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    Title: 中國大陸國家與社會關係1989-2002:以鑲嵌之社會團體自主性為例
    Authors: 戴東清
    Day, Dong-ching
    Contributors: 李英明
    戴東清
    Day, Dong-ching
    Keywords: 國家與社會
    社會團體自主性
    鑲嵌
    行業協會
    私營個體經濟協會
    個體勞動者協會
    state and society
    autonomy of social group
    embeddness
    business association
    private individual economic association
    individual labor association
    Date: 2004
    Issue Date: 2009-09-18 10:09:34 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 每隔一段時間,就會有專家、學者出面預測中國大陸即將崩潰,只是實際情況的發展似乎與他們的預期有所出入。換言之,儘管中國大陸目前有許多問題,但是尚未有證據顯示,這些問題在短期內可能引發重大危機。 中國大陸曾經被視為約十年會有一個週期的政治危機週期,上次危機發生在一九八九年,在時序進入二○○五年之後,似乎已逐漸脫離危機週期的規律。 任何國家都可能發生各式各樣的危機,危機的結果卻不見得會帶來崩潰,其關鍵在於國家與社會如何面對及應付危機,雙方關係究竟在危機前後是如何彼此定位?

    以天安門民主運動事件為例,在事件發生之前,中國大陸正面臨自改革開放以來最大的經濟危機—通貨膨脹。 然而危機的結果是以軍隊鎮壓收場,使得中國大陸社會運動就此陷於沉寂之中,晚近社會抗議事件雖然有增加的趨勢,但距離真正形成持續性的社會運動尚遠。 由此可知,政權出現正當性危機進而使得社會自主性增加,就必須具備兩項條件:一是引發正當性危機的事件出現;二是正當性危機出現後,社會力量興起與各方政治勢力透過妥協安排後,增加其本身的自由性。

    本研究的目的要解答的問題是「天安門事件後中國大陸國家能力與社會自主性的關係」,此外社會力量之興起及政治勢力會否妥協,牽涉到各種菁英及一舨民眾對政治的態度問題,故本文亦藉用政治文化的研究途徑來探討國家能力與社會自主性之關係。
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    二、期刊論文
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    劉作翔,2003,〈擴大公民有序的政治参與〉,《求是》,第十二期,頁42~44。
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    三、報紙暨網路資料
    中國大陸國務院民政部,《一九九八年社會團體登記管理條例》,網站http://www.mca.gov.cn/artical/content/PMJN/2003
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    中華經濟研究院,《東南亞經貿投資資料庫》,http://www.cier.edu.tw/。
    上海市個體勞動者協會,《協會章程》,http://shcor.catcher.com.cn/siqi/gtxhjj.htm
    上海市私營企業協會,《協會章程》,http://www.shcor.com/siqi/syqyjj.htm
    王玉燕,2002/8/17,〈70而退確立李瑞環留任李鵬走人〉,《聯合報》,版13。
    北京市私營個體經濟協會,《協會章程》,http://www.gczl.com.cn/intro/zc3.htm。
    北京市私營個體經濟協會,《第四屆理事會理事名單》,http://www.gczl.com.cn/intro/cwls.htmhttp://www.gczl.com.cn/intro/ls.htm;http://www.gczl.com.cn/intro/ls2.htm
    http://www.gczl.com.cn/intro/ls3.htm。
    北京市私營個體經濟協會,《第四屆常務理事會名單》,http://www.gczl.com.cn/intro/cwls.htm
    柯林頓,2000/3/10,〈大陸加入世貿組織將有更大的開放與自由〉,《中國時報》,版14。
    民政部,《取締非法民間組織暫行辦法》,網站http://www.mca.gov.cn/artical/content/PMJN/2003122285959.htm。
    大陸國務院工商管理局,《關於進一步加強對個體勞動者協會、私營企業協會工作指導的通知》,網站http://www.whhd.gov.cn/news/oldnews/103855416861590100.html
    賀靜萍,2002/9/25,〈法輪功蓋台儼然超限戰現實版〉,《聯合報》,版13。
    蘋果日報,2004/11/07 http://www.appledaily.com.tw/template/twapple/art_main.cfm?loc=TP&showdate=20041107&sec_id=7&art_id=1362710
    貳、 英文部分
    一、書籍部分
    Anderson, Lisa. 1999. ed. Transitions to Democracy. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Badie, Bertrand and Pierre Birnbaum. 1983. The Sociology of the State. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
    Baum, Richard and Alexei Shevchenko. 1998. “The State of the State”, in Merle Goldman and Roderick Macfarquhar, ed., The Paradox of China’s Post-Mao Reforms. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, p.348.
