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    Title: 知識網路定位、知識基礎與知識策略對創新能力的影響─台灣資訊電子業的實證研究
    The Influence of Knowledge Networking, Knowledge Base and Knowledge Strategy on Innovation Capability: An Empirical Research of Taiwan ICT Firms
    Authors: 洪新民
    Hung, Hsin-Min
    Contributors: 吳思華
    Wu, Se-Hwa
    Cameron M. Ford

    洪新民
    Hung, Hsin-Min
    Keywords: 創新能力
    知識網路定位
    知識基礎
    知識策略
    知識管理
    社會網路
    Innovation Capability
    Knowledge Networking
    Knowledge Base
    Knowledge Strategy
    Knowledge Management
    Social Network
    Date: 2009
    Issue Date: 2009-09-18 20:07:58 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 企業透過創新以積極回應環境變遷的要求。企業新產品或服務的創新程度應依環境的需求決定。面對環境變遷,顧客需求可能改寫,企業如何取得正確的顧客需求成為重要問題;相反的,身處顧客需求已知的環境,競爭的重點轉為產品的品質與成本,企業內部如何充分分享知識以提升產品品質與降低成本成為重要議題。成功創新的企業是「如何」採行知識網路定位獲取所需要的新顧客需求及產品品質與成本等創新驅動因素,提升知識基礎與知識策略並進而影響創新能力?知識網路定位、知識基礎與知識策略對於創新能力的影響「有多大」?台灣資訊電子業又是如何透過知識網路定位同時達成上述的知識處理過程,提升創新能力?本研究試圖回答這些問題。

    企業回應環境變遷所採行的企業策略可分為積極回應環境的前瞻者〈Prospector〉、固守環境穩定的防衛者〈Defender〉以及兼具前二者部份特色、試圖極大化獲利機會並同時極小化風險的分析者〈Analyzer〉(Miles et al., 1978)。企業回應環境的創新能力從本身具備的技術基礎與滿足市場需求所需具備技術間的差異程度可區分為激進式創新以及漸進式創新。文獻中對於企業創新能力的探討,主要有知識策略以及知識基礎二大觀點,知識策略強調企業回應環境需求變遷程度,設定新產品或服務創新程度、所需的激進式或漸進式創新能力,進而決定投資資源於探索新知識以及運用既有知識專案的比例,經由探索策略以及運用策略,提升企業回應環境需求的創新能力;知識基礎則強調企業的人力資本、組織資本以及社會資本等知識存量是提升企業創新能力的關鍵因素。如何調和知識基礎與知識策略產生正向的交互作用是提升企業創新能力的重要議題 (Cook & Brown, 1999)。

    本研究檢視上述相關文獻,指出社會資本與人力資本、組織資本特性上的差異。鑲嵌不同社會資本〈新市場機會及信任〉的不同知識網路定位〈相對創業型定位及相對緊密型網路〉在環境變遷中提供企業不同程度的取得新市場機會〈如相對創業型定位有助於企業了解新市場顧客需求〉,促進知識基礎與知識策略對於企業創新能力的提升。本研究並且進一步在分析者企業策略的框架下,提出創新能力為因變數、知識策略與知識基礎為自變數、知識網路定位為調節變數的研究假設模型。

    接著,本研究進行質性及量化實證研究,質性研究是從個案研究資料庫找出研究個案數量相對多且品質佳的創新個案:1980年代製造業的昇陽二號以及1990年代服務業的亞馬遜網路書店,逐篇檢視找出對應相關變數及其間關係,以初步檢驗本研究的研究模型。接著,為一般化本研究模型的解釋力,從重要的量化實證文獻中找出衡量各變數的問項整理成問卷,以台灣資訊電子業上市企業共341家為母體樣本,寄發問卷給各家企業之經理人,共取得69份有效問卷〈有效回收率為20.23%〉,將這些問卷資料以淨最小平方法演算後分析發現,採行分析〈者〉企業策略的台灣資訊電子業上市企業的實證資料支持絕大部分研究假設。在著重漸進式創新、漸進式創新專案對於激進式創新專案人力資本有顯著排擠效果的設計製造代工思維下,企業的知識網路定位透過知識策略與知識基礎提升創新能力。

