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    Title: 台灣的人口遷徙及勞工流動問題回顧:1980-2000
    Other Titles: A Critical Review of Problems Associated with Population and Labor Migration in Taiwan, 1980-2000
    Authors: 林季平
    Lin, Ji-Ping
    Contributors: 社會系
    Keywords: 人口遷徙;勞工流動;內部遷徙;跨國遷徙;區域及都市發展;population migration;labor migration;internal migration;international migration;regional and urban development
    Date: 2005-06
    Issue Date: 2009-12-14 13:38:33 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本文主要目的在根據既有文獻回顧二十年來台灣的人口遷徙及勞工流動相關的社會及經濟問題,重點涵蓋四大議題:(1)遷徙衍生的區域及都市發展問題、(2)內部遷徙及邊際勞工流動問題、(3)跨國遷徙問題、及(4)「門戶開放」後的衝突和矛盾問題。首先,由於1980年代末台灣勞工流動發生重要的「逆轉」情形,人力由傳統南北分流變爲至北部的淨移轉,致使台灣的區域及都市産生進一步極化發展的問題,因此區域人力資本的質與量不平衡的問題比以前更加嚴重。有關內部遷徙的問題,政策應設法促進市場資訊開放及流通,以減少不必要的重複遷徙;台灣的失業勞工流動在促進失業者再就業的效果似已出現失靈的情形,該現象令人憂心;如何防止被迫離職者潛在問題在未來進一步惡化,有賴主動積極的勞動政策;而原住民勞工流動在提升原住民個人或家庭社經地位效果似乎不大,亦是一個值得重視的問題。在跨國遷徙的問題部分,對台灣內部影響最爲深遠者爲合法及非法外藉勞工問題;最後,門戶洞開後的衝突和矛盾問題主要源自外藉勞工對本國勞工就業已産生部分取代效果,且外藉勞工對低技術本國勞工的就業取代效果有部分反映在低技術本國勞工的內部遷徙裡面,外藉勞工對本國勞工流動雖沒有全面的排擠作用,卻有全面的阻礙作用。 Using a combination of the existing literature and the author's long-term research on migration patterns, this article presents a critical review of the socioeconomic problems associated with population and labor migration to and from Taiwan during the past two decades. Population and labor migration apparently aggravate human resource distribution in terms of quantity and quality, in spite of its positive role in efficient manpower redistribution. A movement toward more openness with and greater circulation of labor market information is an effective means of reducing migration redundancy and the undesirable effects of marginal labor migration. In terms of international migration, problems triggered by the importation of low-skilled foreign labor are more crucial than those associated with the immigration of foreign brides and the emigration of Taiwanese workers to China. Conflicts and contradictions between internal and international migration are manifested via the negative impacts of immigrant workers on employment opportunities for and internal migration of Taiwanese domestic laborers.
    Relation: 台灣社會學刊,34,147-209
    Data Type: article
    Appears in Collections:[社會學系] 期刊論文

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