    Bruun,Ole. 1995. “Political Hierarchy and Private Entrepreneurship in a Chinese Neighborhood” in Andrew G. Walder (ed.), The Waning of the Communist State: Economic Origins of Political Decline in China and Hungary. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. pp.184-85
    Charles G. Gillespie. 1990.“ Model of Democratic Transition in South American: Negotiated Reform versus Democratic Rupture”. in Diane Ethier. ed. Democratic Transition and Consolidation in South Europe, Latin American and Southeast Asia, London: Macmillan Press Ltd. pp.61-64.
    Collier, Ruth Berins and James Jahoney. 1999.“Adding Collective Actors to Collective Outcomes: Labor and Recent Democratization in South American and Southern Europe”.in Lisa Anderson, ed. Transitions to Democracy. New York: Columbia University Press. pp.97-119
    Collier, Ruth Berins. 1999. Paths Toward Democracy: The Working Class and Elites in Western Europe and South America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Dahl, Robert A. 1989. Democracy and Its Critics. New Haven: Yale University Press.
    Dahl, Robert A. 1998. On Democracy. New Haven: Yale University Press.
    Dawisha, Karen. 1997. “Democratization and Political Participation: Research Concepts and Methodologies”, in Karen Dawisha and Bruce Parrott. ed. Potlics, Power, and the Struggle for Democracy in South-East Europe: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 40-65.
    Dickson, Bruce J. 2000a. “Political Instability at the Middle and Lower Levels: Signs of a Decaying CCP, Corruption, and Political Dissent”, in David Shambaugh. ed. Is China Unstable?. Armonk, New York: M. E. Sharpe, Inc. pp.40-56
    Dickson, Bruce J. 2003. Red Capitalists in China: The Party, Private Entrepreneurs, and Prospects for Political Change, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Ding,Xue Liang. 1994. The Decline of Communism in China: Legitimacy Crisis, 1977-1989, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Ding,Yijiang. 2000. “The Conceptual Evolution of Democracy in Intellectual Circles’ Rethinking of State and Society”, Suisheng Zhao, ed., China and Democracy, New York: Routledge, pp.115-129.
    Elinwalter, Dawn. 2000. “The Limits of the Chinese State: Public Morality and the Xu Honggang Campaign,” Suisheng Zhao, ed., China and Democracy New York: Routledge, pp.173-186.
    Evans,Peter et. al. 1985. Bringing the State Back in, New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Evans, Peter. 1995. Embeddness Autonomy, Princeton: Princeton University Press
    Fewsmith, Joseph. 1998.“Elite Politics”, in Merle Goldman and Roderick Macfarquhar, ed., The Paradox of China’s Post-Mao Reforms. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, pp.47-75.
    Fox, Jonathan. 1997. “How Does Civil Society Thicken? The Political Construction of Social Capital in Rural Mexico,” Peter Evans, ed., State-Society Synergy: Government and Social Capital in Development, San Francisco: Unviersity of California at Berkeley, pp.119-149.
    Goldman, Merle and Roderick Macfarquhar. 1998. “Dynamic Economy, Declining Party-State”, in Merle Goldman and Roderick Macfarquhar. ed. The Paradox of China’s Post-Mao Reforms. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. pp.3-29.
