.%5C200111120462.htm,最後瀏覽日期: 2005/5/30。
    貳、英文資料
    一、書籍及期刊
    1. Bhala, Raj, Perspectives on risk-based capital: a guide to the new risk-based capital ade-quacy rules, Bank Administration Institute, Tokyo, Japan, Toppan Co., 1992.
    2. Bryan A. Garner, Black’s Law Dictionary, 7th Ed, West Publishing Co., 1999.
    3. Canals J., Universal Banking: International Comparison and Theoretical Perspective, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1997.
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    7. Feldman, Ron J., Lyon, James M., Willardson, Niel D., Have We Only Just Begun? Challenges in implementing the Gramm-Leach-Bliley regime, Outlook Vol.14, No. 1, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, March 2000.
    8. Greenspan, Alan, The Role of Capital in Optimal Banking Supervision and Regulation, Federal Reserve Bank of New York Economic Policy Review 4, n.3, 1998.
    9. Gruson, Michael, Supervision of Financial Conglomerates in the European Union, Jour-nal of International Banking Law and Regulation, Issue 10, 2004.
    10. Horng, Der-Chin, The Principle of Mutual Recognition: The EU's Practice and Devel-opment, World Competition 22(2), June 1999.
    11. Koguchi, Kazuhiko, Financial Conglomeration, OECD, 1993.
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    16. Spong, Kenneth, Banking Regulation : Its Purpose Implementation and Effects, Federal Reserve of Kansas City Federal Reserve Bank, fifth edition, 2000.
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    二、電子網頁資源
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    8. Economic and Social Committee, Opinion of the Economic and Social Committee, 17 Oct. 2001, 2002 O.J. (C36) 1, http://eescopinions.esc.eu.int/viewdoc.aspx?doc=\\esppub1\esp_public\ces\int\int108\en\ces1309-2001_ac_en.doc, last visited: 2005/6/12.
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    15. Federal Reserve Board of Governors, Supervision Letter SR 00-13, August 15, 2000, <http://www.federalreserve.gov/boarddocs/SRLETTERS/2000/SR0013.htm>.
    16. Ferguson, Roger W., Basel II: A Case Study in Risk Management, speech at the Risk Management Workshop for Regulators, The World Bank, Washington, D.C., April 28, 2003 <http://www.federalreserve.gov/boarddocs/speeches/2003/20030428/default.htm>.
    17. Ferguson, Roger W., Umbrella Supervision: Emerging Approaches, remarked before the National Association of Urban Bankers, Urban Financial Services Coalition, San Fran-cisco, California, May 26, 2000 <http://www.federalreserve.gov/boarddocs/speeches/2000/20000526.htm>.
    18. Financial Services Authority, Financial Group (Consultation Paper 204), October 2003 (last visited: 2005/5/3) <http://www.fsa.gov.uk/pubs/cp/cp204.pdf>.
    19. Financial Services Authority, FSA Handbook, Interim Prudential sourcebook: Banks Volume 2 Consolidated Supervision, Section 2, The FSA’s approach to consolidated supervision, August 2004(last visited: 2005/5/3)<http://fsahandbook.info/FSA/handbook/ipru_bank.pdf>.
    20. Half, Cameron, Evolving Trends in the Supervision of Financial Conglomerates: A Comparative Investigation of Responses to the Challenges of Cross-Sectoral Supervi-sion in the United States, European Union, and United Kingdom, Harvard Law School International Finance Seminar, April 30, 2002 <http://www.law.harvard.edu/programs/pifs/pdfs/cameron_half.pdf>.
    21. Hawke, John D., The New Basel Accord — Sound Regulation or Crushing Complexity? testimony before the Subcommittee on Domestic and International Monetary Policy, Trade, and Technology of the Committee on Financial Services of the U.S. House of Representatives, February 27, 2003 <http://www.occ.treas.gov/ftp/release/2003-14b.pdf>.
    22. HM Treasury, The new Capital Adequacy Directive, CAD 3: The transposition of the new Basel Accord into EU legislation, Consultation Document, December 2003, (last visited: 2005/5/30)<http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/media/9D1/61/cad3condoc03.pdf>.
    23. Swiss Re, Solvency of non-life insurers: Balancing security and profitability expecta-tions, sigma No. 1/2000 (last visited: 2005/5/3) <http://www.swissre.com/INTERNET/pwsfilpr.nsf/vwFilebyIDKEYLu/MBAR-4VHN3Y/$FILE/sigma1_2000_e.pdf>.
    24. The Bank for International Settlements, Quantitative Impact Study (QIS): Overview of QIS documents (last visited: 2005/5/19) < http://www.bis.org/bcbs/qis/index.htm>.
    參、國際監理組織之文件報告
    1. Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, International Convergence of Capital Meas-urement and Capital Standards, Basel, July 1988.
    2. Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, Amendment to the capital accord to incor-porate market risks, Basel, January 1996.
    3. Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, Core Principles for Effective Banking Su-pervision, Basel, September 1997.
    4. Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, Second Consultative Document: Overview of The New Basel Capital Accord, Basel, January 2001.
    5. Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, International Convergence of Capital Meas-urement and Capital Standards: A Revised Framework, Basel, June 2004.
    6. IAIS, Principles on Capital Adequacy & Solvency, IAIS public report, January 2002.
    7. IAIS, Insurance core principles and methodology, IAIS public report, October 2003.
    8. IOSCO, Capital Adequacy Standards for Securities Firms, Report of the Technical Com-mittee of IOSCO, October 1989.
    9. IOSCO, Risk Management and Control Guidance for Securities Firms and Their Super-visors, A Report by the Technical Committee, May 1998.
    10. Joint Forum, Supervision of Financial Conglomerates, jointly released by Basle, IOSCO & IAIS, February 1999.
    11. Joint Forum, Intra-Group Transactions and Exposure Principles, Basel, December 1999.
    12. Joint Forum, Risk Concentrations Principles, Basel, December 1999.
    13. Joint Forum, Core Principles: Cross-Sectoral Comparison, Basel, November 2001.
    14. Tripartite Group of Bank, Securities and Insurance Regulators, The Supervision of Fi-nancial Conglomerates, July 1995, A Report by Tripartite Group.
    肆、重要外國法規
    一、美國部份
    1. Code of Federal Regulation
    2. Federal Deposit Insurance Act
    3. Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act
    4. NAIC, Risk-Based Capital for Insurers Model Act
    5. United States Code
    二、歐體及歐盟部份
    1. Directive 73/239/EEC
    2. Directive 78/660/EEC
    3. Directive 79/267/EEC
    4. Directive 83/349/EEC
    5. Directive 89/647/EEC
    6. Directive 93/6/EEC
    7. Directive 93/22/EEC
    8. Directive 98/31/EC
    9. Directive 98/78/EC
    10. Directive 2000/12/EC
    11. Directive 2001/34/EC
    12. Directive 2002/13/EC
    13. Directive 2002/83/EC
    14. Directive 2002/87/EC
    15. Directive 2004/39/EC
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    風險管理與保險研究所
    92358004
    93
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0923580041
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[風險管理與保險學系 ] 學位論文

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