English  |  正體中文  |  简体中文  |  Post-Print筆數 : 27 |  Items with full text/Total items : 92776/123147 (75%)
Visitors : 26986870      Online Users : 603
RC Version 6.0 © Powered By DSPACE, MIT. Enhanced by NTU Library IR team.
Scope Tips:
  • please add "double quotation mark" for query phrases to get precise results
  • please goto advance search for comprehansive author search
  • Adv. Search
    HomeLoginUploadHelpAboutAdminister Goto mobile version
    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/handle/140.119/3823


    Title: 國際經濟法下之「附帶條件」與「交叉附帶條件」:起源、發展、法律性質、以及其對於國家經濟主權之影響
    Other Titles: "Conditionality" and "Cross-Conditionality" under International Economic Law: Origin, Development, Legal Characteristics, and Implications to the Economic Sovereignty of States
    Authors: 施文真
    Keywords: 國際經濟法;國際貨幣基金會;世界銀行;世界貿易組織;附帶條件;經濟結構調整借貸﹧計畫;經濟主權
    international economic law;International Monetary Fund;World Bank;World Trade Organisation;conditionality;structural adjustment lending/programme;economic sovereignty
    Date: 2004
    Issue Date: 2007-04-18 16:36:24 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: 臺北市:國立政治大學國際貿易學系
    Abstract: 於第二次世界大戰之後所建立起之國際經濟組織,主要希望扮演兩大功能:第一、 為維持一有秩序之國際經濟局勢,針對各國家之貨幣政策以及貿易政策,訂定出協調性 與一致性之國際規則,第二、為協助國家進行戰後重建以及經濟發展,提供組織自身的 資源,貸款給國家。國際貨幣基金會(International Monetary Fund,簡稱IMF)以及 國際貿易組織(International Trade Organisation,簡稱ITO)的成立係為了執行第 一個功能,同時,IMF 以及國際復興暨開發銀行(International Bank for Reconstruction and Development,簡稱IBRD)的成立則主要係為了實踐第二個功能。 ITO 因故無法成立之後,則由「關稅貿易總協定」(General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade,簡稱GATT)負責扛起有關各國貿易政策之國際規則的訂定。就第二項功能而言, IMF 以及IBRD 於過去五十年中扮演此一角色時,「附帶條件」以及「交叉附帶條件」向 來係一頗具爭議性之議題。 「附帶條件」此一實務最早由IMF 所開始運用,主要係指當一國使用IMF 之資源時, 必須與IMF 協商出一套經濟改革的配套方案於國內執行。世界銀行於一九八零年代擴充 其借貸功能,設計出與具體開發行為無關的經濟結構調整借貸方案時,也正式採用「附 帶條件」於其此類的借貸項目中,當IMF 與世銀於八零年代進行更密切的合作時,「交 叉附帶條件」—亦即是要使用IMF 之資源時,必須先通過世銀同意的經濟結構調整貸款, 或要申請世銀的經濟結構轉型調整貸款之前,必須先經IMF 同意可使用其資源—即引起 許多開發中國家以及民間團體的批評。當「世界貿易組織」(World Trade Organisation, 簡稱WTO)於1995 年正式成立,取代GATT 所扮演的貿易規則訂定與爭端仲裁的功能時, 有關WTO 應如何加強與IMF 等其他國際經濟組織之合作關係,開發中國家所擔心的議題 之一則是「交叉附帶條件」形成的可能性,例如:正在執行IMF 或世界銀行之附帶條件 所設計著經濟方案的國家,同時被要求還必須於WTO 之下做出貿易自由化的承諾。此外, 有鑑於執行IMF 或世銀之經濟改革計畫於某些國家所造成的環保、勞工、人權等社會問 題,民間團體以及一些會員國亦呼籲IMF 或世銀必須設計「環境附帶條件」或「人權附 帶條件」於其借貸條件中。由上述可知,「附帶條件」以及「交叉附帶條件」於國際經 濟法之下所佔有的重要且具爭議性的地位。因此,本研究將針對「附帶條件」以及「交 叉附帶條件」由法律面進行下列議題之分析:定義與起源、法律性質、近五十年隨著國 際經濟組織面臨要求改變的內外壓力而隨之演進的發展、民間團體以及借貸國政府對於 相關發展的不同觀點、以及其對於國家主權,特別是國家經濟主權的影響。
    Three international economic institutions were set up after World War II to play two roles: firstly, to establish and maintain an orderly international economic order by laying down coordinated and consistent international rules on domestic monetary and trade policies, secondly, to assist the reconstruction and economic development of states by providing the resources of the institutions. The establishment of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the International Trade Organisation (ITO) were to carry out the first task whilst the establishment of the IMF and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) were to fulfill the second task. The function of regulating international trade rules was shouldered by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) when the ultimately the ITO did not come into being. When carrying out the second task of providing financial assistance to member states, the practice of conditionality and cross-conditionality of the IMF and the World Bank has always been very controversial. Conditionality was first practiced by the IMF. When a member state uses the resources of the Fund, it has to carry out a set of economic reform programmes after negotiating the terms with the Fund. The World Bank expanded its lending activities to incorporate programme lending in the 1980s when structural adjustment loan (SAL) was designed. Conditionality was then adopted by the Bank as well. When closer cooperation was envisaged and carried out by the Fund and the Bank in the 1980s, cross-conditionality, whereby a member has to obtained an SAL from the Bank before it can draws from the Fund, and vice versa, has invoked fierce criticism from developing country members and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). The World Trade Organisation (WTO) came into force in 1995 substituting the GATT to conduct international trade rule-making and the settlement of trade dispute. When the issue of closer cooperation between the WTO and other international economic institutions such as the IMF was raised and discussed, developing countries expressed their concerns regarding the possibility of cross-conditionality whereby countries implementing a Fund or a Bank programme will be simultaneously asked to undertake free trade commitment of the WTO. Meanwhile, in view of the various social problems such as environmental degradation, labour standards and human right abuses in countries that are under economic reform programmes of the Fund and/or the Bank, additional 『environmental』 or 『human rights』 conditionality have been advocated and proposed by NGOs and some member states. From the abovementioned, the practices of conditionality and cross-conditionality have been one of the most important topics under international economic law. This project, thus, seeks to approach this topic from a legal perspective by analyzing the following issues of conditionality and cross-conditionality: definition and origin, legal characteristics, development and evolution in various international economic institutions, different perspectives from NGOs and borrowing governments, and its impact on the economic sovereignty of states.
    Description: 核定金額:254200元
    Data Type: report
    Appears in Collections:[國際經營與貿易學系 ] 國科會研究計畫

    Files in This Item:

    File Description SizeFormat
    932414H004068.pdf265KbAdobe PDF1560View/Open


    All items in 政大典藏 are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved.


    社群 sharing

    著作權政策宣告
    1.本網站之數位內容為國立政治大學所收錄之機構典藏,無償提供學術研究與公眾教育等公益性使用,惟仍請適度,合理使用本網站之內容,以尊重著作權人之權益。商業上之利用,則請先取得著作權人之授權。
    2.本網站之製作,已盡力防止侵害著作權人之權益,如仍發現本網站之數位內容有侵害著作權人權益情事者,請權利人通知本網站維護人員(nccur@nccu.edu.tw),維護人員將立即採取移除該數位著作等補救措施。
    DSpace Software Copyright © 2002-2004  MIT &  Hewlett-Packard  /   Enhanced by   NTU Library IR team Copyright ©   - Feedback