    Goodman, S. G. David. 1996. “The People’s Republic of China: the Party-State, Capitalist Revolution and New Entrepreneurs”, in Richard Robison and David S.G. Goodman. ed. The New Rich in Asia: Mobile Phones, Mcdonalds and Middle-Class Revolution. London: Routledge. pp. 225-242
    Goodman, S. G. David. 1998. “The New Middle Class”in Merle Goldman and Roderick Macfarquhar. ed. The Paradox of China’s Post-Mao Reforms. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. pp.241-261.
    Grey, Robert D. 1997. “The Impact of External Factors on the Future of Democracy in the FSU and Eastern Europe”. in Robert D. Grey. ed. Democratic Theory and Post-Communist Change. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. pp.248-266
    Grieco, Joseph. 2002. “China and America in the New World Polity”, in Carolyn W Pumphrey,. ed. The Rise of China in Asia: Security Implication. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute. pp.21-48
    Haggard, Stephan and Robert R. Kaufman. 1995. The Political Economy of Democratic Transitions, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    Haggard, Stephan. 2000. The Political Economy of the Asian Financial Crisis, Washington D.C.: Institute for Inernational Economics.
    Haggard, Stephan and Mathew D. McCubbins, ed. 2001. Presidents, Parliaments, and Ploicy, Cambirdge: Cambirdge University Press.
    Hartford,Kathleen. 1990. “The Political Economy Behind Beijing Spring”, in Tony Saich, ed., The Chinese People’s Movement: Perspectives on Spring 1989. Armonk, New York: M. E. Sharpe, Inc., pp.70-73.
    Heller, Patrick. 1997. “Social Capital, Class Mobilization, and State Intervention,”Peter Evans, ed., State-Society Synergy: Government and Social Capital in Development, San Francisco: Unviersity of California at Berkeley, pp.48-84.
    Howard, Marc Morje. 2003. The Weakness of Civil Society in Post-Communist Europe, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Hu,Shaohua. 2000. Explaining Chinese Democratization, Westport, Connecticut: Praeger.
    Huntington, Samuel. 1991. The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
    Gu, Edward X. 2000. “Plural Institutionalism and the Emergence of Intellectual Public Spaces in China”, Suisheng Zhao, ed., China and Democracy (New York: Routledge,), pp.141-172.
    Migdal, Joel S. 2001. State in Society: Studying How States and Societies Transform and Constitute One Another, Cambridge:Cambridge University Press
    Joseph, Richard. 1999.“Democratization in Africa after 1989: Comparative and Theoretical Perspective,” in Lisa Anderson. ed. Transitions to Democracy. New York: Columbia University Press. pp.237-260
    Kesseoman, Mark et al. 1996. Democracies at the Crossroads. Lexington: D.C. Heath and Company.
    Kim, Sunhyuk. 2000. The Politics of Democratization in Korea: The Role of Civil Society. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
    Krasner, Stephen D. 1978. Defending the National Interest: Raw Materials Investments and U.S. Foreign Policy, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
    Lampton, David M. 2001. Same Bed, Different Dreams: Managing U.S.-China Relations, 1989-2000, Berkeley and LosAngeles: University of California Press.
    Li, Cheng. 2001. “Diversification of Chinese Entrepreneurs and Cultural Pluralism in the Reform Era”, Shiping Hua,ed., Chinese Political Culture. Armonk, New York: M. E. Sharpe. pp.219-245
    Lin, Jing. 1994. The Opening of the Chinese Mind: Democratic Changes in China Since 1978. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger.
    Linz, J. Juan, and Alfred Stepan. 1996. Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation: South Europe, South America, and Post-Communist Europe. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Linz, J. Juan. 2000. Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regime. Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc.
    Liu, Alan P.L. 1976. Political Culture & Group Conflict in Communist China. Santa Barbara: Clio Press, Inc.
    Manning, Stephen. 1984. “Social and Cultural Prerequisites of Democratization: Generalizing from China”, Edward Friedman, ed., The Politics of Democratization: Generalizing East Asian Experience. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, pp.232-248
    Markovitz, Irivng Leonard. 1999. “Constitutions, The Federalist Papers, and the Transition to Democracy” , in Lisa Anderson. ed. Transitions to Democracy. New York: Columbia University Press. pp.42-71
    McCormick, Barrett L. 1990.Political Reform in Post-Mao China: Democracy and Bureaucracy in a Leninist State, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
    McCormick, Barrett L. 1996. “China’s Leninist Parliament and Public Sphere: A Comparative Analysis,” Barrett L. McCormick and Jonathan Unger, ed., China after Socialism: In the Footsteps of Eastern Europe or East Asia? Armonk, New York: M. E. Sharpe, Inc., pp.29-53.
