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    Title: 運動產業的價格彈性之實證研究- 以大台北地區熱瑜珈市場為例
    The Study of Price Elasticity in Fitness Industry- Taipei Hot Yoga Market as an example
    Authors: 鄭安婕(麗伶)
    Contributors: 鄭宇庭 
    鄭安婕(麗伶)
    Keywords: Price policy
    Market segmentation
    Industry profitability
    Retention rates
    Cost dissatisfaction
    Price policy
    Market segmentation
    Industry profitability
    Retention rates
    Cost dissatisfaction
    Date: 2008
    Issue Date: 2009-09-18 15:11:44 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: This study aims to examine the empirical evidence on the relationship between price and quantity/demand relation in the hot yoga market in Taipei. While doing so, this study also tries to generate awareness on the importance of price policy and market segmentation to maximize industry profitability and market share.

    The primary research undertaken in this study has carried out direct survey of Taipei consumers via questionnaire and applied SPSS statistical analysis, to find out the most accepted price band consumers are willing to pay and the major factors participating in their decision processes.

    Attrition and membership turnover is endemic in the fitness industry. One of the largest studies undertaken on the topic of membership retention rate, was conducted in the UK and found that the attrition varied from 11 to 62 percent. After 12 months, the best clubs lost one member out of every ten and the worst were losing more than six out of ten per year. Termination of membership appear closely related to cost dissatisfaction (FIA, 2001). Understanding the underlying factors to influence cost dissatisfaction can serve as basic information to increase membership retention rate and essential reference information for new entrant’s price policy and marketing programs.
    Abstract

    This study aims to examine the empirical evidence on the relationship between price and quantity/demand relation in the hot yoga market in Taipei. While doing so, this study also tries to generate awareness on the importance of price policy and market segmentation to maximize industry profitability and market share.

    The primary research undertaken in this study has carried out direct survey of Taipei consumers via questionnaire and applied SPSS statistical analysis, to find out the most accepted price band consumers are willing to pay and the major factors participating in their decision processes.

    Attrition and membership turnover is endemic in the fitness industry. One of the largest studies undertaken on the topic of membership retention rate, was conducted in the UK and found that the attrition varied from 11 to 62 percent. After 12 months, the best clubs lost one member out of every ten and the worst were losing more than six out of ten per year. Termination of membership appear closely related to cost dissatisfaction (FIA, 2001). Understanding the underlying factors to influence cost dissatisfaction can serve as basic information to increase membership retention rate and essential reference information for new entrant’s price policy and marketing programs.
    Reference: References
    Banks, S.K.(1979). “Gift giving and interactive paradigm”. In W.Wilkie (Ed), Advances in Consumer Research, Vol.5, pp.319-324
    Barbara Fasolo, Raffaella Misuraca and Gary McClelland. “Individual differences in adaptive choice strategies. “Research in Economics, Vol 57, Issue 3, September 2003, pp 219~233
    Barnes,N.G.,& Peters,M.P.,1982, “Modes of retail ditribution: Views of the elderly “Akron Business and Economics Review”, Vol 13(Fall).pp 26~31
    Barry L.Bayus,1985, “word of Mouth: The indirect effect of marketing efforts” Journal of advertising Research, June -July, pp31~39
    Bettman,J.R.(1979).”An information processing theory of consumer choice”. Reading, MA:Addison-Wesley Publishing Company
    Beatty,S.E.& Smith, S.M,1987. “External search effort: An investigation across several product categories. “ Journal of Consumer Research” 16(June) pp1-38
    Belk, Mellanie Walendorf, and John Sherry,1989,”The scared and Profane Consumer behavior”, Journal of Consumer Research.16 (June),1-38
    Belk,1967. “Self-confidence and Persuasion in Car Buying” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol 4, pp46-52
    Belk, Melanie Wallendorf, and John Sherry, 1989, “ the Scared and Profane Consumer Behavior, “ Journal of Consumer Research. 16(June) pp1-38
    Bell,1967,”Self-confidence and Persuasion in Car Buying” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol 4, 46-52
    Bellizi, J.A& Hite, R.E,1986, Convenience consumption and role overload convenience. “Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science” , Vol14(Winter), pp1-9
    Bettman,J.R 91979). “An information processing theory of consumer choice” Reading MA: Addison Wesley Publishing Company
    Bikram Choudhury & Bonnie Jones Reynolds, “Bikram’s beginning yoga class”pp1-13
    Birrens, J,1974, “translating in gerontology-from lab to life” Psychophysiology and speed of response” . American Psychologist, Vol29, pp 818-815
    Blistein, D.1971, “human Social Development” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol42, pp 116- 132.
