English  |  正體中文  |  简体中文  |  Items with full text/Total items : 29699/63111
Visitors : 14509186      Online Users : 129
RC Version 4.0 © Powered By DSPACE, MIT. Enhanced by NTU Library IR team.
Scope Adv. Search
LoginUploadHelpAboutAdminister

Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/34504

Title: 有限活化:中國黨國體制下的菁英流動,1978-2008
Limited Renewal: Political Elite Mobility in Chinese Party-State, 1978-2008
Authors: 黃信豪
Huang,Hsin Hao
Contributors: 劉義周
寇健文

Liu,I Chou
Kou,Chien Wen

黃信豪
Huang,Hsin Hao
Keywords: 中國
菁英甄補
菁英流動
政權演變
組織邏輯
China
Elite Recruitment
Elite Mobility
Regime Revolution
Organizational Logic
Date: 2007
Issue Date: 2009-09-19T07:31:08Z
Abstract: 改革開放以來,哪些菁英受到中共高層的重用?菁英流動的特性為何?背後是否具有一致的運作邏輯?本論文主要目的在於探索與釐清中國大陸菁英流動演變的型態,以及背後運作的邏輯。

在理論上,本論文從共黨政權演變的視角出發,採用組織理論的脈絡建構中共的菁英甄補邏輯。在組織邏輯下,本文認為改革開放的「經濟發展」路線,是中共為維持「專政」生存的工具性目標。而由於江澤民、胡錦濤依序接班後仍依循鄧小平改革開放的基本路線,這使得改革開放至今中國大陸政治菁英甄補與流動模式具有相當一致性的邏輯:即彰顯「專政」生存目的與「發展」工具性目的的政權演變特性。中共將依外在環境與組織目標的改變來調整內部成員,但調整的幅度與廣度將不會危害其執政地位,使得菁英流動呈現「有限活化」(limited renewal)的特色。

為了檢驗中共「有限活化」菁英體制的研究假設,本研究針對1978年3月至2008年3月曾任黨政正省部級職務(含以上)政治菁英進行系統性的實證分析。實證結果發現中共黨政菁英在納入新甄補元素的過程裡,的確具有專政地位維持的生存考量,符合本研究的理論預期。另一方面,雖然近年來外界強調中國菁英技術官僚的特質,但本文發現能夠在黨政領導職務任職時間較長,以及較快晉升至領導人職務的政治菁英,大多是前一個層級出身或具有黨職領導經歷者。這表示中共透過各級黨職歷練的規範,來確保這些領導菁英與黨意識型態路線或利益一致性。值得注意的是如此的甄補邏輯,改革開放至今並無系統性的改變。

最後,本論文也嘗試以菁英途徑解釋中國大陸未來的政體發展走向。透過有限活化菁英體制的現象檢證,我們認為菁英甄補的組織邏輯,應是中國大陸自80年代以來之所以能在快速經濟發展下維持共黨專政的重要因素。以此,本文認為中共在發展出以「黨職經歷」為重要資格的更替與晉升遊戲規則,短期內高層領導人應不至出現菁英分裂與衝突。而本文透過菁英流動課題來釐清中共「專政」與「發展」目的之邏輯本質,或許也能作為外界進一步闡述中共推行政治改革措施的思路。
What kinds of political elites have been recruited and promoted by the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) in the Reform Era? What are the characteristics of elite mobility in China? Is there a consistent inner-logic governing the selection and promotion of Chinese elites? To answer these questions, the thesis explores the continuity and change of political elite mobility in Mainland China, from 1978 to 2008.

Theoretically, the author reveals the inner-logic of elite recruitment throughout China’s reform era by using the explanatory framework of organizational theory against the background of communist regime transition. According to the organization logic, “economic development” is merely a functional tool serving the higher ends of “one-party dictatorship” - the survival prerequisite for the CCP. Therefore, due to Jiang and Hu’s succession of party courses set by Deng, China’s elite recruitment and mobility have consistently embodied this organizational logic: While balancing between the survival prerequisite of one-party dictatorship and the functional target of economic development, the CCP has, on the one hand, adjusted its membership configuration in response to changing environment and organizational goals; whereas on the other hand, controlled the adjustment to a degree posting no threat to its ruling position, hence produced the characteristics of limited renewal within China’s elite mobility.