    本研究基於實證結果,除在理論上以知識網路定位銜接知識基礎與知識策略顯著提升對於創新能力的解釋力以及從產業創新階段觀點解答目前文獻對於組織知識網路定位的矛盾:同時採行相對創業型定位及相對緊密型網路成效差 (e.g., Koka & Prescott, 2008) vs. 同時採行二種知識網路定位成效好 (e.g., Capaldo, 2007) 外,同時也對實務提出建言:經理人應觀察產業所處的創新階段決定所需要提升的創新能力〈激進式或漸進式〉,盤點知識基礎〈人力資源及組織資本〉,透過知識網路定位〈相對創業型定位或相對緊密型網路〉與知識策略〈相對知識探索或相對知識運用〉的搭配,提升所需的創新能力。
    Firms aggressively respond to environmental change through innovations. Radicalness of innovations should be guided by environmental demand, or customers’ requirement. When customers’ requirement changes or is unknown, how do firms explore customers’ requirement becomes a crucial question. Contrarily, when customers’ requirement is known or unchanged and competition emphasizes on product/service quality and cost, how do firms exploit knowledge to increase quality or/and to decrease cost becomes a crucial question (Abernathy & Utterback, 1978). How does an innovative firm successfully adopt a proper knowledge networking which acquires above drivers (i.e., new customer requirement, product quality/cost) and facilitates the firm’s knowledge base and knowledge strategy to increase innovation capability? To what extent of knowledge networking, knowledge bases and knowledge strategies combine to affect firm innovation capability? This study tries to answer these questions.

    According to firms’ responsive degree to environmental change, firms can be categorized into Prospectors, Analyzers, and Defenders from a corporate strategy perspective (Miles et al., 1978). ‘Prospectors’ aggressively respond environmental changes, ‘Defenders’ pursue a stable environment, ‘Analyzers’ attempt to minimize risk while they maximize profit. Corporate strategy directs how does a firm respond environmental change and pursue innovation capabilities (Koka & Prescott, 2008). According to discrepancy degree between market demand and firms’ existing technologies base, innovation capabilities which firms pursue can be categorized into radial innovation capability and incremental innovation capability. Two major schools argue different sources of innovation capability. Knowledge-based scholars (e.g., Subramaniam & Youndt, 2005) argue that innovation capability is from firms’ knowledge (e.g., human capital, organization capital and social capital) utilization and accumulation. Contrarily, knowledge strategy scholars (e.g., Atuahene-Gima, 2005) emphasize importance of adaption. Firms are required to adapting to environmental change, setup radicalness of new product or innovation capability, and deicide resources allocating on exploration projects or/and exploitation projects. Firms increase innovation capability through knowledge exploration strategy and knowledge exploitation strategy.

    Knowledge-base perspective indicates source of firms’ innovation capability. However, it assumes environment changes slowly or companies are able to dominate environmental change. Contrarily, knowledge strategy perspective indicates direction of firms’ innovation capability for adapting to environment. However, it assumes firms’ knowledge base is fruitful and can be utilized for strategy execution. How does a firm positively interplay knowledge base and knowledge strategy to increase innovation capability is a crucial question (Cook & Brown, 1999).

    I review literature and firstly indicate that social capital’s characteristic is different from human capital and organization capital. Different degrees of knowledge networking (relatively entrepreneurial positioning and relatively prominent networking) embedding different social capital (new opportunities and trust) facilitates firms’ new opportunities accessibility to increase innovation capability via knowledge base and knowledge strategy. This research deducts eight hypotheses and builds a model which includes innovation capability (dependent variable), knowledge base and knowledge strategy (independent variable), and knowledge networking (moderating variable).

    Further, I conduct a qualitative research and a quantitative research to test the model. I find Sun-2 workstation in 1980s and Amazon.com website innovation cases from databases and elucidate corresponding variables relationships. Then, I collect items which measure variables from premier journals’ articles to generate a survey questionnaire. I send questionnaires to 341 Taiwan ICT firms’ managers. The firms are listed on Taiwan Stock Exchange. Final 69 effective samples are received (return rate = 20.23%). I use PLS to analyze the data and find that most hypotheses are supported. This quantitative research finds that Taiwan ICT firms emphasize on incremental innovation capability, and incremental innovation projects cannibalize radical innovation projects in human capital, knowledge networking influences innovation capability via knowledge base and knowledge strategy.

    This research concludes that 1. knowledge networking bridges the gap between knowledge base and knowledge strategy and increases innovation capability, 2. Corresponding knowledge networking, knowledge base, knowledge strategy, and innovation capability on distinct stages of industrial innovation resolves knowledge networking dilemma: A firm which simultaneously adopts relatively entrepreneurial positioning and relatively prominent networking performs worse (e.g., Koka & Prescott, 2008) or better (e.g., Capaldo, 2007), 3. Managers should determine innovation capability portfolio (relatively more radical innovations or relatively more incremental innovations?) by product market’s stages of industrial innovation, check existing knowledge base (human capital and organization capital), adopt corresponding knowledge networking (relatively entrepreneurial positioning or relatively prominent networking), knowledge base and knowledge strategy (relatively exploring knowledge or exploiting knowledge) to increase determinative innovation capability.
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    Description: 博士
    國立政治大學
    科技管理研究所
    93359507
    98
    Source URI: http://thesis.lib.nccu.edu.tw/record/#G0093359507
    Data Type: thesis
    Appears in Collections:[科技管理研究所] 學位論文

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