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    Title: 「法庭之友」參與WTO爭端解決程序問題之解構—以法律與政策面向為主軸
    Deconstruction of the Controversy of Amicus Curiae’s Participation in the WTO Disputes Settlement Proceeding—From the Perspective of Law and Policy
    Authors: 鄭富霖
    Cheng , Fu-Lin
    Contributors: 楊光華
    Yang , Connie Guang-Hwa
    鄭富霖
    Cheng , Fu-Lin
    Keywords: 世界貿易組織
    杜哈部長會議
    法庭之友
    公民社會
    WTO
    Doha Ministerial Conference
    Amicus Curiae
    Civil Society
    DSU
    Date: 2003
    Issue Date: 2009-09-18 18:55:09 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 2001年11月世界貿易組織召開杜哈部長會議,重啟檢討爭端解決規則與程序瞭解書(DSU)之新回合談判,其中「法庭之友」議題頗受注目,已開發國家與開發中國家立場截然不同,幾無共識。DSU之本文與其附件皆未提及「法庭之友」一詞,歷經幾次關鍵性案件之裁決,上訴機構逐漸發展出一套規則,認為DSU第13條、第17.9條與上訴審查作業程序第16(1)條可資引用為小組與上訴機構接受與考慮「法庭之友」書面意見之法律基礎。本文首先從法律面向著手,將現行條文加以適當之解釋,認為目前上開條文之規定並無法為「法庭之友」提供一合理之法律基礎,上訴機構向來有關之裁決並不正確。
    本文繼而從政策面向分析,主張未來世界貿易組織應適度突破傳統國際公法之限制,讓公民社會之成員有機會以「法庭之友」的身份,「間接」、「例外」地參與WTO爭端解決程序,以爭取全球民眾對世界貿易組織之支持與認同。為解決「法庭之友」之爭議,世界貿易組織會員應以修正DSU條文或另外做成決議之方式,明確釐清此一高度爭議問題,而非繼續任其模糊不清,徒增紛擾。
    The World Trade Organization (WTO) convened the Doha Ministerial Conference and restarted the review of provisions of Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes (DSU) in November 2001. Inter alia, the issue of ‘amicus curiae’ was very controversial, opposite positions were raised during the DSB Special Session between the developed countries and developing countries. Since there are no words about amicus curiae in DSU and its annex, the Appellate Body concluded in some Appellate Body reports that Article 13 and 17.9 of DSU and 16(1) of Working Procedures for Appellate Review could be constituted as proper legal basis for Panel and the Appellate Body to accept and consider the amicus curiae briefs.
    This article starts with interpreting the existing provisions of DSU from the legal perspective, and concludes that the provisions mentioned above could not be regarded as a legal basis to for Panel and the Appellate Body to accept and consider the amicus curiae briefs and therefore, the Appellate Body’s decisions might not be appropriate. This article then suggests from the policy perspective that the WTO release itself from the restriction of traditional international public law in the future, allowing the members of civil society to present their submission in a ‘indirect’ and ‘exceptional’ way by the name of ‘amicus curiae’ in the WTO dispute settlement proceedings. At last, it also recommends that the WTO members revise some provisions of DSU or make a decision to solve this controversial problem manifestly, instead of leaving it ambiguous for a long time.
    Reference: 中文書目
    1. Arthur Kaufmann 著,吳從周 譯,《類推與「事物本質」-兼論類型理論-》,台北:學林,1999年1月。
    2. 李貴英,《「法庭之友」參與國際經貿爭端解決程序之研析》,東吳大學法律學報,第十五卷第一期,2003年7月。
    3. 美濃部達吉 著、林紀東 譯,《法之本質》,台北:台灣商務,1993年8月。
    4. 彭心儀,《論WTO爭端解決程序下之『法庭之友』介入問題》,發表於政大商學院國際經貿組織暨法律研究中心「第四屆國際經貿法學發展學術研討會」,2004年3月6日。
    5. 羅昌發,《國際貿易法》,台北:元照,1999年7月。
    工具書
    1. 法律英漢辭典,台北:五南,2001年2月。
    英文書籍
    1.Brownlie Ian, Principles of Public International Law, 5th edition (1998).
    2.Cheshire, Fifoot and Furmston, Law of Contract, 13th edition (1996).
    3.Duxbury Robert, Contract in a Nutshell, Nutshells, 2nd edition (1991).
    4.GATT Analytical Index: Guide to GATT Law and Practice, Updated 6th Edition (1995).
    5.Jackson John H., The World Trading System – Law and Policy of International Economic Relation (1997).
    6.Jackson John H., The World Trade Organization—Constitution and Jurisprudence (1998).
    7.Matsushita Mitsuo, Thomas J. Schoenbaum & Petros C. Mavroidis, The World Trade Organization: Law, Practice, and Policy, 1st edition (2003).
    8.WTO Analytical Index, Guide to WTO Law and Practice, 1st edition, Vol.2 (2003).
    英文期刊論文
    1.Ala'i Padideh, Judicial Lobbying at The WTO: The Debate Over the Use of Amicus Curiae Briefs and the U.S. Experience, Fordham International Law Journal, Vol.24 (November / December 2000).
