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    政大機構典藏 > 理學院 > 資訊科學系 > 學位論文 >  Item 140.119/36383
    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/36383


    Title: 路由器輔助的TCP擁塞控制技術之設計
    Authors: 鍾永彬
    Chung, Yung-Pin
    Contributors: 連耀南
    Lien, Yao-Nan
    鍾永彬
    Chung, Yung-Pin
    Keywords: 擁塞控制
    路由器輔助
    TCP
    Congestion Control
    Router-Assisted
    Date: 2005
    Issue Date: 2009-09-18 18:26:51 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 隨著網路訊務流量的快速成長,如何妥善的運用網路資源是一個成功的擁塞控制機制要面對的根本問題。在終端設備上執行的TCP是網路上最廣為使用者使用的傳輸層協定,它有很多不同的版本被設計出來改進使用的效能,例如TCP Reno、TCP Vegas 等。由於TCP所棲身的終端設備並未具有網路內部狀態的資訊,大部份的TCP 擁塞控制機制僅能依賴封包遺失觸發擁塞控制機制,本研究提出TCP Muzha協定,藉由路由器協助,提供網路內部資訊給傳送端,在未發生擁塞前不需依賴封包遺失便可進行適度的傳輸速度控制,以減少因為封包遺失所造成劇烈的傳輸速度下降,並可更快速達到最佳傳輸速度。本研究的設計理念是設法尋找傳送路徑中的瓶頸,進而計算出瓶頸提供的可用頻寬,藉由瓶頸所提供的資訊動態的進行流量控制以充份利用頻寬並避免產生擁塞,增進整體的效能。本研究之重點在於路由器應提供何種資訊及如何運用所獲得的資訊進行動態速率調整。我們提出模糊化的多層級速率調整方法,藉著動態所獲得的細膩資訊做擁塞避免。最後於NS2平台實驗模擬,評估我們所提出的方法,實驗結果中顯示本方法能有效避免擁塞的產生,降低封包遺失,提升整體效能,和TCP Reno共存的環境下不因為Reno侵略性的傳輸方式而降低過多的效能並保有較低的封包遺失率。
    With the tremendous growth of Internet traffic, to utilize network resources efficiently is essential to a successful congestion control protocol. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a widely used end-to-end transport protocol across the Internet. It has several enhencing versions (i.e. TCP Reno, TCP Vegas…) which intend to improve the drawbacks of the initial version of TCP. Most congestion control techniques use trial-and-error-based flow control to handle network congestion. In this paper, we propose a new method (TCP Muzha) that requires routers to feedback their status to the sender. Based on this information, the sender is able to adjust the sending data rate dynamically. Our approach can prevent data rate from decreasing dramatically due to packet loss. It can also help to increase the data rate quickly to where it supposes to be. Our design philosophy is to find out the bottleneck of the path, and its available bandwidth. Our goal is to increase network performance and avoid congestion by using the information obtained from the bottleneck. The design challenges are to determine which information is essential and how to use this information to dynamically adjust the data rate. We also propose the multi-level data rate adjustment method. Congestion can be avoided by dynamically adjusting data rate using this information. Finally, we use NS2 simulator to evaluate the performance of our approaches. From the experiment results, it shows our method can avoid congestion before it actually happen, decrease packet-loss rate and increase the network utilization. In the fairness experiment, our method will only suffer a minor throughputs decreasing when TCP Reno is coexisting.