    Bloch, Sherrell and Ridway (1986), “Consumer Search: An extended framework”, Journal Of Consumer Research, Vol 12, pp1-16
    Bottomley.Paul.A. and John R. Doyle.2001. “A comparison of three weight elicitation methods: good, better and best. “ Omega, Vol.29, Issue 6, December 2001, pp553-560.
    Brenda G.Pitts and David K. Stotlar. “Fundamentals of Sport Marketing”, Pages3~18
    Brody, R. and S.M Cuningham,1986, “Personality variables and the consumer decision process”. Journal Marketing Research Vol 5, 50-57
    Buttle,(1992), “Shopping motives constructionist perspective”, Service Industries Journal, Vol.12, July pp 348-367
    Chaiken,S. 1982. “Heuristic versus systematic information processing and the use of source message cues in persuasion. “Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol39, pp 725-766.
    Charles Cole,1996. “Information Process: The difference between corroborating evidence and information in humanistic domains”. Information Processing and Management, Vol33, pp 55-57
    Cheng S.T Master Thesis, “ The Development of Taiwan’s Sport Industry”pp 3-8
    Claxton J Fry and Portis, 1974, “ A taxonomy of pre-purchase information gathering patterns”, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol1 pp 35-42
    Comte,E.,&Stogel,C.(1990). Sports: A $63.1 billion industry. The sporting News, Preview, PP60-66
    Darely and Smith,1995, Gender difference in information Processing Strategies: and empirical test to the selectively model in advertising response” Journal of Advertising. Vol.24, pp41-45
    Day, George (1976), “Assessing the effects of information disclosure requirement” Journal of Marketing, Vol 40, pp43-52
    Deshpande, R. Krishnan, S. 1982, “ Correlates of deficient consumer information environment: The case of elderly”, Advances in consumer Research Vol 9, pp 515-519
    Dommermuth, W.P, 1965, “ The shopping matrix and marketing strategy” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol2, pp 138-132
    Douglas, 1976,” Working wife vs. Non-working wife families: A basis for segmenting grocery markets” In advances in Consumer Research, Vol3,pp191-198
    Duncan, 1982, “ External Search: The role of consumer beliefs”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vo l9, pp 32-43
    Fischer, E.,& Arnold, S.J.1990. “ more than a labor of love: Gender roles and christmas gift shopping “. Journal of consumer Research, Vol 17, pp333-345
    Fry and Siller, 1970, “ A comparison of housewife decision making in two social classes” Journal of Marketing Research , Vol 8, pp333-337
    Gardner David M., 1971, “ Is there a generalized price quality relationship” Journal of Marketing Research , Vol 8, pp 241-243
    Gardner Janse 2004, “ Information search behavior of European forest policy decision makers” . Forest Policy and Economics
    Gerben Janse 2004.”Information search behavior of European forest policy decision-makers” Forest Policy and Economics
    Goldman and Johnson 1978, “ Determinants of search for lower prices: an empirical assessment of economics and information theory” . Journal of Consumer Research Vol. 5, pp 176-178
    Graney, M. & Graney, E. 1974, . “ communication activity substitution in old age”. Journal of Communication Vol 24, pp88-96
    Gronhaug.K.1972. “ Buying situations and buyers information behavior” European Marketing Research Review, pp 33-48
    Hacklander,1978,”Do working wives shop differently for food?” National food review, Vol 12, pp 14-22
    Hansen Fleming, 1969 “ Consumer choice behavior: An experimental approach” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol 16, 436 –445
    Heroux, L. Laroche, M.& McGown , K.L. 1988. “ consumer label inforation processing : An experiment involving time pressure and distraction: Journal of Economics Psychology, Vol 9, pp 195-214
    Hisrich,1972., ‘ Perceived risk in store selection” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol9. 435-439
    Howard, J.A. & Sheth J.N. 1969. “ The theory of buyer behavior” New York, john Wiley and Sons Inc.