To attest the theoretical hypothesis of limited renewal, the author conducts the systematic empirical studies on all the political elites who have worked on province and ministry level positions (and above) within the Chinese government and communist party from March, 1978 to March, 2008. As the empirical result shows, and consequently, confirms the hypothesis: the CCP did have assigned significant weight to the survival consideration in the process of elite recruitment. At the same time, despite the recent scholars focus on the rise of Chinese technocrats, the author however finds that, among the rising elites, those who worked longer in, or promoted faster to, the government and/or party positions, the crucial similarity they share lies not in the technocratic background but their party-position appointments on a lower level immediately before their promotions to leadership positions. This pattern of promotion demonstrated that the CCP has been using the party-positions experience as a required qualification for promotion, so as to ensure the elites’ alliance with party interest and loyalty to party ideology. Moreover, these recruiting and promoting principles have undergone no systematic changes throughout the period of the Reform Era.

Finally, from the perspective of elite mobility, the author attempts to depict the potential direction of China’s regime development in the future. Having approved the pattern of limited renewal in China’s elite configuration and mobility, the author believes that the current recruiting criteria and the underlying organizational logic have significantly contributed to the success of the CCP in maintaining one-party dictatorship amid rapid economic development. Therefore, the author predicts that the likelihood for elite conflicts would remain fairly low, if the promotion requirement of party-position experience continues to function. But nevertheless, the research of elite mobility would uncover the inner logical relationship between the apparently-contradictory goals of dictatorship and development, which paved the way for the survival and the success of the CCP.
Reference: 【中文部份】
丁望,曾慶紅與夕陽族接班人(香港:當代名家出版社,2002年)。
丁望,胡錦濤與共青團接班群(香港:當代名家出版社,2005年)。
中共中央文獻研究室主編,十二大以來重要文獻選編(上)(北京:人民出版社,1986年)。
中共中央文獻研究室主編,十一屆三中全會以來重要文獻選讀(上)(北京:人民出版社,1987年)。
中共中央文獻研究室主編,十三大以來重要文獻選編(下)(北京:人民出版社,1993年)。
中共中央文獻研究室主編,十四大以來重要文獻選編(中)(北京:人民出版社,1997年)。
中共中央文獻研究室主編,十五大以來重要文獻選編(下)(北京:人民出版社,2003年)。
中共中央文獻研究室主編,十五大以來重要文獻選編(上)(北京:人民出版社,2000年)。
中共中央組織部參照試行公務員制度辦公室編,參照國家公務員制度管理工作指導手冊,(河北:黨建讀物出版社,1995年)。
中共中央組織部編著,黨政領導幹部統計資料匯編(1954-1998)(北京:黨建讀物出版社,1999)。
中共中央組織部、中共中央黨校研究室、中央檔案館主編,中國共產黨組織史資料(1921-1997)(全十三卷)(北京:中共黨史出版社,2000年)。
中共中央組織部、中共中央黨史研究室編,中國共產黨歷屆中央委員大辭典(1921-2003)(北京:中共黨史出版社,2004)。
申明民,「組織內捲化與中國的腐敗」,二十一世紀,第71期(2002年6月),頁152-155。
汝信、陸學藝、李培林主編,2005年:中國社會形勢分析與預測(北京:社會科學文獻出版社,2004年)。
江澤民,江澤民文選(全三卷),(北京:人民出版社,2006年)。
何大明譯,Nathan, Andrew原著,中國政治變遷之路:從極權統治到韌性威權(台北:巨流圖書,2007年)。
何虎生、李耀東、向常福、蔣建華主編,中華人民共和國職官志(北京:中國社會出版社,2003年)。
吳玉山,共黨世界的變遷—四個共黨政權的比較(台北:東大出版社,1995年)。
吳玉山,遠離社會主義:中國大陸、蘇聯和波蘭的經濟轉型(台北:正中書局,1996)。
吳玉山,「現代化理論vs.政權穩定論:中國大陸民主發展的前景」,政治科學論叢,第9期(1998年6月),頁443-464。
吳玉山,「宏觀中國:後極權資本主義發展國家—蘇東與東亞模式的揉合」,徐斯儉與吳玉山主編,黨國蛻變—中共政權的菁英與政策(台北,五南出版社,2007年),頁309-335。
吳敬璉,當代中國經濟改革:戰略與實施(上海:上海遠東出版社,1999)。
邢廣程,蘇聯高層決策70年—從列寧到戈巴契夫(全五冊)(北京:中國社會科學出版社,2007年)。
林佳龍、徐斯儉,「退化的極權主義與中國未來發展」,林佳龍主編,未來中國—退化的極權主義(台北:時報文化,2004年),頁11-30。
林尚立主編,社區民主與治理:案例研究(北京:社會科學文獻出版社,2003年)。
徐斯儉,「中國大陸九0年代之政治改革與制度變遷」,中國大陸研究,第44卷第2期(2001年2月),頁1-29。
姜華宣、張蔚萍、肖甡主編,中國共產黨重要會議紀事(1921-2006)(北京:中央文獻出版社,2006年)。
孫立平,轉型與斷裂:改革以來中國社會結構的變遷(北京:清華大學出版社,2004年)。
徐賁,「中國的『新極權主義』與及其末世景象」,當代中國研究,總第91期(2005年),http://www.chinayj.net/StubArticle.asp?issue=050402&total=91。
浦興祖主編,中華人民共和國政治制度(上海:人民出版社,2005年)。
烏杰主編,中國政府與機構改革(北京:國家行政學院,1998年)。
寇健文,「中共菁英政治的研究途徑與發展」,何思因、陳德昇、耿曙主編,中國大陸研究方法與成果(台北:政治大學國際關係研究中心,2003年),頁73-99。
寇健文,「中共與蘇共高層政治的演變:軌跡、動力與影響」,問題與研究,第45卷第3期(2006年5月),頁39-75。
寇健文,「既重用又防範的菁英甄補:中共海歸派高官的仕途發展與侷限」,中國大陸研究,第50卷第3期(2007年10月),頁1-28。
寇健文,「胡錦濤時代團系幹部的崛起:派系考量vs.幹部輸送的組織任務」,遠景基金會季刊,第8卷第4期(2007年10月),頁49-95。
寇健文,中共菁英政治的演變:制度化與轉力轉移1978-2004(台北,五南出版社,2005年)。
寇健文、黃霈芝、潘敏,「制度化對中共菁英甄補之影響:評估十七大政治局的新人選」,東亞季刊,第37卷第2期(2006年7月),頁1-38。
張小平主編,中華人民共和國大事記(全兩冊)(北京:人民出版社,2004年)。
陳永發,中國共產革命七十年(全兩冊)(台北,聯經出版社,2001年)。
陳明通,「威權體制下台灣地方政治菁英的流動(1945-1986)—省參議員及省議員流動的分析」,國立台灣大學政治學研究所博士論文(台北:台灣大學,1990年)。
陳超塵,計量經濟學原理(二版)(台北:台灣商務印書館,1996年)。
陳雲,陳雲文選(一九五六—一九八五年),(北京:人民出版社,1986年)。
陳德昇,中共國務院機構改革之硏究(1978-1998):政府再造觀點(台北,永業出版社,1999年)。