    Mendelson, Sarah E. and John K. Glenn.2002. “Transnational Networks and NGOs in Postcommunist Societies,” Sarah E. Mendelson and John K. Glenn, ed., The Power and Limits of NGOs, New York: Columbia University Press, p.6.
    Metzger, Thomas A. 1996. “The U.S. Quest for Morality in Foreign Policy and the Issue of Chinese Democratization”. Metzger, Thomas A. and Ramon H. Myers. ed. Greater China and U.S. Foreign Policy: the Choice between Confrontation and Mutual Respect. Stanford, California: Hoover Institution Press. pp.84-103.
    Misra, Kalpana.2002. “Curing the Sickness and Saving the Party: Neo-Maoism and Neo-Conservatism in the 1990s”. Hua, Shiping. ed. Chinese Political Culture. Armonk, New York: M. E. Sharpe. pp.133-160
    Mok, Ka-ho. 2000. Social and Political Development in Post-Reform China. New York: Macmillan Press Ltd.
    Moore,Barrington Jr.. 1966. Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: Lord and Peasant in the Making of the Modern World. Boston: Beacon Press.
    Mutti, John H. 1997.“Economic Policy and Democratization in the Former Communist States” , in Robert D. Grey. ed. Democratic Theory and Post-Communist Change. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. pp. 217-245
    Nelsen, Harvey. 2000.“The Future of Chinese State,” David Shambaugh, ed., The Modern Chinese State, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.216-236.
    O’Donnell , Guillermo and Philippe c. Schmitter. 1986. Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Tentative Conclusions about Uncertain Democracies. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Ogden, Suzanne. 2002. Inklings of Democracy in China. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center.
    Ohmae,Kenichi. 1995. The End of the Nation State: The Rise of Regional Economies, New York: The Free Press.
    Oi.,Jean C. 1990. “ The Fate of the Collective after the Commune”, Deborah Davis and Ezra F. Vogel, ed., Chinese Society on the Eve of Tiananmen: The Impact of Reform. Cambridge, MA: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University. p.33.
    Oi, Jean C. 1999. Rural China Takes Off: Institutional Foundations of Economic Reform, Berkeley: Unviersity of California Press.
    Ostrom, Elinor. 1997. “Crossing the Great Divide: Coproduction, Synergy, and Development,” Peter Evans, ed., State-Society Synergy: Government and Social Capital in Development, San Francisco: Unviersity of California at Berkeley, pp.85-118.
    Pearson, Margaret M. 1997. China’s New Business Elite. Berkeley and L.A.: University of California Press.
    Pempel,T.J. 1999. “The Developmental Regime in a Changing World Economy”, Meredith Woo-Cumings, ed., The Developmental State, (Ithaca: Cornell University Press,), pp.137-181.
    Potter, David. 1993. “Democratization in Asia”, in David Held ed., Prospects for Democracy. Cambridge: Polity Press, pp.357-358.
    Potter, David. 1997. “Explaining Democratization”. in David Potter et al. ed. Democratization. Cambridge: Polity Press. pp.1-40
    Przeworski, Adam .1986 .“Problems in the Study of Transition to Democracy,” in Guillermo O’Donnell, et al. ed. Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Prospects for Democracy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp.47-56
    Putnam,Robert D. 1993. Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy,( Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
    Pye, Lusian. 1981. The Dynamics of Chinese Politics. Cambridge, MA: Oelgeschlager, Gunn&Jain.
    Pye, Lusian. 1985. Asian Power and Politics: Cultural Dimension of Authority. Boston: Harvard University Press.
    Pye, Lusian. 1988. The Mandarin and the Cadre: China’s Political Culture. Ann Arber: Center for Chinese Studies, The University of Michigan.
