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    Title: 真正的「自由選擇」?—以婦女部分工時工作者為例
    A real “ Free Choice”? — Women in Part-time Jobs
    Authors: 黃琬玲
    Contributors: 劉梅君
    黃琬玲
    Keywords: 促進婦女就業
    部分工時工作
    工作-家庭平衡
    Promote Women Employment
    Part-time Job
    Work-Family Balance
    Date: 2008
    Issue Date: 2010-04-09 17:14:04 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 「部分工時工作」被視為是平衡婦女工作-家庭的策略之一。我國政府亦有意透過提倡部分工時工作來提升女性勞動參與率。在此一政策思維下,需更進一步探討,影響我國婦女選擇部分工時工作的因素為何?再者,部分工時工作是否能夠真正「促進」婦女就業?抑或是形成婦女就業的「陷阱」?
    Hakim的偏好理論認為,現今婦女已經可以依據個人的自由意願選擇工作;且選擇從事部分工時工作的婦女,其偏好扮演家中照顧者的角色,對工作並無投入的熱忱。本研究發現,Hakim所稱的“home-centered”婦女,依據其所擁有的社會環境資源不同,會影響其執行個人偏好的能力,而使其工作-家庭傾向呈現異質性。且“home-centered”婦女大多並不認同傳統的家務角色,性別分工通常是在環境限制因素與父權體制下所形成。
    我國現有的部分工時工作,大多缺乏工時彈性與勞動條件的平等待遇。在婦女教育程度普遍提升下,低就業品質的部分工時工作,不但無法滿足我國婦女的工作需求,亦可能使婦女落入低度就業的情形。政府應移除部分工時制度中的性別觀念,尊重勞工「個人」的工作與家庭需求,避免在性別迷思中,使部分工時工作成為女性就業的「陷阱」。
    “Part-time Job” has been seen as a solution for women to find a balance between their work and family. Government also wants to increase the labor participant rate of women by promoting them with part-time jobs. However, we need to figure out that what factors cause women to choose part-time job, and does part-time job really “improve” women’s employment or becomes an employment “trap” for them?
    Hakim’s “Preference Theory” refers that women could choose their works as their wills nowadays, and who choose part-time jobs prefer to play the role of “home” and lack of passion for work. This research finds out that women who Hakim called “home-centered” have heterogeneity with their work-home orientations. The ability to execute one’s preference depends on one’s possession of social resources, and “home-centered” do not identify themselves with the traditional “home role” for women. The gender division usually formed under the limitation in society and patriarchy.
    Most part of part-time jobs in Taiwan are inflexible in working hours and unequal labor standards. With the trend that women with higher education, the low employment quality of part-time jobs could not fulfill their expectations for work or they would get into underemployment situation. Government should remove the gender concept in promoting part-time work and consider the “personal” work-family needs to avoid part-time job becoming an employment trap for women under the myth of gender.
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    Description: 碩士
    國立政治大學
    勞工研究所
    96262002
    97
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