喻中,「中國政治中正式規則與潛規則的相互關係」,當代中國研究,總第99期(2007年),http://www.chinayj.net/StubArticle.asp?issue=070404&total=99。
黃信豪,「量化研究的比較問題邏輯:因果異質性與縣市長選舉投票模型的建立」,問題與研究,第46卷第3期(2007年9月),頁125-154。
黃紀,「質變數之計量分析」,謝復生、盛杏湲主編,政治學的範圍與方法(台北:五南,2000年),頁387-411。
楊光斌主編,當代中國政治制度(北京:華文出版社,2004年)。
楊光斌,中國政府與政治導論(北京:中國人民大學出版社,2003年)。
楊繼繩,鄧小平時代:中國改革開放二十年紀實(共兩冊)(北京:中央編譯出版社,1998年)。
楊繼繩,中國改革年代政治鬥爭(香港:Excellent Culture Press,2004)。
董立文,「從權力繼承看中共政治發展的非制度化」,林佳龍主編,未來中國—退化的極權主義(台北:時報文化出版社,2004年),頁129-163。
趙建民、張執中,「組織內捲與列寧式政黨的調適與變遷:中國共產黨個案分析」,人文及社會科學集刊,第17卷第2期(2005年6月),頁299-341。
劉平譯,Perry, Elizabeth J.原著,「『告別革命』與中國政治研究」,思與言,第44卷第3期(2006年9月),頁231-291。
劉平鄰,「美國學者對中共政治的研究」,何思因、吳玉山主編,邁入廿一世紀的政治學(台北:中國政治學會,2000年),頁497-525。
劉亞偉主編,無聲的革命:村民直選的歷史、現實和未來(西安:西北大學出版社,2002年)。
鄭為元,「發展型『國家』或發展型國家『理論』的終結?」,台灣社會研究季刊,第34期(1999年6月),頁1-67。
鄧小平,鄧小平文選(共三卷)(北京:人民出版社,1994年)。
蕭功秦,「中國後全能型的權威政治」,戰略與管理,第6期(2002年),頁82-88。
閻穎,中國共產黨領導體制的歷史演變(北京,中共黨史出版社,2007年)。
人民網,中國共產黨新聞網,http://cpc.people.com.cn/GB/64162/index.html。
人民網,中國共產黨歷次全國代表大會數據庫,http://cpc.people.com.cn/GB/64162/64168/index.html。
人民網,中國機構及領導人資料庫, http://politics.people.com.cn/GB/shizheng/252/9667/index.html。
政大中國大陸研究中心,中共政治菁英資料庫,http://ics.nccu.edu.tw/chinaleaders/index.htm。
新華網,http://www.xinhuanet.com/。
【英文部份】
Allison, Paul D., Event History Analysis: Regression for Longitudinal Event Data (Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage, 1984).
Almond, Gabriel A. and G. Bingham Powell, Jr., Comparative Politics: A Developmental Approach (Boston: Little, Brown, 1966).
Anderson, Barbara A., “Social Stratification in the Soviet Union: Equality, Excellent, and Other Issues,” Studies in Comparative Communism, vol. 8 (Winter 1975), pp. 397-412.
Arendt, Hannah, The Origins of Totalitarianism (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1966).
Bachman, David, “The Limits on Leadership in China,” Asian Survey, vol. 32, no. 11 (November 1992), pp. 1046-1062.
Bachman, David, “The Paradox of Analysing Elite Politics under Jiang,” China Journal, no.45 (January 2001), pp. 95-100.
Binns, Christopher, “The Study of Soviet and East European elites,” in George Moyser and Margaret Wastaffe eds., Research Methods for Elite Studies (London and Worcester: Billings and Sons Ltd, 1987), pp. 217-231.
Bo, Zhiyue, Chinese Provincial Leaders: Economic Performance and Political Mobility Since 1949 (Armonk, New York, M.E. Shape, Inc., 2002).
Bo, Zhiyue, China's Elite Politics: Political Transition and Power Balancing (Hackensack, N.J.: World Scientific, 2007).
Bottomore, Tom B., Elites and Society (Harmonsworth: Penguin, 1964).
Box-Steffensmeier, Janet and Bradford Jones, Event History Modeling: A Guide for Social Scientists (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004).
Breslin, Shaun G., “China: Developmental State or Dysfunctional Development?” Third World Quarterly, vol. 17, no. 4 (1996), pp. 147-160.
Brooker, Paul, Non-Democratic Regimes: Theory, Government and Politics (New York: St. Martin’s, 2000).
Chang, Gordon G., The Coming Collapse of China (London: Arrow, 2002).
Chang, Parris H., “Changing of the Guard,” China Journal, no. 45 (January 2001), pp. 37-43.
Chen, Feng, “Order and Stability in Social Transition: Neoconservative Political Thought in Post-1989 China,” The China Quarterly, no. 151 (September 1997), pp. 593-613.
Cleves, Mario A., William W. Gould and Roberto G. Gutierrez, An Introduction to Survival Analysis Using Stata (College Station, Texas: Stata Press, 2004).
Collier, David and James E. Mahon, “Conceptual “Stretching” Revisted: Adapting Categories in Comparative Analysis,” American Political Science Review, vol. 87, no. 4 (December 1993), pp. 845-855.
Czudnowski, Moshe M., “Toward a Second Generation of Empirical Elite and Leadership Studies,” in Moshe M. Czudnowski ed, Political Elites and Social Change: Studies of Elite Roles and Attitudes (DeKalb, Illinois: North Illinois University Press, 1983), pp. 243-255.
Dickson, Bruce J., Democratization in China and Taiwan: The Adaptability of Leninist Parties (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997).
Dickson, Bruce J. and Maria Rost Rublee, “Membership has Its Privileges: The Socioeconomic Characteristics of Communist Party Members in Urban China,” Comparative Political Studies, vol. 33, no. 1 (February 2000), pp. 87-112.
Dickson, Bruce J., “Cooptation and Corporatism in China: The Logic of Party Adaptation,” Political Science Quarterly, vol. 115, no. 4 (Winter 2000), pp. 517-540.