    Innes, 1998. “ information in communicative planning”. Journal of the American Planning Association”, Vol 64, pp 52-63
    Jacoby, Jacob, George 1977 “ Information acquisition behavior in brand choice situations”. Journal of Consumer Research, Vol3, pp209-216
    Jacoby, Jacob Chestnut,1977, “ Consumer use and comprehension of non-durable purchasing” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol 4, pp 119128
    Jacoby, Jacob 1976, “ Pre-purchase information acquisition: description of methodology, research paradigm, and pilot investigation” Advances in Consumer Research , Vol 3, pp 304-313
    Javalgi, r.g. Thomas 1992, “ Consumer Behavior in the US pleasure travel marketplace: An analysis of senior and non-senior travelers. “Journal of Travel Research,J Vol 13, pp14-19
    Jette Hyldergard 2004, “ Collaborative information behavior- exploring Kuhlthau’s Information Search Process model in group based educational setting”. Information Processing and Management
    Johnson and Russo, 1984. “ Product Familiarity and Learning new Information”. Journal of Consumer Research, Vol 11, pp 542-563
    Joseph R. Ferrari and John.F.Dovidio, 2001. “ Behavioral Information search by indecisives. “Personality and Individual Differences, Vol 30, pp1113-1123
    Kassarjan, Harold, 1978, “ Presidential address: anthropomorphism and parsimony” In advances of Consumer Research , Vol. 5
    Katerina Kabassi and Maria Virvou, 2003. “ Personalized adult training on computer use based on multiple attribute decision making” Interacting with Computer, Vol16. pp115-132
    Katona and Mueller, 1955, “ A study in purchasing decisions”, The consumer bebavior: The dynamics of consumer reaction, Vol 1
    Kotler, 1003, “ Marketing Management” 11th Edition
    Lambert, Z.V.1979, “A investigation of older consumers needs and wants at retail level” Journal of Retailing . Vol 15, pp 35-37
    Laroche, M. KIM, C. Saad., G& Browne 2000. “ A cross cultural study of in-store information search strategies “. Journal of Business Research Vol. 49, pp 113-126
    Laroche M. Saad 2000, “ Gender difference in information search strategies for a Christmas gift”. Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol 17, pp 500-524
    Lazer and Smalwood, 1977. “ The changing demographics of women:. Journal of Marketing, Vol 14, pp 14-22
    Lumpkin, J.R.& Festervand, T.A., 1988. “Purchase information sources of the elderly” Journal of Advertising Research. pp 32-43
    McGraw, 2003, Business Research Method, 8th Edition, Vol 1, pp55-65
    Michel Laroche 2000, “ Exploring age-related differences in information acquisition in a purchase” . Journal of Economics Psycholgy, Vol 25, pp61-69
    Moore, W. L& Lehmann, D.R,1980 “Individual differences in search behavior for a non-durable”. Journal of Consumer Research. Vol 11, pp808-913
    Myers-Levy,1988: The influence of sex roles on judgement”, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol 14, pp522-530
    National Council of Sport and Fitness(2002). Assessing the size of Taiwan’s sport industry and the economic impact. Taipei: National Council of Sport and Physical Fitness.