    2.Charnovitz Steve, Opening the WTO to Nongovernmental Interests, Fordham International Law Journal, Vol. 24 (November / December, 2000).
    3.Covelli Nick, Member Intervention in World Trade Organization Dispute Settlement Proceedings After EC-Sardines: The Rules, Jurisprudence, and Controversy, Journal of World Trade, Vol.37 (2003).
    4.Ehlermann Claus-Dieter, Experiences from the WTO Appellate Body, Taxes International Law Journal, Vol.38 (2003).
    5.Gaffney John P., Due Process in the World Trade Organization: The Need for Procedural Justice in the Dispute Settlement System, Am. U. Int'l L. Rev., Vol.14 (1999).
    6.Gao Henry S., Amicus Curiae Briefs in the WTO Dispute Settlement System: Theory and Practice (Chinese), Journal of International Economic Law, Vol.8 (2004, upcoming).
    7.Hollis Duncan B., Globalization & The Erosion of Sovereignty in Honor of Professor Lichtenstein: Private Actors in Public International Law: Amicus Curiae and the Case for the Retention of State Sovereignty, B.C. International & Comparative Law Review, Vol.25 (Spring 2002).
    8.Jackson John H., Perceptions About the WTO Trade Institution, World Trade Review, Vol.1 (2002).
    9.Jackson John H., The WTO ‘Constitution ’and Proposed reforms: Seven ‘Mantras’ Revisited, Journal of International Economic Law, Vol.4 (2001).
    10.Jeffords Maura Blue, Turning the Protester Into a Partner for Development: The Need for Effective Consultation Between the WTO & NGOs, Brooklyn Journal of International Law, Vol.28 (2003).
    11.Krislov Samuel, The Amicus Curiae Brief: From Friendship to Advocacy, The Yale Law Journal, Vol.72 (1963).
    12.Marceau Gabrielle, Matthew Stilwell, Practical Suggestions for Amicus Curiae Briefs Before WTO Adjudicating Bodies, Journal of International Economic Law, Vol.4 (March 2001).
    13.Mavroidis Petros C., Amicus Curiae Briefs Before the WTO: Much Ado About Nothing, The Jean Monnet Program Working Paper 2/01 (2001).
    14.Scholte Jan Aart, Robert O’Brien, Marc Williams, The WTO and Civil Society, Journal of World Trade, Vol.33 (1999).
    15.Shelton Dinah, The Participation of Nongovernmental Organizations in International Judicial Proceedings, American Journal of International Law, Vol.88 (October 1994).
    16.Smith James McCall, WTO Dispute Settlement: The Politics of Procedure in Appellate Body Rulings, World Trade Review, Vol.2 (2003).
    17.Umbricht Georg C., An ‘Amicus Curiae Brief’ on Amicus Curiae Briefs at the WTO, Journal of International Economic Law, Vol.4 ( December 2001).
    WTO文件
    1.Working Procedures for Appellate Review, WT/AB/WP/3 (28 February, 1997).
    2.Working Procedures for Appellate Review, WT/AB/WP/4 (24 January, 2002).
    3.Working Procedures for Appellate Review, WT/AB/WP/5 (19 December, 2002).
    4.Working Procedures for Appellate Review, WT/AB/WP/7 (1 May, 2003).
    5.WTO Document: JOB(03)/69/Rev.2, (5 May, 2003).
    6.WTO Document: JOB(03)/91, (16 May, 2003).
    7.WTO Document: JOB(03)/91/Rev.1 (28 May, 2003).
    8.WTO Document: TN/DS/9 (6 June, 2003).
    9.WTO Document: TN/DS/M/4 (6 November, 2002).
    10.WTO Document: TN/DS/W/1 (13 March, 2002).
    11.WTO Document: TN/DS/W/25 (27 November, 2002).
    12.WTO Document: TN/DS/W13 (22 August, 2002).
    13.WTO Document: WT/DS122/AB/R (5 April, 2001).
    14.WTO Document: WT/DS135/9 (8 November, 2000).
    15.WTO Document: WT/DS135/AB/R (12 March, 2001).
    16.WTO Document: WT/DS138/AB/R (10 May, 2000).
    17.WTO Document: WT/DS248/AB/R, WT/DS249/AB/R, WT/DS251/AB/R, WT/DS252/AB/R, WT/DS253/AB/R, WT/DS254/AB/R, WT/DS258/AB/R, WT/DS259/AB/R (11 November, 2003).
    18.WTO Document: WT/DS58/AB/R (12 October, 1998).
    19.WTO Document: WT/DS58/AB/RW (21 November, 2001).
    20.WTO Document: WT/GC/M/60 (23 January, 2001).
    21.WTO Document: WT/GC/M/81 (28 August, 2003).
    22.WTO Document: WT/DS76/AB/R (22 February, 1999).
    本文所有WTO文件皆取自WTO官方網站http://www.wto.org/。
    網站資料
    美國國務院網站:http://www.state.gov/。
    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    國際經營與貿易研究所
    90351040
    92
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0090351040
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[國際經營與貿易學系 ] 學位論文

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