    第一章 導論 1
    1.1 簡介 1
    1.2 TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) 簡介 3
    1.3 TCP 的問題 3
    1.4 研究動機 4
    1.5 研究目標 4
    1.6 論文架構 4
    第二章 背景與相關研究 6
    2.1擁塞控制機制 6
    2.1.1擁塞的產生 6
    2.1.2 擁塞控制 7
    2.2 TCP的擁塞控制 7
    2.2.1 TCP Tahoe and TCP Reno 的擁塞控制 8
    2.2.1.1慢啟動(Slow Start) 8
    2.2.1.2 擁塞避免(congestion avoidance) 9
    2.2.2 TCP Vegas 11
    2.3採用Router-Assisted的擁塞控制方法 12
    2.3.1 TCP RoVegas 12
    2.3.2 RED (Random Early Detection) 13
    2.3.3 ECN (Explicit Congestion Notification) 13
    2.4 New Net 13
    2.5 小結 14
    第三章 TCP Muzha擁塞控制技術 15
    3.1 設計理念 15
    3.2 設計目標 16
    3.3 設計重點 16
    3.3.1 決定路由器的可用頻寬 16
    3.3.2 找到瓶頸所在 17
    3.3.3運用可用頻寬值調整速率 18
    3.3.3.1 主控權的決定 18
    3.3.3.2 解決共用頻寬的問題 18
    3.3.3.3 多級的速率調整 19
    3.3.3.4 多級速率調整之設計 20
    3.4 擁塞控制機制 20
    3.4.1 TCP Reno的擁塞控制機制 20
    3.4.2 TCP Muzha的擁塞控制機制 21
    3.4.2.1 TCP Muzha 的分級速率調整 25
    3.5 小結 28
    第四章 效能評估 29
    4.1 評估指標 29
    4.2 實驗設計 29
    4.2.1 實驗工具 29
    4.2.2 實驗方法 30
    4.2.3 實驗參數 30
    4.2.4 實驗步驟 30
    4.3 實驗1 : TCP連結的的擁塞視窗變化 31
    4.3.1 實驗目標 31
    4.3.2 實驗流程 31
    4.3.3 實驗結果分析 32
    4.4 實驗2 : 探討多個TCP 鏈結下的整體效能 33
    4.4.1實驗2A : 探討buffer size 對效能的影響 33
    4.4.1.1實驗目標 33
    4.4.1.2實驗流程 33
    4.4.1.3 實驗結果分析 34
    4.4.2實驗2B : 探討traffic load 對效能的影響 36
    4.4.2.1 實驗目標 36
    4.4.2.2 實驗流程 36
    4.4.2.3 實驗結果分析 37
    4.4.3實驗2C : 探討link delay time 對效能的影響 40
    4.4.3.1 實驗目標 40
    4.4.3.2 實驗流程 41
    4.4.3.3 實驗結果分析 42
    4.5 實驗3 : 多協定共存狀態下的公平性實驗 43
    4.5.1 實驗目標 43
    4.5.2 實驗流程 44
    4.5.3 實驗結果分析 45
    4.6 實驗4 : TCP 同步化的實驗 46
    4.6.1 實驗目標 46
    4.6.2 實驗流程 47
    4.6.3 實驗結果分析 47
    第五章 結論 49
    5.1 結論與未來發展 49
    參考文獻 51
    Reference: [1] J. Postel, "Transmission Control Protocol," IETF RFC 793, 1981.
    [2] D. Clark, "Window and Acknowledgement Strategy in TCP," IETF RFC 813, 1982.
    [3] V. Jacobson, "Congestion Avoidance and Control," Proc. of ACM SIGCOMM, pp. 314-329, Aug. 1988.
    [4] V. Jacobson, "Modified TCP Congestion Avoidance Algorithm," Technical report, Apr. 1990.
    [5] W. Stevens, "TCP Slow Start, Congestion Avoidance, Fast Retransmit, and Fast Recovery Algorithms," IETF RFC 2001, 1997.
    [6] D. Chiu and R. Jain, "Analysis of the Increase and Decrease Algorithms for Congestion Avoidance in Computer Networks," Computer Networks and ISDN Systems, vol.1, pp. 1-14, 1989.
    [7] Sally Floyd, T. Henderson, "The NewReno Modification to TCP's Fast Recovery Algorithm, " IETF RFC 2582, 1999.