DiMaggio, Paul J. and Walter W. Powell, “The Iron Cage Revisited: Institutional Isomorphism and Collective Rationality in Organizational Fields,” American Sociological Review, vol. 48, no. 2 (April 1983), pp. 147-160.
Dittmer, Lowell, “Bases of Power in Chinese Politics: A Theory and an Analysis of the Fall of the ‘Gang of Four’,” World Politics, vol. 31, no. 1 (October 1978), pp. 26-60.
Dittmer, Lowell, China’s Continuous Revolution: The Post-Liberation Epoch, 1949-1981 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987).
Dittmer, Lowell, “The Changing Shape of Elite Power Politics,” China Journal, no. 45 (January 2001), pp. 53-67.
Dittmer, Lowell, “Modernizing Chinese Informal Politics,” In Jonathan Unger ed., The Nature of Chinese Politics: From Mao to Jiang (Armonk, New York: M. E. Sharpe, 2002), pp. 3-37.
Djilas, Milovan, The New Class: An Analysis of the Communist Systems (New York: Praeger, 1957).
Elsner, Henry Jr., The Technocrats: Prophets of Automation (New York: Syracuse University Press, 1967).
Engelstad Fredrik, and Trygve Gulbrandsen eds., Comparative Studies of Social and Political Elites (Oslo: Institute for Social Research, 2006).
Etzioni-Halevy Eva ed., Classes and Elites in Democracy and Democratization: A Collection of Readings (New York: Garland, 1997).
Fewsmith, Joseph, Elite Politics in Contemporary China (Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 2001).
Fewsmith, Joseph, “The New Shape of Elite Politics,” China Journal, no. 45 (January 2001), pp. 83-93.
Fewsmith, Joseph, “The Sixteenth National Party Congress: The Succession that Didn’t Happen,” China Quarterly, No. 173 (March 2003), pp. 1-16.
Fine, Jason P. and Robert J. Gary, “A Proportional Hazards Model for Subdistribution of a Competing Risk,” Journal of American Statistical Association, vol. 94, no. 446 (June 1999), pp. 496-509.
Firebauge, Glenn, Analyzing Repeated Surveys (Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage., 1997).
Friedrich, Carl J., “The Evolving Theory and Practice of Totalitarian Regimes,” in Carl J. Friedrich, Michael Curtis and Benjamin R. Barber eds., Totalitarianism in Perspective: Three Views (New York: Praeger, 1969), pp. 123-164.
Gilley, Bruce, China’s Democratic Future: How It Will Happen and Where It Will Lead (New York: Columbia University Press, 2004).
Goldstein, Avery, From Bandwagon to Balance-of-Power: Structural Constraints and Politics in China (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1991).
Gray, Robert J., “A Class of K-Sample Tests for Comparing the Cumulative Incidence of a Competing Risk,” The Annals of Statistics, vol. 16, no. 3 (September 1988), pp. 1141-1154.
Grusky, David B. and Robert M. Hauser, “Comparative Social Mobility Revisited: Models of Convergence and Divergence in 16 countries,” American Sociological Review, vol. 49, no.1 (February 1984), pp. 19-38.
Guo, Sujian, “The Party-State Relationship in Post-Mao China,” China Report, vol. 37, no. 3 (August 2001), pp. 301-315.
Hachen, David S., “The Competing Risks Model: A Method for Analyzing Processes with Multiple Types of Events,” Sociological Methods & Research, vol. 17, no. 1 (August 1988), pp. 21-54.
Hamrin, Carol Lee, “Inching toward Open Politics,” China Journal, no. 45 (January 2001), pp. 123-129.
Hannan, Michael T. “Macrosociological Application of Event History Analysis: State Transition and Event Recurrences,” Quality and Quantity, vol. 23, no. 3-4, (September 1989), pp. 351-383.
Hannan, Michael T. and John Freeman, Organizational Ecology (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991).
Harasymiw, Bohdan, “Mosca and Moscow: Elite Recruitment in the Soviet Union,” In Moshe M. Czudnowski ed., Does Who Governs Matter? Elite Circulation in Contemporary Societies (DeKalb, Illinois: North Illinois University Press, 1982), pp. 265-292.
Higley, John and György Lengyel, “Elite Configurations after State Socialism,” in John Higley and György Lengyel eds., Elites after State Socialism (Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2000), pp. 1-21.
Hoffmann-Lange, Ursula, “Surveying Nation Elites in the Federal Republic of Germany,” in George Moyser and Margaret Wastaffe eds., Research Methods for Elite Studies (London and Worcester: Billings and Sons Ltd, 1987), pp. 27-47.
Hough, Jerry, “The Soviet Experience and Measurement of Power,” Journal of Politics, vol. 37, no. 3 (August 1975), pp. 685-710.