    Newman, J. 1977, “ Multivariate Aalysis of Differences in Buyer Decision Time”. Journal of Marketing Research, pp 192-198
    OscarW. DeShields, Erdener Kaynak,1999. “ Sources effects in purchase decisions: The impact of physical attractiveness and accent of salesperson” Intern. J. of Research in Marketing, PP 89-101
    Phillips L. W., & Sthemdahl, B 1977. “Age differences in information processing: A perspective on the aged consumer.” Journal of Marketing Research. Vol 10, pp 186-196
    Sharir, 1974, “ Brand loyalty and household’s cost of time”, Journal of Business, Vol 47, pp53-55
    Stigle, George, 1961, “The economics of information”, Journal of political economy, Vol 69, pp 213-227
    Street & Smith’s ,Sport Business Journal, 1999, pp12-25
    Taylor, James, 1974, “The role of risk in consumer behavior”. Journal of Marketing, Vol 38, pp 54-60
    Wakefield,K.L,&Inman,J.1993.”Who are the prices vigilantes? An investigation of differentiating characteristics influencing price”.Journal of Retaining pp 216-233
    Woodruff,1972, “Measurement of consumers’ prior brand information”. Journal of Marketing Research, Vol 9, pp 258-263
    Yoon, c.1997, “Age differences in consumers processing strategies: A investigation of moderating influences”. Journal of Consumer Research, Vol 24, pp329-342
    Zeithaml, V. 1985, “The new demographics and market fragmentation”. Journal of Marketing, Vol 49, pp 64-75
    Website information:
    http://www.bikram-yoga-noosa-australia.com/Whatisyoga.htm
    http://www.sportseconomics.com/
    http://www.taipeitimes.com/News
    References
    Banks, S.K.(1979). “Gift giving and interactive paradigm”. In W.Wilkie (Ed), Advances in Consumer Research, Vol.5, pp.319-324
    Barbara Fasolo, Raffaella Misuraca and Gary McClelland. “Individual differences in adaptive choice strategies. “Research in Economics, Vol 57, Issue 3, September 2003, pp 219~233
    Barnes,N.G.,& Peters,M.P.,1982, “Modes of retail ditribution: Views of the elderly “Akron Business and Economics Review”, Vol 13(Fall).pp 26~31
    Barry L.Bayus,1985, “word of Mouth: The indirect effect of marketing efforts” Journal of advertising Research, June -July, pp31~39
    Bettman,J.R.(1979).”An information processing theory of consumer choice”. Reading, MA:Addison-Wesley Publishing Company
    Beatty,S.E.& Smith, S.M,1987. “External search effort: An investigation across several product categories. “ Journal of Consumer Research” 16(June) pp1-38
    Belk, Mellanie Walendorf, and John Sherry,1989,”The scared and Profane Consumer behavior”, Journal of Consumer Research.16 (June),1-38
    Belk,1967. “Self-confidence and Persuasion in Car Buying” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol 4, pp46-52
    Belk, Melanie Wallendorf, and John Sherry, 1989, “ the Scared and Profane Consumer Behavior, “ Journal of Consumer Research. 16(June) pp1-38
    Bell,1967,”Self-confidence and Persuasion in Car Buying” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol 4, 46-52
    Bellizi, J.A& Hite, R.E,1986, Convenience consumption and role overload convenience. “Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science” , Vol14(Winter), pp1-9
    Bettman,J.R 91979). “An information processing theory of consumer choice” Reading MA: Addison Wesley Publishing Company
    Bikram Choudhury & Bonnie Jones Reynolds, “Bikram’s beginning yoga class”pp1-13
    Birrens, J,1974, “translating in gerontology-from lab to life” Psychophysiology and speed of response” . American Psychologist, Vol29, pp 818-815
    Blistein, D.1971, “human Social Development” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol42, pp 116- 132.
    Bloch, Sherrell and Ridway (1986), “Consumer Search: An extended framework”, Journal Of Consumer Research, Vol 12, pp1-16
    Bottomley.Paul.A. and John R. Doyle.2001. “A comparison of three weight elicitation methods: good, better and best. “ Omega, Vol.29, Issue 6, December 2001, pp553-560.
    Brenda G.Pitts and David K. Stotlar. “Fundamentals of Sport Marketing”, Pages3~18
    Brody, R. and S.M Cuningham,1986, “Personality variables and the consumer decision process”. Journal Marketing Research Vol 5, 50-57
    Buttle,(1992), “Shopping motives constructionist perspective”, Service Industries Journal, Vol.12, July pp 348-367
    Chaiken,S. 1982. “Heuristic versus systematic information processing and the use of source message cues in persuasion. “Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol39, pp 725-766.