    [8] M. Mathis, J. Mahdavi, S. Floyd, and A. Romanow, "TCP Selective Acknowledgement Options," IETF RFC 2018, 1996.
    [9] K. Fall and S. Floyd, "Simulation-based Comparisons of Tahoe, Reno, and SACK TCP," ACM Computer Communication Review, vol. 26, no.3, pp. 5-21, 1996.
    [10] L. S. Brakmo, S. W. O’Malley, and Larry L. Peterson. "TCP Vegas: New Techniques for Congestion Detection and Avoidance, " Proc. Of ACM SIGCOMM, pp. 24-35, Aug. 1994.
    [11] L. S. Brakmo and L. L. Peterson. "TCP Vegas: End to End Congestion Avoidance on a Global Internet," IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communication, vol.13, no.8, pp. 1465-1480, Oct. 1995.
    [12] J. S. Ahn, P. B. Danzig, Z. Liu, and L. Yan, "Evaluation of TCP Vegas : Emulation and Experiment," Proc. of ACM SIGCOMM, pp. 185-195, Aug. 1995.
    [13] C. Barakat, E. Altman, and W. Dabbous, "On TCP Performance in a Heterogeneous Network : A Survey," IEEE Communications Magazine, vol.38, no.1, pp. 44-46, Jan. 2000.
    [14] E. Altman, C. Barakat, E. Laborde, "Fairness Analysis of TCP/IP," IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, Dec. 2000.
    [15] G. Hasegawa and M. Murata, "Survey on Fairness Issues in TCP Congestion Control Mechanisms," IEICE Transactions on Communications, vol. E84-B, no.6, pp. 1461-1472, Jun. 2001.
    [16] R. Denda, A. Banchs and W. Effelsberg, "The Fairness Challenge in Computer Networks," Proc. of Quality of future Internet Service, vol. 1922, pp. 208-220, Springer-Verlag Heidelberg, Jun. 2000.
    [17] Yi-Cheng Chan, Chia-Tai Chan, and Yaw-Chung Chen, "RoVegas : A Router-based Congestion Avoidance Mechanism for TCP Vegas," Computer Communications, vol.27, Issue 16, pp. 1624-1636, Oct. 2004.
    [18] S. Floyd and V. Jacobson, "Random Early Detection Gateways for Congestion Avoidance," IEEE/ACM Transaction on Networking, vol.1, no.4, pp. 397-413, 1993.
    [19] Sally Floyd, "TCP and Explicit Congestion Notification," ACM Computer Communication Review, 1994.
    [20] Planet Lab, http://www.planet-lab.org/.
    [21] L. Peterson, T. Anderson, D. Culler, T. Roscoe, "A Blueprint for Introducing Disruptive Technology into the Internet," Proc. of the 1st ACM Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks (HotNets), Princeton, Oct. 2002.
    [22] V. Paxson, "End-to-end Internet Packet Dynamics," IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, pp. 277-292, 1999.
    [23] R. Carter and M. Crovella, "Measuring Bottleneck Link Speed in Packet-Switched Networks," International Journal on Performance Evaluation, pp. 27-28, 1996.
    [24] A. S. Tanenbaum, "Computer Networks," 4th edition, Prentice Hall, 2002.
    [25] L. L. Peterson, B. S. Davie "Computer Network : A Systems Approach," 3rd edition, Morgan Kaufmann, 2003.
    [26] "The Network Simulator - ns-2", http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/.
    [27] S. Ryu, C. Rump, C. Qiao, "Advances in Internet Congestion Control," IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, vol 5. no.2, 2003.
    [28] J. Postel, "Internet Protocol," IETF RFC 791, Sep. 1981.
    [29] W. Stevens, "TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume 1: The Protocols," Addison-Wesley, 1994.
    [30] D. Bertsekas and Robert Gallager, "Data Networks," Prentice-Hall, 1992.
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    資訊科學學系
    92753007
    94
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0927530071
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[資訊科學系] 學位論文

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