Ishiyama, John, “Communist Parties in Transition: Structure, Leaders, and Processes of Democratization in Eastern Europe,” Comparative Politics, vol. 27, no. 2 (January 1995), pp. 147-166.
Janos, Andrew C., Politics and Paradigms: Changing Theories of Change in Social Science (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1986).
Ji, You, “Jiang Zemin's Command of the Military,” China Journal, no. 45 (January 2001), pp. 131-138.
Johnson, Chalmers, “Comparing Communist Nations,” in Chalmers Johnson ed., Change in Communist Systems (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1970), pp. 1-32.
Jowitt, Kenneth, “Inclusion and Mobilization in European Leninist Regimes,” World Politics, vol. 28, no. 1 (October 1975), pp. 69-96.
King, Gary, Robert O. Keohane and Sidney Verba, Designing Social Inquiry: Scientific Inference in Quantitative Research (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994).
Konrád, George and van Szelényi, The Intellectuals on the Road to Class Power (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1979).
Kornai János, The Socialist System: the Political Economy of Communism (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1992).
Kotz, David M. and Fred Weir, Revolution from Above: the Demise of the Soviet System (London; New York: Routledge, 1997).
LeDonne, John P., “The Ruling Class: Tsarist Russia as the Perfect Model,” International Social Science Journal, no. 136 (May 1993), pp. 285-300.
Lee, HongYung, From Revolutionary Cadres to Party Technocrats in Socialist China (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1991).
Li, Wei, and Lucian W. Pye, “The Ubiquitous Role of the Mishu in Chinese Politics,” China Quarterly, no. 132 (December 1992), pp. 913-936.
Li, Bobai and Andrew G. Walder “Career Advancement as Party Patronage: Sponsored Mobility into the Chinese Administrative Elite, 1949-1996,” The American Journal of Sociology, vol. 106, no. 5 (March 2001), pp. 1371-1408.
Li, Cheng, “The ‘Shanghai Gang’: Force for Stability or Cause for Conflict,” China Leadership Monitor, no.2 (Spring 2002), http://media.hoover.org/documents/clm2_CL.pdf.
Li, Cheng, “University Networks and the Rise of Qinghua Graduates in China's Leadership,” The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs, no. 32 (July 1994), pp. 1-30.
Li, Cheng, and Lynn White, “The Thirteenth Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party: From Mobilizers to Managers,” Asian Survey, vol. 28, no. 4 (April 1988), pp. 371-399.
Li, Cheng and Lynn White, “Elite Transformation and Modern Change in Mainland China and Taiwan: Empirical Data and the Theory Technocracy,” China Quarterly, no. 121 (March 1990), pp.1-35.
Li, Cheng, and Lynn White, “The Fifteenth Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party: Full-Fledged Technocratic Leadership with Partial Control by Jiang Zemin,” Asian Survey, vol. 38, no. 3 (March 1998), pp. 231-264.
Li, Cheng, “Jiang Zemin’s Successors: The Rise of the Fourth Generation of Leaders in the PRC,” China Quarterly, no. 161 (March 2000), pp. 1-40.
Li, Cheng and Lynn White, “The Sixteenth Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party: Hu Gets What?” Asian Survey, vol. 43, no. 4 (July/ August 2003), pp. 553-597.
Linz, Juan J., Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes (Boulder, CO: Lynne Reinner, 2000).
Little, Roderick J. and Donald Rubin, Statistical Analysis with Missing Data (New York: Wiley, 1987).
Long, Scott J., Regression Models for Categorical and Limited Dependent Variables (Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 1997).
Lowenthal, Richard, “Development Versus Utopia in Communist Policy,” In Chalmers Johnson ed., Change in Communist Systems (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1970), pp. 33-116.
Matthews, Mervyn, Education in the Soviet Union: policies and institutions since Stalin (London; Boston: Allen & Unwin, 1982).
Meisel, James H., The Myth of the Ruling Class: Gaetano Mosca and the “Elite” (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1962).
Montinola, Gabriella, Yingyi Qian and Barry R. Weingast, “Federalism, Chinese Style: The Political Basis for Economic Success in China,” World Politics, vol. 48, no. 1 (October 1995), pp. 50-81.
Nathan, Andrew J., “A Factionalism Model for CCP Politics,” China Quarterly, no. 53 (January 1973), pp. 34-66.