    Charles Cole,1996. “Information Process: The difference between corroborating evidence and information in humanistic domains”. Information Processing and Management, Vol33, pp 55-57
    Cheng S.T Master Thesis, “ The Development of Taiwan’s Sport Industry”pp 3-8
    Claxton J Fry and Portis, 1974, “ A taxonomy of pre-purchase information gathering patterns”, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol1 pp 35-42
    Comte,E.,&Stogel,C.(1990). Sports: A $63.1 billion industry. The sporting News, Preview, PP60-66
    Darely and Smith,1995, Gender difference in information Processing Strategies: and empirical test to the selectively model in advertising response” Journal of Advertising. Vol.24, pp41-45
    Day, George (1976), “Assessing the effects of information disclosure requirement” Journal of Marketing, Vol 40, pp43-52
    Deshpande, R. Krishnan, S. 1982, “ Correlates of deficient consumer information environment: The case of elderly”, Advances in consumer Research Vol 9, pp 515-519
    Dommermuth, W.P, 1965, “ The shopping matrix and marketing strategy” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol2, pp 138-132
    Douglas, 1976,” Working wife vs. Non-working wife families: A basis for segmenting grocery markets” In advances in Consumer Research, Vol3,pp191-198
    Duncan, 1982, “ External Search: The role of consumer beliefs”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vo l9, pp 32-43
    Fischer, E.,& Arnold, S.J.1990. “ more than a labor of love: Gender roles and christmas gift shopping “. Journal of consumer Research, Vol 17, pp333-345
    Fry and Siller, 1970, “ A comparison of housewife decision making in two social classes” Journal of Marketing Research , Vol 8, pp333-337
    Gardner David M., 1971, “ Is there a generalized price quality relationship” Journal of Marketing Research , Vol 8, pp 241-243
    Gardner Janse 2004, “ Information search behavior of European forest policy decision makers” . Forest Policy and Economics
    Gerben Janse 2004.”Information search behavior of European forest policy decision-makers” Forest Policy and Economics
    Goldman and Johnson 1978, “ Determinants of search for lower prices: an empirical assessment of economics and information theory” . Journal of Consumer Research Vol. 5, pp 176-178
    Graney, M. & Graney, E. 1974, . “ communication activity substitution in old age”. Journal of Communication Vol 24, pp88-96
    Gronhaug.K.1972. “ Buying situations and buyers information behavior” European Marketing Research Review, pp 33-48
    Hacklander,1978,”Do working wives shop differently for food?” National food review, Vol 12, pp 14-22
    Hansen Fleming, 1969 “ Consumer choice behavior: An experimental approach” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol 16, 436 –445
    Heroux, L. Laroche, M.& McGown , K.L. 1988. “ consumer label inforation processing : An experiment involving time pressure and distraction: Journal of Economics Psychology, Vol 9, pp 195-214
    Hisrich,1972., ‘ Perceived risk in store selection” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol9. 435-439
    Howard, J.A. & Sheth J.N. 1969. “ The theory of buyer behavior” New York, john Wiley and Sons Inc.
    Innes, 1998. “ information in communicative planning”. Journal of the American Planning Association”, Vol 64, pp 52-63
    Jacoby, Jacob, George 1977 “ Information acquisition behavior in brand choice situations”. Journal of Consumer Research, Vol3, pp209-216
    Jacoby, Jacob Chestnut,1977, “ Consumer use and comprehension of non-durable purchasing” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol 4, pp 119128
    Jacoby, Jacob 1976, “ Pre-purchase information acquisition: description of methodology, research paradigm, and pilot investigation” Advances in Consumer Research , Vol 3, pp 304-313
    Javalgi, r.g. Thomas 1992, “ Consumer Behavior in the US pleasure travel marketplace: An analysis of senior and non-senior travelers. “Journal of Travel Research,J Vol 13, pp14-19
    Jette Hyldergard 2004, “ Collaborative information behavior- exploring Kuhlthau’s Information Search Process model in group based educational setting”. Information Processing and Management
    Johnson and Russo, 1984. “ Product Familiarity and Learning new Information”. Journal of Consumer Research, Vol 11, pp 542-563
    Joseph R. Ferrari and John.F.Dovidio, 2001. “ Behavioral Information search by indecisives. “Personality and Individual Differences, Vol 30, pp1113-1123
    Kassarjan, Harold, 1978, “ Presidential address: anthropomorphism and parsimony” In advances of Consumer Research , Vol. 5
    Katerina Kabassi and Maria Virvou, 2003. “ Personalized adult training on computer use based on multiple attribute decision making” Interacting with Computer, Vol16. pp115-132
    Katona and Mueller, 1955, “ A study in purchasing decisions”, The consumer bebavior: The dynamics of consumer reaction, Vol 1
    Kotler, 1003, “ Marketing Management” 11th Edition
    Lambert, Z.V.1979, “A investigation of older consumers needs and wants at retail level” Journal of Retailing . Vol 15, pp 35-37
    Laroche, M. KIM, C. Saad., G& Browne 2000. “ A cross cultural study of in-store information search strategies “. Journal of Business Research Vol. 49, pp 113-126
    Laroche M. Saad 2000, “ Gender difference in information search strategies for a Christmas gift”. Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol 17, pp 500-524
    Lazer and Smalwood, 1977. “ The changing demographics of women:. Journal of Marketing, Vol 14, pp 14-22
    Lumpkin, J.R.& Festervand, T.A., 1988. “Purchase information sources of the elderly” Journal of Advertising Research. pp 32-43
    McGraw, 2003, Business Research Method, 8th Edition, Vol 1, pp55-65
    Michel Laroche 2000, “ Exploring age-related differences in information acquisition in a purchase” . Journal of Economics Psycholgy, Vol 25, pp61-69
    Moore, W. L& Lehmann, D.R,1980 “Individual differences in search behavior for a non-durable”. Journal of Consumer Research. Vol 11, pp808-913
    Myers-Levy,1988: The influence of sex roles on judgement”, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol 14, pp522-530
    National Council of Sport and Fitness(2002). Assessing the size of Taiwan’s sport industry and the economic impact. Taipei: National Council of Sport and Physical Fitness.