    Pye, Lusian. 1996. “The State and the Individual: An Overview Interpretation,” Brian Hook, ed., The Individual and the State in China, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp.16-42.
    Reisinger, William R. 1997. “Establishing and Strengthening Democracy”, in Robert D. Grey .ed. Democratic Theory and Post-Communist Change. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. pp.52-78
    Rejai, M. 1967. ed. Democracy: The Contemporary Theory. New York: Atherton Press.
    Robison, Richard. 1996. “ The Middle Class and the Bourgeoisie in Indonesia”, in Richard Robison and David S.G. Goodman. ed. The New Rich in Asia: Mobile Phones, Mcdonalds and Middle-Class Revolution. London: Routledge. pp.79-104
    Robison, Richard and David S.G. Goodman. 1996. “ The New Rich in Asia: Economic Development, Social Status and Political Consciousness”, in Richard Robison and David S.G. Goodman. ed. The New Rich in Asia: Mobile Phones, Mcdonalds and Middle-Class Revolution. London: Routledge. pp.1-18
    Rosenbaum, Authur Lewis. 1992.State and Society in China: The Consequences of Reform. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.
    Rostow, Dankwart A. 1999. “Transitions to Democracy: Toward a Dynamic Model”, in Lisa Anderson. ed. Transitions to Democracy. New York: Columbia University Press. pp.14-41
    Saich, Tony. 1991. “The Rise and Fall of the Beijing People’s Movement”. in Jonathan Unger, ed. The Pro-Democracy Protests in China: Reports from the Provinces. Armonk, New York: M. E. Sharpe, Inc. pp.9-20.
    Saich,Tony. 2001. Governance and Politics of China. Hampshire, GB: Palgrave.
    Sartori,Giovanni. 1976. Parties and Party Systems: A Framework for Analysis. Cambirdge: Cambirdge University Press.
    Sartori, Giovanni. 1987. The Theory of Democracy Revisited. Chatham, New Jersey: Chatham House Publishing,Inc.
    Schumpeter,Joseph A. 1950. Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy. New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers.
    Selden, Mark. 1993. The Political Economy of Chinese Development, Armonk, New York: M. E. Sharpe, Inc.
    Shambaugh,David. 2000. “The Chinese State in the Post-Mao Era,” David Shambaugh, ed., The Modern Chinese State, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.161-187.
    Skocpol,Theda. 1979. States and Social Revolutions, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Skocpol,Theda. 1994. Social Revolution in the Modern World, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Smith, Tony. 1998. “The International Origins of Democracy: The American Occupation of Japan and Germany”, in Theda Skocpol. ed. Democracy, Revolution, and History. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. pp.202-209
    Solinger, Dorothy J. 1992. “Urban Entrepreneurs and the State: The Merger of State and Society,” in Authur Lewis Rosenbaum, ed., State and Society in China: The Consequences of Reform. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. pp.121-141.
    Solinger, Dorothy J. 1993. China’s Transition from Socialism: Statist Legacies and Marketing Reforms. Armonk, New York: M. E. Sharpe, Inc.
    Solomon, Richard. 1971. Mao’s Revolution and the Chinese Political Culture. Berkeley:University of California Press.
    Sorensen , Georg. 1998. Democracy and Democratization. 2nd edition . Boulder: Westview Press.
    Unger, Jonathan and Anita Chan. 1995. “Corporatism in China: A Developmental State in an East Asian Context” in Barrett L. McCormick and Jonathan Unger, ed., China after Socialism: In the Footsteps of Eastern Europe or East Asia? Armonk, NY: M.E. Shape, pp.95-129.
    Vahhanen, Tatu. 1990. The Process of Democratization: A Comparative Study of 147 States. New York: Tarlor & Francis Ltd.
    Vogel,Steven K. 1996. Freeer Market, More Rules: Regulatory Reform in Advanced Industrial Countries, Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press.