Nathan, Andrew J., “China’s Changing of the Guard: Authoritarian Resilience,” Journal of Democracy, vol. 14, no.1 (January 2003), pp. 6-17.
O’Donnell, Guillermo, Philippe C. Schmitter, and Laurence Whitehead eds., Transitions from Authoritarian Rule (Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press, 1986).
Oksenberg, Michel, “Policy Making under Mao, 1949-1968,” in John M. H. Lindbeck ed., China: Management of a Revolutionary Society (Seattle, Washington Press, 1971), pp.79-115.
Oksenberg, Michel, “China's Political System: Challenges of the Twenty-First Century,” China Journal, no. 45 (January 2001), pp.21-35.
Paltiel, Jeremy, “Jiang Talks Politics. Who Listens? Institutionalization and Its Limits in Market Leninism,” China Journal, no. 45 (January 2001), pp. 113-121.
Parkin, Frank, “Class Stratification in Socialist Societies,” British Journal of Sociology, vol. 20, no. 4 (December 1969), pp. 355-374.
Pei, Minxi, From Reform to Revolution: the Demise of Communism in China and the Soviet Union (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1994).
Pei, Minxi, China's Trapped Transition: The Limits of Developmental Autocracy (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2006).
Petersen, Trond, “The Statistical Analysis of Event Histories,” Sociological Methods & Research, vol. 19, no. 3 (February 1991), pp. 270-323.
Pintilie, Melania, Competing Risks: A Practical Perspective (NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2006).
Preffer, Jeffery and Gernal R. Salanick, The External Control of Organizations: A Resource Dependence Perspective (New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1978).
Putnam, Robert D., The Comparative Study of Political Elites (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1976).
Pye, Lucian W., The Spirit of Chinese Politics (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992).
Rosenbaum, James E., “Tournament Mobility: Career Patterns in a Corporation,” Administrative Science Quarterly, vol. 24, no. 2 (June 1979), pp. 220-241.
Rustow, Dankwart A., “Transition to Democracy: Toward a Dynamic Model,” Comparative Politics, vol. 2, no. 3 (April 1970), pp. 337-363.
Scalapino, Robert A., “The Transition in Chinese Party Leadership: A Comparison of Eighth and Night Central Committees,” in Robert A. Scalapino ed., Elites in the People’s Republic of China (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1972), pp. 67-148.
Scott, Richard W., “The Organization of Environments: Networks, Cultural, and Historical Elements,” In John W. Meyer and Richard W. Scott eds., Organizational Environments: Ritual and Rationality (Beverly Hill: Sage Publications, 1983), pp. 155-175.
Seligman, Lester G., “Elite Recruitment and Political Development,” Journal of Politics, vol. 26, no. 3 (August 1964), pp. 612-626.
Shambaugh, David, “The Dynamics of Elite Politics during the Jiang Era” China Journal, no. 45 (January 2001), pp. 101-111.
Shirk, Susan L., “The Chinese Political System and the Political Strategy of Economic Reform,” In Kenneth G. Lieberthal and David M. Lamton eds., Bureaucracy, Politics and Decision Making in Post-Mao China (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992), pp. 59-91.
Shirk, Susan L., Competitive Comrades: Career Incentives and Student Strategies in China (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1982).
Shirk, Susan L., “Will the Institutionalization of Party Leadership Survive the 2002-03 Succession?” China Journal, no. 45 (January 2001), pp. 139-142.
Singer, Judith D. and John B. Willett, Applied Longitudinal Data Analysis (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003).
Skilling, Gordon H. and Franklyn Griffiths eds., Interest Group in Soviet Politics (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1971).
Skilling, Gordon H., “Interest Group and Communist Politics Revisited,” World Politics, vol. 36, no. 1 (October 1983), pp. 1-27.
Stewart, Philip, Political Power in the Soviet Union: A Study of Decision-Making in Stalingrad (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1968).
Szelényi, Ivan, “The Prospects and Limits of the East European New Class Project: An Auto-critical Reflection on The Intellectuals on the Road to Class Power,” Politics and Society, vol. 15, no. 2 (1987), pp. 103-144.
Szelényi, Iván and Szonja Szelényi, “Circulation or Reproduction of Elites during the Postcommunist Transformation of Eastern Europe: Introduction,” Theory and Society, vol. 24, no. 5 (October 1995), pp. 615-638.