    Newman, J. 1977, “ Multivariate Aalysis of Differences in Buyer Decision Time”. Journal of Marketing Research, pp 192-198
    OscarW. DeShields, Erdener Kaynak,1999. “ Sources effects in purchase decisions: The impact of physical attractiveness and accent of salesperson” Intern. J. of Research in Marketing, PP 89-101
    Phillips L. W., & Sthemdahl, B 1977. “Age differences in information processing: A perspective on the aged consumer.” Journal of Marketing Research. Vol 10, pp 186-196
    Sharir, 1974, “ Brand loyalty and household’s cost of time”, Journal of Business, Vol 47, pp53-55
    Stigle, George, 1961, “The economics of information”, Journal of political economy, Vol 69, pp 213-227
    Street & Smith’s ,Sport Business Journal, 1999, pp12-25
    Taylor, James, 1974, “The role of risk in consumer behavior”. Journal of Marketing, Vol 38, pp 54-60
    Wakefield,K.L,&Inman,J.1993.”Who are the prices vigilantes? An investigation of differentiating characteristics influencing price”.Journal of Retaining pp 216-233
    Woodruff,1972, “Measurement of consumers’ prior brand information”. Journal of Marketing Research, Vol 9, pp 258-263
    Yoon, c.1997, “Age differences in consumers processing strategies: A investigation of moderating influences”. Journal of Consumer Research, Vol 24, pp329-342
    Zeithaml, V. 1985, “The new demographics and market fragmentation”. Journal of Marketing, Vol 49, pp 64-75
    Website information:
    http://www.bikram-yoga-noosa-australia.com/Whatisyoga.htm
    http://www.sportseconomics.com/
    http://www.taipeitimes.com/News
    References
    Banks, S.K.(1979). “Gift giving and interactive paradigm”. In W.Wilkie (Ed), Advances in Consumer Research, Vol.5, pp.319-324
    Barbara Fasolo, Raffaella Misuraca and Gary McClelland. “Individual differences in adaptive choice strategies. “Research in Economics, Vol 57, Issue 3, September 2003, pp 219~233
    Barnes,N.G.,& Peters,M.P.,1982, “Modes of retail ditribution: Views of the elderly “Akron Business and Economics Review”, Vol 13(Fall).pp 26~31
    Barry L.Bayus,1985, “word of Mouth: The indirect effect of marketing efforts” Journal of advertising Research, June -July, pp31~39
    Bettman,J.R.(1979).”An information processing theory of consumer choice”. Reading, MA:Addison-Wesley Publishing Company
    Beatty,S.E.& Smith, S.M,1987. “External search effort: An investigation across several product categories. “ Journal of Consumer Research” 16(June) pp1-38
    Belk, Mellanie Walendorf, and John Sherry,1989,”The scared and Profane Consumer behavior”, Journal of Consumer Research.16 (June),1-38
    Belk,1967. “Self-confidence and Persuasion in Car Buying” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol 4, pp46-52
    Belk, Melanie Wallendorf, and John Sherry, 1989, “ the Scared and Profane Consumer Behavior, “ Journal of Consumer Research. 16(June) pp1-38
    Bell,1967,”Self-confidence and Persuasion in Car Buying” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol 4, 46-52
    Bellizi, J.A& Hite, R.E,1986, Convenience consumption and role overload convenience. “Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science” , Vol14(Winter), pp1-9
    Bettman,J.R 91979). “An information processing theory of consumer choice” Reading MA: Addison Wesley Publishing Company
    Bikram Choudhury & Bonnie Jones Reynolds, “Bikram’s beginning yoga class”pp1-13
    Birrens, J,1974, “translating in gerontology-from lab to life” Psychophysiology and speed of response” . American Psychologist, Vol29, pp 818-815
    Blistein, D.1971, “human Social Development” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol42, pp 116- 132.