    Walder, Andrew G. 1995. “ The Quiet Revolution from Within: Economic Reform as a Source of Political Decline”, Andrew G. Walder, ed., The Waning of the Communist State: Economic Origins of Political Decline in China and Hungary, (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press,)
    Walder, Andrew. 1998. “The County Government as an Industrial Corporation”, Andrew Walder ed., Zouping in Transition: The Process of Reform in Rural North China, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, p.84.
    Weiss, Linda. 1998. The Myth of the Powerless State. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press.
    White, Gordon et. al. 1996. In Search of Civil Society: Market Reform and Social Change in Comtemporary China. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Whitehead, Laurence. 1986 .“International Aspects of Democratization”,in Guillermo
    O’Donnell. et al. ed. Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Prospects for Democracy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp.34-55.
    Whyte, Martin K. 1992. “Urban China: A Civil Society in the Making?” in Authur Lewis Rosenbaum, ed., State and Society in China: The Conwequences of Reform, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, pp.78-97.
    Whyte, Martin King. 2000. “Chinese Social Trends: Stability or Chaos?”in David Shambaugh. ed. Is China Unstable?. Armonk, New York: M. E. Sharpe, Inc., pp.43-63.
    二、期刊部分
    Baum, Richard. 1996. “China After Deng: Ten Scenarios in Search of Reality,” The China Quarterly, No.145(March), pp.153-175.
    Blecher, Marc J. 2002. “Hegemony and Worker’s Politics in China”. The China Quarterly, No.170(June), pp.283-303.
    Brzezinski, Zbigniew et al. 1998. Journal of Democracy. 9,1( July): 4-64.
    Cai, Yongshun. 2002. “The Resistance of Chinese Laid-off Workers in the Reform Period”. The China Quarterly No.170(June), pp.327-344.
    Campell, John. 1998. “Institutional Analysis and the Role of Ideas in Political Economy”, Theory and Society, 27(June):377-409.Chamberlain, Heath B. 1993. “On the Search for Civil Society in China,” Modern China, Vol.19, No.2(April), pp.199-215.
    Chan, Anita. 1993. “Revolution or Corporatism? Workers and Trade Union in Post-Mao China,” The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs. No.29(January), pp.63-87.
    Cohen, Youssef and Franco Pavoncello. 1987. “Corporatism and Pluralism: Acritique of Schmitter’s Typology.” British Journal of Political Science. Vol.17, No.1 (January), pp.117-122.
    Diamond, Larry. 2002. “Thinking about Hybrid Regimes”. Journal of Democracy, Vol.13, No.2(April), pp. 21-35.
    Dickson, Bruce J. 2000b. “ Democratic Development in Taiwan: A Model for the PRC?” PacNet Newsletter, No. 43( October 27), pp.1-7.
    Dickson,Bruce J. 2000c. “Cooptation and Corporatism in China: The Logic of Party Adaptation”, Political Science Quarterly, Vol.115, No.4, p.537。
    Dittmer, Lowell. 2003. “Leadership Change and Chinese Political Development”, The China Quarterly, No.176(December), pp.903-925.
    Eckstein, Harry. 1988. “A Culturalist Theory of Political Change,” American Political Science Review, 82, 4 (December):789-804.
    Foster,Kenneth W. 2002. “Embedded Within State Agencies: Business Association in Yantai,” The China Journal, No.47(January), pp.41-65.
    Fowler, James. 1999. “The United States and South Korean Democratization”. Political Science Quarterly. Vol.114, No.2, pp.265-288.
    Gold,Thomas B. 1990. “The Resurgence of Civil Society in China”, Journal of Democracy,Vol.1, No.1 (Winter), pp.18-31.
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    Huntington, Samuel. 1984.“ Will More Countries Become Democratic?” Political Science Quarterly, No. 3(Summer), pp. 193-218.
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    Kraats, Mattew S. and Edward J. Zajac. 1996. “ Exploring the Limits of the New Institutionalism: The Cause and Consequences of Illegitimate Organizational Change”, American Sociological Review, No.61(October), p. 812.
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    Description: 博士
    國立政治大學
    中山人文社會科學研究所
    88261501
    93
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0882615011
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[國家發展研究所] 學位論文

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