Tanner, Murray Scot and Michael J. Feder, “Family Politics, Elite Recruitment, and Succession in Post-Mao China,” The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs, no. 30 (July 1993), pp. 89-119.
Tao, Yi-feng, “The Evolution of Central-Provincial Relations in Post-Mao China, 1978-98: An Event Analysis of Provincial Leader Turnover,” Issues and Studies, vol. 37, no. 4 (July/ August 2001), pp. 90-120.
Tashakkori, Abbas and Charles Teddliepp, Mixed Methodology: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches (Thousand Qaks, Calif.: Sage Publications, 1998).
Teiwes, Frederick C., “Normal Politics with Chinese Characteristics,” In Jonathan Unger ed., The Nature of Chinese Politics: From Mao to Jiang (Armonk, New York: M. E. Sharpe, 2002), pp. 239-257.
Thelen, Kathleen, “Historical Institutionalism in Comparative Politics,” Annual Reviews of Political Science, vol. 2 (June 1999), pp. 369-404.
Tsou, Tang, “Prolegomenon to the Study of Informal Group in CCP Politics,” China Quarterly, no. 65 (January 1976), pp. 98-119.
Tsou, Tang, “Chinese Politics at the Top: Factionalism or Informal Politics? Balance-of-Power or a Game of Win All?” In Jonathan Unger ed., The Nature of Chinese Politics: From Mao to Jiang (Armonk, New York: M. E. Sharpe, 2002), pp. 97-160.
Turner, Ralph H., “Sponsored and Contest Mobility and the School System,” American Sociological Review, vol. 25, no. 6 (December 1960), pp. 855-867.
Verba, Sidney, “Some Dilemmas in Comparative Research,” World Politics, vol. 20, no. 1 (October 1967), pp. 111-127.
Verdery, Katherine, “Rereading The Intellectuals on the Road to Class Power,” Theory and Society, no. 34 (Spring 2005), pp. 1-36.
Walder, Andrew G., Communist Neo-Traditionalism (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1986).
Walder, Andrew G., “The Political Dimension of Social Mobility in Communist State: Reflections on the Soviet Union and China.” in Richard G. Braungart and Margaret G. Braungart eds., The Political Sociology of the State (Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press, 1990), pp. 49-65.
Walder, Andrew G., “Career Mobility and Communist Political Order,” American Sociological Review, vol. 60, no. 3 (June 1995), pp. 309-328.
Walder, Andrew G., “The Party Elite and China’s Trajectory of Change,” China: An International Journal, vol. 2, no. 2 (September 2001), pp. 189-209.
Wallace, Anthony, Culture and Personality (New York: Random House, 1961).
Western, Bruce, “Causal Heterogeneity in Comparative Research: A Bayesian Hierarchical Modeling Approach,” American Journal of Political Science, vol. 42, no. 4 (October 1998), pp. 1233-1259.
Wu, Yu-shan, “From Reform to Bureaucratic Stability in the PRC,” Issues & Studies, vol. 33, no. 8 (August 1997), pp. 96-104.
Wu, Yu-shan, “Jiang and After: Technocratic Rule, Generational Replacement and Metor Politics,” in Yun-han Chu, Chih-Cheng Lo and Ramon H. Myers eds., The New Chinese Leadership: Challenges and Opportunities after the 16th Party Congress (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004), pp. 69-88.
Zagoria, David S., “China’s Quiet Revolution,” Foreign Affairs, vol. 62 no. 4 (Spring 1984), pp. 879-904.
Zang, Xiaowei, “The Fourteenth Central Committee of the CCP: Technocracy or Political Technocracy?” Asian Survey, vol. 33, no. 8 (August 1993), pp. 787-803.
Zang, Xiaowei, “Institutionalization and Elite Behavior in Reform China,” Issues & Studies, vol. 41, no. 1 (March 2005), pp. 204-217.
Zang, Xiaowei, Elite Dualism and Leadership Selection in China (New York: Taylor & Fransic, 2004).
Zang, Xiaowei, “Technical Training, Sponsored Mobility, and Functional Differentiation: Elite Formation in China in the Reform era,” Communist and Post-Communist Studies, vol. 39 (February 2006), pp. 39-57.
Zheng, Shiping, Party vs. State in Post-1949 China: The Institutional Dilemma (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997).
Zhou, Xueguang, “Partial Reform and the Chinese Bureaucracy in the Post-Mao Era,” Comparative Political Studies, vol. 28, no. 3 (October 1995), pp. 440-468.
China Vitae(中國名人錄),http://www.chinavitae.com/。
IMF,Data and Statistics(統計數據資料庫),http://www.imf.org/external/data.htm。
Description: 博士
國立政治大學
政治研究所
93252506
96
Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0093252506
學位論文
thesis
Appears in Collections:[政治學系] 學位論文