    Bloch, Sherrell and Ridway (1986), “Consumer Search: An extended framework”, Journal Of Consumer Research, Vol 12, pp1-16
    Bottomley.Paul.A. and John R. Doyle.2001. “A comparison of three weight elicitation methods: good, better and best. “ Omega, Vol.29, Issue 6, December 2001, pp553-560.
    Brenda G.Pitts and David K. Stotlar. “Fundamentals of Sport Marketing”, Pages3~18
    Brody, R. and S.M Cuningham,1986, “Personality variables and the consumer decision process”. Journal Marketing Research Vol 5, 50-57
    Buttle,(1992), “Shopping motives constructionist perspective”, Service Industries Journal, Vol.12, July pp 348-367
    Chaiken,S. 1982. “Heuristic versus systematic information processing and the use of source message cues in persuasion. “Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol39, pp 725-766.
    Charles Cole,1996. “Information Process: The difference between corroborating evidence and information in humanistic domains”. Information Processing and Management, Vol33, pp 55-57
    Cheng S.T Master Thesis, “ The Development of Taiwan’s Sport Industry”pp 3-8
    Claxton J Fry and Portis, 1974, “ A taxonomy of pre-purchase information gathering patterns”, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol1 pp 35-42
    Comte,E.,&Stogel,C.(1990). Sports: A $63.1 billion industry. The sporting News, Preview, PP60-66
    Darely and Smith,1995, Gender difference in information Processing Strategies: and empirical test to the selectively model in advertising response” Journal of Advertising. Vol.24, pp41-45
    Day, George (1976), “Assessing the effects of information disclosure requirement” Journal of Marketing, Vol 40, pp43-52
    Deshpande, R. Krishnan, S. 1982, “ Correlates of deficient consumer information environment: The case of elderly”, Advances in consumer Research Vol 9, pp 515-519
    Dommermuth, W.P, 1965, “ The shopping matrix and marketing strategy” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol2, pp 138-132
    Douglas, 1976,” Working wife vs. Non-working wife families: A basis for segmenting grocery markets” In advances in Consumer Research, Vol3,pp191-198
    Duncan, 1982, “ External Search: The role of consumer beliefs”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vo l9, pp 32-43
    Fischer, E.,& Arnold, S.J.1990. “ more than a labor of love: Gender roles and christmas gift shopping “. Journal of consumer Research, Vol 17, pp333-345
    Fry and Siller, 1970, “ A comparison of housewife decision making in two social classes” Journal of Marketing Research , Vol 8, pp333-337
    Gardner David M., 1971, “ Is there a generalized price quality relationship” Journal of Marketing Research , Vol 8, pp 241-243
    Gardner Janse 2004, “ Information search behavior of European forest policy decision makers” . Forest Policy and Economics
    Gerben Janse 2004.”Information search behavior of European forest policy decision-makers” Forest Policy and Economics
    Goldman and Johnson 1978, “ Determinants of search for lower prices: an empirical assessment of economics and information theory” . Journal of Consumer Research Vol. 5, pp 176-178
    Graney, M. & Graney, E. 1974, . “ communication activity substitution in old age”. Journal of Communication Vol 24, pp88-96
    Gronhaug.K.1972. “ Buying situations and buyers information behavior” European Marketing Research Review, pp 33-48
    Hacklander,1978,”Do working wives shop differently for food?” National food review, Vol 12, pp 14-22
    Hansen Fleming, 1969 “ Consumer choice behavior: An experimental approach” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol 16, 436 –445
    Heroux, L. Laroche, M.& McGown , K.L. 1988. “ consumer label inforation processing : An experiment involving time pressure and distraction: Journal of Economics Psychology, Vol 9, pp 195-214
    Hisrich,1972., ‘ Perceived risk in store selection” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol9. 435-439
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    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    經營管理碩士學程(EMBA)
    95932043
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