Files in This Item:

File Description SizeFormat
25250601.pdf43KbAdobe PDF586View/Open
25250602.pdf162KbAdobe PDF692View/Open
25250603.pdf355KbAdobe PDF767View/Open
25250604.pdf356KbAdobe PDF699View/Open
25250605.pdf398KbAdobe PDF846View/Open
25250606.pdf517KbAdobe PDF13131View/Open
25250607.pdf600KbAdobe PDF1892View/Open
25250608.pdf564KbAdobe PDF28846View/Open
25250609.pdf450KbAdobe PDF672View/Open
25250610.pdf556KbAdobe PDF839View/Open
25250611.pdf556KbAdobe PDF906View/Open
25250612.pdf378KbAdobe PDF696View/Open
25250613.pdf533KbAdobe PDF4077View/Open
25250614.pdf395KbAdobe PDF1343View/Open


All items in 政大典藏 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.

 


著作權政策宣告
1.本網站之數位內容為國立政治大學所收錄之機構典藏,無償提供學術研究與公眾教育等公益性使用,惟仍請適度,合理使用本網站之內容,以尊重著作權人之權益。商業上之利用,則請先取得著作權人之授權。
2.本網站之製作,已盡力防止侵害著作權人之權益,如仍發現本網站之數位內容有侵害著作權人權益情事者,請權利人通知本網站維護人員(nccur@nccu.edu.tw),維護人員將立即採取移除該數位著作等補救措施
DSpace Software Copyright © 2002-2004  MIT &  Hewlett-Packard  /   Enhanced by   NTU Library IR team Copyright ©   - Feedback